Sandra Ciesek

Sandra Ciesek
University Hospital Frankfurt · Institute of Medical Virology

Professor

About

191
Publications
19,377
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Introduction
Sandra Ciesek is the head of the Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital Frankfurt. Sandra does research in Infectious Diseases, Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
Full-text available
The long-term effect of protection by two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients receiving chronic intermittent hemodialysis (CIHD) is an urging question. We investigated the humoral and cellular immune response of 42 CIHD patients who had received two doses of SARSCoV-2 vaccine, and again after a booster vaccine with mRNA-1273 six months late...
Article
The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has far reaching effects on society, the economy and medical treatment. It is all the more important to understand the characteristics of the virus and to utilize them diagnostically, therapeutically and epidemiologically. This article firstly elucidates the medical importance of...
Article
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has far-reaching effects on society, the economy and medical treatment. Therefore, it is all the more important to understand the characteristics of the virus and to utilize them in the diagnostics, treatment and epidemiology. This article firstly elucidates the medical signific...
Article
Full-text available
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patient groups at risk. We have previously shown that the anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence in an urban region of Germany has changed over the last decades. Overall, a decline from 63.7 to 57.25% had been observed between 1988–1997 and 1998–2008 (p < 0,001). Here, we continu...
Preprint
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As the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues, serological assays are urgently needed for rapid diagnosis, contact tracing and for epidemiological studies. So far, there is little data on how commercially available tests perform with real patient samples and if detected IgG antibodies provide protective immunity. Focusing on IgG antibodies, we demon...
Preprint
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Main protease and papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential coronaviral enzymes required for polypeptide processing during viral maturation. PLpro additionally cleaves proteinous post-translational modifications from host proteins to evade anti-viral immune responses. Here, we provide biochemical, structural and functional characterizations of PLp...
Preprint
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Background: In the pandemic, testing for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in one of the pillars on which countermeasures are based. Factors limiting the output of laboratories interfere with the effectiveness of public health measures. Conserving reagents by pooling samples in low-probability settings is proposed, but may cause dilution and loss of sensitivity...
Article
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Oral swabs, sputum and blood samples from 18 patients with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection were examined using real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) testing. Whereas oral swabs or sputum from the lower respiratory tract were tested RT‐PCR positive in all patients, RNAemia was neither detected in 3 patients without symptoms nor in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the acute respiratory disease COVID-19 which has become a global concern due to its rapid spread. Meanwhile, increased demand in testing has led to shortage of reagents, supplies, and compromised the performance of diagnostic laboratories in many countries. Both the world health organizatio...
Preprint
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To identify possible candidates for progression towards clinical studies against SARS-CoV-2, we screened a well-defined collection of 5632 compounds including 3488 compounds which have undergone clinical investigations (marketed drugs, phases 1 -3, and withdrawn) across 600 indications. Compounds were screened for their inhibition of viral induced...
Article
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Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized the therapy of chronic hepatitis C infection. However, unexpected high recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after DAA treatment became an issue in patients with advanced cirrhosis and fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate an impact of DAA treatment on the molecular changes rela...
Preprint
Given the high need and the absence of specific antivirals for treatment of COVID-19 (the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors are being considered as therapeutic alternatives. Prezcobix/Rezolsta is a fixed-dose combination of 800 mg of the...
Preprint
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SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus currently causing a pandemic. We show that the majority of amino acid positions, which differ between SARS-CoV-2 and the closely related SARS-CoV, are differentially conserved suggesting differences in biological behaviour. In agreement, novel cell culture models revealed differences between the tropism of SARS-CoV...
Article
Background A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China in late 2019 and subsequently caused a pandemic. Surveillance is important to better appreciate this evolving pandemic and to longitudinally monitor the effectiveness of public health measures. Objectives We aimed to provide a rapid, easy...
Preprint
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We report a laboratory-based surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 using minipools of respiratory samples submitted for routine diagnostics. We tested a total of 70 minipools resembling 700 samples shortly before the upsurge of cases in Germany. We identified one SARS-CoV-2 positive patient. Our approach proved its concept, is easily adaptable and resource-s...
