Sandeep Purao

Sandeep Purao
Bentley University · Department of Information and Process Management

28.53
 · 
Ph.D.

About

140
Publications
30,629
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,726
Citations
Research Experience
August 2002 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
January 1996 - December 2011
Georgia State University
Position

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Systems integration—connecting software systems for cross-functional work—is a significant concern in many large organizations, which continue to maintain hundreds, if not thousands, of independently evolving software systems. Current approaches in this space remain ad hoc, and closely tied to technology platforms. Following a design science approa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the results of a study of how scholars engage with and use the action design research (ADR) approach. Since its publication, ADR has been acknowledged as an important variant of DSR, and has been adopted by a number of researchers. It has been the methodological basis for doctoral dissertations as well as research projects in...
Research
The era of big data provides many opportunities for conducting impactful research from both data-driven and theory-driven perspectives. However, data-driven and theory-driven research have progressed somewhat independently. In this paper, we develop a framework that articulates important differences between these two perspectives and proposes a rol...
Article
The era of big data provides many opportunities for conducting impactful research from both data-driven and theory-driven perspectives. However, data-driven and theory-driven research have progressed somewhat independently. In this paper, we develop a framework that articulates important differences between these two perspectives and proposes a rol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the results of a study to investigate how scholars engage with and use the action design research (ADR) approach. ADR has been acknowledged as an important variant of the Design Science Research approach , and has been adopted by a number of scholars, as the methodological basis for doctoral dissertations as well as multidisci...
Conference Paper
Developing standards is a social practice wherein experts engage in discussions to evaluate design solutions. In this paper, we analyze processes followed to develop SOAP standard from the theory of communicative action perspective, which argues that individuals engaged in social discourse would exhibit five possible actions: instrumental, strategi...
Article
The ideal of self-paced learning, which was introduced nearly 50 years ago by Keller in his Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), has not yet been widely adopted. In spite of its perceived promise of helping students to learn at the speed aligned to their individual backgrounds, motivation, and skills, PSI has been challenging to implement. Uni...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on the results of a study that investigates how design principles are used in design practice. Design principles have become the predominant way to capture abstract knowledge about the design of information systems (IS) artifacts—and as design science researchers, we expect that practitioners will use these outcomes of our work....
Article
This essay investigates the ontology question in design science research. Writings on the philosophy of science do not fully address this concern for design science research because of the traditional emphasis on discovering truthful laws. In contrast, design science research dares to create novel IT artifacts with a view to realizing alternative f...
Article
In the context of smart cities, the design of services requires something more than an understanding of functional requirements. It requires an appreciation of basic human values. Based on interviews with citizens in a large city, and an intensive text analysis – the authors describe how such values may be inferred. The authors find that this proce...
Article
Advanced information technologies and government policies provide the foundational substrate for smart cities. Translating this substrate into appropriate citizen services requires something more: an express recognition of citizen values and a projection of value that these services can generate for the citizens. We devise a method to design such c...
Conference Paper
This research analyzes patterns of artifact generation and knowledge contribution of design science researchers based on a meta-analysis of contemporary work. We derive these analyses based on prior classifications of design science artifacts and knowledge outcomes. Our analyses reveal a complex picture of what is produced and how by scholars in th...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the design of CM2: a case-based conflict management system. We envision the system as an aid to understand and manage conflict situations by referring to past conflict situations, which are stored as Vignettes - vivid yet analytical, theory-laden descriptions. A meta-model, developed on basis of prior kernel theories, is used to...
Article
This is a first person account and a reflection. The chapter presents a preliminary outline of what I call an egalitarian pedagogy for the millennial generation (emulating Freire). The attempt is based on an ongoing reflection on the practice of teaching organizational informatics for about two decades, first in a business school and then, in an in...
Article
Full-text available
A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as...
Conference Paper
Much research about large cities has focused on policy-level action for concerns such as infrastructure, basic amenities and education, treating the citizens as a collective of millions. We suggest an alternative, drawing on recent moves towards ‘digital era governance.’ We argue for and develop a foundation for the design and modeling of services...
Conference Paper
In information-rich environments, participants can, and often must, access and use diverse sources of data to support their decision-making tasks. Modeling such environments is important, but cannot be done without effective conceptual models. A problem in information-rich environments is a disconnect between the control-flow across tasks and the i...
Conference Paper
Conceptual modeling for systems integration is challenging because of two reasons. First, it must deal with a universe of discourse that includes human creations: software applications and interactions among them. Second, the knowledge needed to create appropriate conceptual models must be obtained from several users who can only possess partial vi...
