Sandra L Bloom

Sandra L Bloom
Drexel University | DU · Health Management & Policy, School of Public Health

M.D.

About

146
Publications
82,141
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2,296
Citations

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Background/purpose: Adolescents from urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities of color encounter high rates of adverse childhood experiences. To address the resulting multidimensional problems, we developed an innovative approach, Experiential Participatory and Interactive Knowledge Elicitation (EPIKE), using remote experiential needs el...
Article
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Household food insecurity is linked with exposure to violence and adversity throughout the life course, suggesting its transfer across generations. Using grounded theory, we analyzed semistructured interviews with 31 mothers reporting household food insecurity where participants described major life events and social relationships. Through the lens...
Research
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The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACEs Study) may turn out to be the most important scientific finding of the late 20 th century, opening up windows of opportunity that could vastly improve mental health care, physical health care, and virtually all of our current major social problems. The ACEs study, along with other major epidemiological...
Research
Full-text available
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACEs Study) may turn out to be the most important scientific finding of the late 20 th century, opening up windows of opportunity that could vastly improve mental health care, physical health care, and virtually all of our current major social problems. The ACEs study, along with other major epidemiological...
Research
Full-text available
2015 Briefing paper requested by Scattergood Foundation for Democratic Mayoral candidates in Philadelphia
Conference Paper
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In Philadelphia a robust infrastructure is being built to further the goal of becoming one of the first large trauma‐informed cities. Philadelphia has a strong network of over 80 trauma‐informed/ACEs‐ informed advocates, and organizations working to address these issues. The Department of Behavioral Health and Intellectual disAbility Services (DBHI...
Conference Paper
Prolonged exposure to community violence coupled with the demands of being a community leader may increase stress and negatively impact physical and mental health. Community leaders living in high-crime, high-poverty neighborhoods often support individuals who have faced significant traumas (i.e., abuse, violence, mental illness, death), and may ex...
Conference Paper
Background/Purpose: Violent injury is a recurrent problem with a 5-year reinjury rate as high as 45%. Evidence suggests that hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) prevent violent reinjury and violent perpetration, but little is known about their cost-benefits. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis simulation to estimate an HVIPs impa...
Chapter
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This groundbreaking multimedia resource embodies the core belief that identifying, reinforcing, and building on inherent strengths can facilitate positive youth development. Text and video combine to show how expert-tested, strength-based communication approaches work in today's teens. Contributions from leading practitioners - plus first-hand pers...
Chapter
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This article provides a theoretical framework for the Sanctuary Model. The Sanctuary Model is a trauma-informed organizational change intervention developed by Sandra Bloom and colleagues in the early 1980s. Based on the concept of therapeutic communities, the model is designed to facilitate the development of organizational cultures that counterac...
Chapter
Full-text available
This groundbreaking multimedia resource embodies the core belief that identifying, reinforcing, and building on inherent strengths can facilitate positive youth development. Text and video combine to show how expert-tested, strength-based communication approaches work in today's teens. Contributions from leading practitioners - plus first-hand pers...
Article
Full-text available
Hospitals represent a promising locus for preventing recurrent interpersonal violence and its psychological sequella. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among victims of interpersonal violence participating in a hospital-based violence in...
Article
Creating Sanctuary is a description of a hospital-based program to treat adults who had been abused as children and the revolutionary knowledge about trauma and adversity that the program was based upon. This book focuses on the biological, psychological, and social aspects of trauma. Fifteen years later, Dr. Sandra Bloom has updated this classic w...
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The Sanctuary Model is an evidence-supported, theory based , trauma-informed, whole organizational approach for human service delivery systems. This model provides a clear and structured methodology for creating trauma-informed systems of care. This entry describes the development and philosophy of the Sanctuary Model, then discusses the Sanctuary...
Article
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The Surgeon General's report on youth violence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other national organizations are calling for public health approaches to the issue of youth violence. Hospital-based violence intervention programs have shown promise in reducing recurrent violence and decreasing future involvement in the criminal ju...
Article
The second part of this two-part paper, originally written in the mid 1990s, continues to make the case that art has developed as a response to and a transformation of trauma. It discusses the mimetic and ritual sources of art, and the concept of catharsis, and relates artistic expression to neuroscientific work on the cerebral hemispheres. It conc...
