Sandra M. Granquist

Sandra M. Granquist
Marine and Freshwater Research Institute | MRI · Pelagic section

BSc, MSC, PhLic, PhD

About

39
Publications
18,190
Reads
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326
Citations
Introduction
My research interests ranges from animal population ecology and behavior ecology to responsible wildlife tourism, including: Monitoring of Icelandic seal populations and management advice; Seal diet and interactions with fishing industry; Animal behaviour; Anthropogenic interactions with marine mammals, such as effects of tourism on marine mammal ecology; Transferring of scientific knowledge to society.
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - present
Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
Position
  • Head of Department Icelandic Seal Center
Description
  • I am currently Head of the seal research at the Icelandic Seal Center. I am working on projects related to pinniped ecology and ethology, equine science and wildlife tourism.

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Full-text available
Aim Identify hotspots and areas of high species richness for Arctic marine mammals. Location Circumpolar Arctic. Methods A total of 2115 biologging devices were deployed on marine mammals from 13 species in the Arctic from 2005 to 2019. Getis‐Ord Gi* hotspots were calculated based on the number of individuals in grid cells for each species and fo...
Article
Full-text available
The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is the most widely distributed pinniped, occupying a wide variety of habitats and climatic zones across the Northern Hemisphere. Intriguingly, the harbour seal is also one of the most philopatric seals, raising questions as to how it colonised virtually the whole of the Northern Hemisphere. To shed light on the ori...
Article
Disturbance due to tourism may impact the critically endangered population of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in Iceland. Improved seal watching management is a promising strategy for seal conservation in Iceland. Previous research indicates that value orientation of tourists can predict acceptance of wildlife management and awareness of potential im...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To monitor fluctuations in the harbour seal population and to facilitate evidence‐based management, regular population censuses are an important foundation. In Iceland, censuses of the harbour seal population have been conducted regularly since 1980. In the summer of 2020, an aerial census was conducted with the aim of estimating the size of the...
Article
This conceptual paper develops a framework that addresses the need to manage human-wildlife interactions in Arctic settings to ensure positive outcomes for wildlife, local people, and visitors. We argue that managers tasked with meeting these needs should do so in a cultural context where ethical frameworks are guided by sustainable and responsible...
Article
Full-text available
Male harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) produce stereotypic underwater roars during the mating season. It remains unclear to what extent roar structures vary due to predation levels. Here, seal roars from waters with many (Iceland) and few (Denmark and Sweden) predators were compared. Most Icelandic roars included a long pulse train and a pause. Iceland...
Article
Plant colonization and succession on Surtsey have been monitored since 1965. In 2019, the 75th species of vascular plants was detected on the island, 62 species were present and about 40 species had established viable populations. Over the last decade colonization has slowed down and the number of present species not increased. The rising number of...
Article
A Management Strategy Evaluation is used to estimate success at achieving conservation goals for marine mammals while also aiming to minimize impacts on commercial fisheries. It is intended to improve understanding of US import rules that require nations exporting fish and fish products to the US to adhere to marine mammal bycatch standards “compar...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that the ~20 routinely monitored per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver...
Article
Full-text available
Rannsóknir á félagshegðun hesta hér á landi hafa verið stundaðar síðan um miðjan níunda áratug síðustu aldar. Fyrri höfundur þessarar greinar hefur tekið þátt í þeim flestum. Í þessari grein eru teknar saman niðurstöður rannsókna sem byggjast á atferlismælingum á 426 hestum í 20 hópum. Rannsóknirnar náðu yfir 15 ára tímabil og fóru fram á 11 stöðum...
Preprint
There is increasing evidence that the ~20 routinely monitored per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver...
Article
Full-text available
Although grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are the focus of considerable research effort throughout much of their North Atlantic breeding range, little is known about grey seal movement ecology in Iceland. This is surprising given the long history of grey seal exploitation in Iceland and because grey seals are common bycatch in commercial fisheries....
Article
Full-text available
Human view on nature has fluctuated over time, depending on contemporary knowledge and beliefs. In recent centuries, the view has shifted from an instrumental to an existential apprehension of nature. This development has contributed to the emergence of nature-based tourism. By using nature-based tourism as an example, we explore trends and tendenc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A grey seal census was conducted by aerial survey during the pupping period of 2017. Pups were counted three to five times in the main grey seal pupping areas. In addition, areas where grey seal pups have occasionally been observed were surveyed once. The peak of the pupping period varied from 2 October (Frameyjar in Breiðafjörður) to 24 October (S...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding ecological relationships between humans and marine predators is crucial for the implementation of sustainable management practices. Comprehensive estimation of pinniped diet is essential for assessing interaction with fisheries and often has an important conservational value. Due to uncertainty regarding the accuracy of methods tradit...