Article
Full-text available
Oral swabs, sputum and blood samples from 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Whereas oral swabs or sputum from the lower respiratory tract were tested RT-PCR positive in all patients, RNAemia was neither detected in 3 patients without symptoms nor in...
Article
Liver transplantation has become a standard therapy for patients with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The long-term outcome after liver transplantation improved due to improvements in surgical techniques, imaging and better immunosuppressive agents. Still, immunosuppression may increase the risk for infections and may alter the...
Preprint
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A novel coronavirus was recently discovered and termed SARS-CoV-2. Human infection can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), for which, at this point, over 80,000 cases resulting in over 2,500 deaths have been reported in over 40 countries. SARS-CoV-2 shows some similarities to other coronaviruses. However, treatment options and a cellular und...
Article
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Introduction: Reliable and cost-effective diagnostics for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection are necessary. The aim of our study was to investigate which diagnostic test is most accurate to detect HEV infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in a real world setting. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of...
Article
Lentiviral vectors and lentiviruses are important tools for basic and applied biomedical research. Yet, biosafety regulations from legal authorities have to be fulfilled when transferring BSL-2 to -3 vectors/viruses to facilities with lower biosafety level. Here, we (re-)evaluated different chemical and thermal approaches to inactivate vesicular st...
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Yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen, transmitted by mosquito vectors to humans from primate reservoirs. Sporadic outbreaks of YFV occur in endemic tropical regions, causing a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) associated with high mortality rates. Despite a highly effective vaccine, no antiviral treatments currently exist...
Article
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in immunosuppressed patients can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate factors associated with acute liver failure (ALF) in HBV reactivation. Clinical, laboratory, and virological data of 87 patients with HBV reactivation were analyzed retrospectively. Teno torque virus...
Article
Background: Due to organ shortage transplantation of organs from HCV (hepatitis C virus) viremic donors into HCV negative individuals is getting more and more accepted. However, transmission of HCV to the host is nearly universal. Until now it is unknown if preservation solutions (PS) might alter infectivity and stability of HCV in the transplant...
Article
Background & aims: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Although HDV-associated liver disease is considered immune-mediated, adaptive immune responses against HDV are weak. Thus, the role of several other cell-mediated mechanisms such as those driven by mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a grou...
Article
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Filoviruses infect a wide range of cell types with the exception of lymphocytes. The intracellular proteins cathepsin B and L, two-pore channel 1 and 2, and bona fide receptor Niemann–Pick Disease C1 (NPC1) are essential for the endosomal phase of cell entry. However, earlier steps of filoviral infection remain poorly characterized. Numerous plasma...
Article
Background: After reactivation the BK-polyomavirus (BKPyV) associated nephropathy (PyVAN) is observed in 1-10% of renal transplant recipients, of which up to 80% undergo graft failure. BKPyV reactivation after renal transplantation was associated with donor-derived serotypes against which the recipient has no immunological protection. However, PyV...
Chapter
Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Like most viruses, HCV depends of a number of factors encoded by its host cell to execute its replication cycle and create. Expression cloning is one of several possible approaches that have been employed to identify novel hos...
Article
Background & aims: The lipid-binding protein, SEC14L2, is crucial for the efficient viral replication of clinical hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates in cell culture. Given the role of SEC14L2 in HCV replication, we aimed to study a large number of HCV positive sera carrying genotypes 1-4, to identify viral factors associated with efficient replicati...
Article
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Introduction: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a frequent cause of acute liver failure (ALF) worldwide. ALF occurs in 0.1-0.5% of infected patients. Aim of this study was to scrutinize the outcome of patients with HBV induced ALF and mutational patterns of HBV variants, which might contribute to ALF. Methods: From 2005 to 2016, 42...
Article
Background: Reactivation of the BK-Polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause a polyomavirus associated nephropathy in approx. 10% of kidney transplant recipients. In these cases, current therapy is based on the reduction of immunosuppression. Since BKPyV-transcription is driven by the Non-Coding-Control-Region (NCCR) we were interested whether NCCR-activity...
Article
Purpose: Renal impairment is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). While BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been linked to renal failure in kidney transplant recipients, Torque teno virus (TTV) is a surrogate marker for immunosuppression that does not have a clear association with any human disease. The impact of BKV and TTV on renal impa...