Article
This book describes what happens to human service delivery programs under the impact of unrelenting stress and multiple losses. Never perfect places of safety in the first place, many social services of every size, shape, and variety are collapsing under over thirty years of system fragmentation even while public costs have escalated dramatically....
Chapter
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Frequently, we think of service delivery in an abstract way, as if human emotions and human life experiences play little if any role in the “delivery” of services. The words themselves give rise to images of help being sent through a mail slot or dropped down the chimney like the legendary stork carrying a new baby. But clearly that is a rationaliz...
Article
One word for the Devil is ‘Diabolos’, the divider, the splitter-into-fragments. Healing likewise has always been associated with integration, integrity and becoming whole. From ncient times to the present, artistic performance in all its variety has been connected to healing of self and community and yet a recurrent question arises, ‘What are the a...
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Abstract Since trauma is an inescapably stressful event that overwhelms,people's coping mechanisms it is uncertain to what degree the results of laboratory studies of ordinary events have relevance to the understanding of traumatic memories. This paper first revie ws the literature on the differences between recollections of stressful and of trauma...
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In this paper the author weaves together her personal experiences of creating a trauma-sensitive therapeutic milieu based on therapeutic community principles with the currents of social, political and economic tides that have exerted influence over and interacted with the mental health service delivery system of the US over the past four decades. S...
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Throughout the last two centuries the care of children who have fallen on hard times has passed through a number of phases in the United States. Many of the debates related to these phases persist in influencing the present care of children within residential treatment centers in the United States (Abramovitz and Bloom 2003). In the early part of t...
Article
The last in a series of four papers describing how individuals' minds and bodies are affected by severe stress. The purpose is to develop a deeper understanding of what happens to stressed individuals who come together to form stressed organizations and the impact of this stress on organizational leaders. The series also explores the parallel proce...
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Preliminary results of a study examining the implementation and effects of a trauma recovery framework for youths in residential treatment. Therapeutic Community: The International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations 26(1): 83-96. Abstract Preliminary results are presented from a study that examined the implementation and short-ter...
Article
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This paper describes The Sanctuary Model ® of organizational change as applied to children's residential treatment, a trauma-informed method for creating or changing an organizational culture in order to more effectively provide a cohesive context within which healing from psychological and social traumatic experience can be addressed. The theoreti...
Article
This is the second in a series of four papers that look at the ways that minds and bodies of individuals are affected by severe stress and use that as a way of developing a deeper understanding of what happens to stressed individuals who come together to form stressed organizations and the impact of this stress on organizational leaders. The series...
Article
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This paper, cowritten by Kingsley Norton, since 1989 Director of Henderson Hospital (a therapeutic community founded by Maxwell Jones in 1947 in the United Kingdom), and Sandra Bloom, Founder of the Sanctuary Model in the United States, compares and contrasts the practice of the democratic therapeutic community (TC) as applied to the notion of long...
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This paper describes an intervention designed to address the special needs of youths with histories of maltreatment and exposure to family and community violence. The primary components of the model include an enhanced therapeutic community environment and a psychoeducation program that is aimed at changing non-adaptive cognitive and behavioral pat...
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This paper addresses the need for a coherent conceptual therapeutic approach to guide work with disturbed children and adolescents in residential treatment centers. The paper identifies changes in the population currently in care; examines the two dominant approaches that historically have shaped the standard treatment models used by most residenti...
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This paper describes methods being used to implement and assess the effects of a trauma-focused intervention in residential treatment programs for youths with emotional and behavioral problems, and histories of maltreatment and exposure to family or community violence. Preliminary baseline profiles of the therapeutic environments and youths are als...
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This article describes the experience of five change agents from a diverse group of settings: two residential treatment programs for children and adolescents, a group home for disturbed adolescents, a residential substance abuse program for urban women, and an acute care psychiatric inpatient unit. What all of these innovators share is a willingnes...

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