Article
The processes followed for developing anticipatory standards such as those for web services are still not well-understood. In spite of the openness of the process, there are few analyses that shed light on the roles that different participants play or the actions they engage in during the development of these standards. We analyze archival document...
Conference Paper
Process design remains an important yet difficult concern for postindustrial organizations. We posit that processes ‘become' processes in these organizations only via their anchoring in concrete artifacts. Consequently, we identify and refine two design principles: processes as anchored in concrete material artifacts (not abstract process represent...
Conference Paper
Local perspectives are important in designing effective enterprise integration solutions because they provide deep understanding of how each system may interact with others. Combining these local perspectives into a global solution is, however, equally important to develop a coherent enterprise integration blueprint. The participants in this exerci...
Article
We describe results from historical analysis of the IRS Business Systems Modernization (BSM) as an example of large-scale, public sector projects. The project has already spanned a decade and consumed more than 3 billion dollars. The paper suggests extracting stakeholder Sentiments and Confidence from documents, with a view to exploring how such me...
Chapter
We describe ReKon, a platform that contains fine-granular templates, each describing a process knowledge chunk, which may be combined, as needed, to support ad hoc processes needed in large projects. The platform allows user-lead (re)-construction of a process to deal with the unique and emergent needs of a project by leveraging prior knowledge enc...
Article
Design research (DR) positions information technology artifacts at the core of the Information Systems discipline. However, dominant DR thinking takes a technological view of the IT artifact, paying scant attention to its shaping by the organizational context. Consequently, existing DR methods focus on building the artifact and relegate evaluation...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, IT projects have been conceptualized as efforts that must be managed and tracked to ensure that requirements are met and resource constraints are respected. We contend that for large IT projects, this conceptualization may be flawed because they occasion broad changes to the IT and work practice environment and can endanger the very...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The World Wide Web, the world’s largest resource for information, has evolved from organizing information using controlled, top-down taxonomies to a bottom up approach that emphasizes assigning meaning to data via mechanisms such as the Social Web (Web 2.0). Tagging adds meta-data, (weak semantics) to the content available on the web. This researc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enterprise Architecture (EA) is, by definition, an artificial construct. It includes conceptual objects and attributes created for human purposes. EA models, therefore, require an ontological foundation that goes beyond the ‘furniture of the world’ metaphor. We develop an argument that supports this premise, and demonstrate how the perspective can...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Procedures are a common knowledge form in process industries such as refineries. A typical refinery captures hundreds of procedures documenting actions that operators must follow. Maintaining the action-knowledge contained in these procedures is important because it represents a key organizational asset that can be leveraged to minimize the threat...
Article
Some research papers devoted towards service-oriented architecture (SOA) and computing are presented. A paper by K. Vidyasankar and Gottfried Vossen, deals with multi-level modeling of web service compositions with transactional properties. Dickson K. W. Chiu et. al. propose a methodology to decompose complex process requirements into different typ...
Article
Full-text available
Design research (DR) positions information technology artifacts at the core of the Information Systems discipline. However, dominant DR thinking takes a technological view of the IT artifact, paying scant attention to its shaping by the organizational context. Consequently, existing DR methods focus on building the artifact and relegate evaluation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe results from historical analysis of a large-scale, public sector effort: the IRS Modernization Project that has already spanned a decade and consumed more than 3 billion dollars. The results focus on analysis of Sentiments and Confidence expressed by different stakeholders, as found in various documents. We explore how such analyses may...
Article
Full-text available
Business processes are increasingly distributed and open, making them prone to failure. Monitoring is, therefore, an important concern not only for the processes themselves but also for the services that comprise these processes. We present a framework for multilevel monitoring of these service systems. It formalizes interaction protocols, policies...
Conference Paper
'Templates' are pervasive within all the spheres of organizations. They are considered to represent, among other things, rules, routines and best practices accumulated from the past. Despite their ubiquity within many organizations, little is known about these templates. Through this research-in-progress study, we try to investigate why and how the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Anticipatory standards such as Web service standards are artifacts ‘designed’ by consortium-based standards development organizations. Intricate processes followed to develop anticipatory standards are not well-understood. Recently, the D-S-N model was developed to explain these processes, and suggested that these processes contain cycles of design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Internal Revenue Service Business Modernization Project undertaken by the Tax Agency of the US Government has been singled out as an example of a massive failure. As envisioned, the project was intended as an Enterprise-wide intervention that would provide modern services and effective data access to citizenry and several government agencies. A...
Article
Despite several outstanding issues, Web services technology is ideal for solving systems integration problems. Systems integration refers to the seamless interconnection of data and control flows among legacy and other applications to support transaction-intensive processes. This is a significant issue for organizations as they attempt to reduce cy...