Article
Background: Although organ shortage is a rising problem, organs from HCV RNA positive donors are not routinely transplanted in HCV negative individuals. Since HCV only infects hepatocytes, other organs such as kidneys are merely contaminated with HCV via the blood. We here established a protocol to reduce HCV virions during the cold ischemic time....
Article
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Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic, blood-borne virus, but in up to one-third of infections of the transmission route remained unidentified. Viral genome copies of HCV have been identified in several body fluids, however, non-parental transmission upon exposure to contaminated body fluids seems to be rare. Several body fluids, e....
Article
Background: HDV infection is a cause of severe liver disease. Diagnosis and monitoring of HDV RNA are important to patient management. Since 2012, a WHO standard for HDV RNA quantification has been available; however, the impact of RNA extraction methods on HDV viral load quantification has never been evaluated. Methods: The aim of this study wa...
Article
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation (HBVr) in recipients of allogeneic hematopoetic stem cells (aHSCs) appears heterogeneously with respect to its frequency, manifestation, and outcome. The aim of this study was to present data from a large German cohort of recipients of aHSC transplantation (aHSCT), focusing on the incidence of HBVr in antibody t...
Article
Background: Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA is a rare serological combination and has been described in acute (AHB) and chronic HBV infection (CHB). Objectives: To scrutinize viral and clinical patterns associated with concurrent detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA. Study design: Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA was...
Article
Background The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Objectives Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. Study design From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested ne...
Article
Background & aims: Numerous coding and non-coding variants exist in the SCARB1 gene that encodes SR-BI, a key receptor for both high density lipoproteins and HCV. Many have been linked to clinically apparent phenotypes, yet their impact on the HCV replication cycle is incompletely understood. Methods: We analyzed key coding non-synonymous as wel...
Article
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a minimalistic satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV/HDV co-infection, i.e. “hepatitis D”, is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. No effective therapy for HDV infection is available partly due to the fact that HDV is a highly host-dependent virus devoid of any potentially drugable enzyme encoded in its...
Article
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Blood-borne viruses, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and the facultative blood-borne hepatitis E virus, are considered a major public health problem given that they are accountable for millions of deaths each year. Treatment options, including effective vaccine design, development of antiviral strategies...
Article
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a particularly poor outcome after liver transplantation. In December 2014, sofosbuvir/ ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) fixed-dose combination (FDC) has been approved for HCV genotype 1 and 4 in Europe. In orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients the interferon-free treatment of HCV re-infec...
Chapter
Eine infektiöse Entzündung der Leber (Hepatitis) kann durch Viren, viel seltener auch durch Bakterien, Parasiten und Pilze ausgelöst werden. Weltweit am häufigsten ist die virusbedingte Hepatitis. Ein Leberabszess kann primär durch Bakterien und Parasiten oder sekundär z. B. nach operativen Eingriffen entstehen, die Infektion erfolgt dabei über das...
Chapter
Die Hepatitis-C-Virusinfektion zählt mit weltweit 160 Millionen Infizierten zu den häufigsten chronischen Infektionskrankheiten. Seit der Identifizierung des Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV) im Jahr 1989 ist es gelungen, Therapien zu entwickeln, die in kontrollierten Studien bei etwa 75 % der behandelten Patienten zu einer dauerhaften Ausheilung der Infekti...
Chapter
Die Hepatitis-C-Virusinfektion zählt zu den häufigsten chronischen Infektionskrankheiten. Der komplette HCV-Replikationszyklus ist nach aktuellen Kenntnissen nur in der Leber möglich ist. Es gibt sieben HCV-Genotypen, deren Prävalenz regional verschieden ist. Die akute HCV-Infektion verläuft in der Regel symptomarm und unspezifisch, oft auch gänzli...
Article
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Dosing of drugs in critically ill patients undergoing renal replacement therapy is based on scarce data. We report for the first time single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB), which is renally cleared to 80%, and rifampin (RIF), renally cleared to <30%, in a patient requiring both, ECMO and renal replacement therapy. Extended d...
Article
Replication of coronaviruses is inhibited in vitro by cyclosporin A, a well-known immunosuppressive drug which binds to cellular cyclophilins thus inactivating their enzymatic cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase function. Latter is required for proper folding of cellular proteins and of proteins of several viruses. Here, we summarize present knowle...