Article
Full-text available
There are both positive and negative impacts on wildlife associated with wildlife tourism. In Sweden, the endangered Arctic fox is subject to a growing tourist interest. In the Helags mountain region there are guided Arctic fox safari tours that provide visitors with information about the Arctic fox. A survey of five separate groups of visitors in...
Article
Full-text available
Seal watching as a form of wildlife tourism is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Behavioral changes caused by the presence of tourists could lead to negative consequences for seal welfare and may affect reproduction and survival. Therefore, managing seal watching activities to ensure future protection and conservation is important. Codes of...
Thesis
In cases where human and wildlife are co-using the same geographical areas and resources, management issues often get complex and stakeholder conflicts are common. The Icelandic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population is rapidly decreasing, but direct culling of seals still occurs. At the same time seals are becoming an important resource due to i...
Article
The effectiveness of interpretive signage as a means of modifying visitor behaviour to reduce negative impacts on wildlife was tested empirically at a seal watching site on Vatnsnes peninsula in North West Iceland. From July to September 2014, the actions of 2440 visitors were observed and their behaviour recorded. To test the importance of how int...
Article
Full-text available
It is of critical importance to identify factors that affect harbour seal haul-out patterns to improve the accuracy of harbour seal censuses. In this study, haul-out patterns of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were investigated during different conditions at several major haul-out sites on Vatnsnes peninsula, NW Iceland (65°40′N and 20°48′W), over t...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of harbour seal predation on salmonids has been frequently debated, although interactions between these species have never been thoroughly investigated in Icelandic waters prior to this study. We investigated the diet of harbour seals in a salmon estuary in NW Iceland between 2009 and 2011, using hard part analysis from collected faeces....
Article
Due to increasing interest in wildlife tourism, there is a growing need to consider the balance between use and protection of wildlife. Mutual exchange and acceptance of research results between different academic disciplines, such as wildlife ecology and tourism research, has until recently been scarce. Absence of discipline-independent guidance o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Landselir (Phoca vitulina) voru taldir í nokkrum helstu landselslátrum á Íslandi í júlí, ágúst og september 2014; á Vesturlandi, Vestfjörðum og Norðurlandi vestra. Samanburður var gerður með því að telja úr Cessna yfirþekjuflugvél á hefðbundinn hátt og með því að telja á myndum teknum úr ómönnuðu loftfari (flygildi). Einnig var flogið yfir Vatnsnes...
Technical Report
Full-text available
An aerial grey seal survey was conducted in Iceland during the pupping season of 2012 with the aim of estimating the size of the grey seal population. From the 17th of September until the 29th of November, pups were counted one to four times in the main grey seal haul-out sites in Iceland (a total of 100 flying hours) and the total population size...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wildlife tourism in Iceland Visitors to Iceland come in search of unique nature-based experiences. Known as a land of geysers, volcanoes and glaciers, Iceland is also home to interesting species of wildlife that add significantly to the attraction of the country. In 2013 tourism for the first time became the largest export sector in Iceland, taking...
Technical Report
The frequency of injuries on salmonids caused by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) was investigated in five important salmon angling rivers in NW-Iceland: Víðidalsá, Gljúfurá, Vatnsdalsá, Miðfjarðará og Laxá á Ásum during the angling periods of 2009 and 2010. Anglers in the rivers were asked to report all types of wounds, scars and injuries found on t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rapidly increasing tourist flows to the Arctic North have put focus on the sustainable development of tourism in natural environments. The Wild North project shows how different stakeholders in a network across the Arctic North deal with the need for a development of sustainable use of wildlife in a tourism context by using interdisciplinary resear...
Technical Report
Selasetur Íslands og Veiðimálastofnun standa fyrir margvíslegum selarannsóknum á Íslandi. Eitt aðalrannsóknarsvæðið er Vatnsnes og Heggstaðarnes í Húnaþingi vestra og því er mikilvægt að fylgjast með fjölda og útbreiðslu sela á þessum slóðum. Eitt af markmiðum Selaseturs Íslands er einnig að fræða almenningi um seli og um þær selarannsóknir sem set...
Article
Full-text available
A permanent herd of Icelandic horses with four stallions and their harems was studied for a total of 316 hours in a large pasture (215 ha) in May 2007 in Iceland. Interactions between stallions of different harems and other aspects of the horses' behaviour were studied. One stallion and nine horses were introduced into the pasture prior to the stud...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier research indicates that stallions may supress interactions of their harem members, leading to less stable hierarchies and friendship bonds in harems compared to non-stallion groups. In this paper, the effect of the presense of a stallion on the social behaviour of mares was studied by comparing six harems containing stallions to four mixed...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Research project on wildlife tourism management
Archived project
Population dynamics of the Icelandic harbour seal