Article
Full-text available
With the ceaseless development of new and more advanced technologies, along with their growing influence and control over business and commerce, it is no surprise that the educational community is struggling to come up with programs to educate students to adequately handle these developments. Textbooks are becoming a thing of the past, for informat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large IT projects, such as the US Government's Internal Revenue Service Business Modernization Effort, can take a decade or more and consume billions of dollars. Traditional approaches to the study of such projects emphasize concerns such as monitoring requirements and tracking progress. We propose an alternative approach guided by a digital ecosys...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the development of a multi-faceted metric for assessing soft skills of aspiring information systems developers who may become involved in team efforts to design, build or extend complex software-intensive solutions in organizational settings. The development involved a combination of meta-analysis of prior work, analysis of data gathere...
Article
Our case will describe two small to medium enterprises which are located within the same region and sharing the broad industry sector but at a different 'growth stage' perceive the role of Information Systems differently. We describe how these two firms, at different growth stages and at different levels of maturity with respect to their informatio...
Article
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in legacy industrial era regions face unique challenges that vary from the challenges faced by SMEs in other regions. Especially, SMEs in legacy industrial regions face problems with respect to the access to knowledge networks. The authors discuss an approach that focuses on enabling the SMEs in legacy regions to...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating collaborative systems remains a significant challenge. Most evaluation methods approach the problem from one of two extremes: focused evaluation of specific system features, or broad ethnographic investigations of system use in context. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate a middle ground for evaluation: explicit reflections on scen...
Article
Full-text available
Business processes are increasingly complex and open because they rely on services that are distributed geographically and across organizations. So, they're prone to several points of failure. Monitoring, therefore, remains an important concern. A new approach specifies and monitors interactions among heterogeneous services by tracking their commit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We argue that a failure to consider real-world artifacts which are involved in day-to-day 'Information Systems Development' activities as a key reason which renders approaches like method engineering inadequate to practice. We aim to reduce the abstraction and granularity of "method fragments" by re-envisioning them as 'knowledge units'. By doing s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the outcomes of a case study aimed at surfacing and analyzing decision making criteria used to prioritize process automation initiatives with a view toward engendering a process-centric organization and eventually exposing these processes as services. The study used structured interviews, content analysis, and enterprise proces...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Access to the right information is a significant contributor to success in many endeavors. It is, however, difficult to characterize what constitutes right information. This is an important question for systems development projects, which continue to exhibit a sub-par track record of success. This paper describes patterns of information seeking suc...
Article
Full-text available
The Wo rld Wi de Web is ra pidly b ecoming t he tagg ed web a s citizen s t ag resou rces to fa cilitate retrieval. We argue t hat t hese t ags ca pture i ndividual, often i ncomplete, kn owledge ab out a domain. Aggregated across a large number of contributors, they contain the potential to id entify, in a bottom-up manner, key constructs in a dom...
Article
Full-text available
This study questions the traditional view of software architecture as a specification that needs only be understood by software architects and engineers. Based on an intensive study of three software-producing organizations, we identify multiple metaphors (‘Blueprint,’ ‘Literature,’ ‘Language’ and ‘Decision’) that stakeholders use to understand the...
Article
Full-text available
The design and construction of reusable artifacts is a labor-intensive and demands significant time and effort from expert designers. The up-front investment needed for constructing repositories of reusable artifacts is, therefore, often difficult to justify without immediate benefits. This research proposes a methodology, called the Domain Fragmen...
Article
The boundaries and contours of design sciences continue to undergo definition and refinement. In many ways, the sciences of design defy disciplinary characterization. They demand multiple epistemologies, theoretical orientations (e.g. construction, analysis or intervention) and value considerations. As our understanding of this emerging field of st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Business processes are increasingly complex and open because they rely on services that are distributed geographically and across organizations. As a result, they are prone to several points of failure. Monitoring, therefore, remains an important concern. We describe services monitoring support that integrates monitoring into common development act...
Article
Full-text available
The design of large and complex enterprise integration solutions is a difficult task. It can require solutions that are unique because of constraints from the current set of legacy applications. Design knowledge for enterprise integration solutions is, therefore, difficult to articulate and reuse. In particular, the nature and form of knowledge for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Process construction from existing services requires use of appropriate design knowledge. For services that are mapped to underlying legacy applications, this takes the form of enterprise integration solutions. Design knowledge in this domain is available in the form of enterprise integration patterns (EIP). These patterns are, however, difficult t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Service-oriented computing and the ensuing science of services represent significant challenges to academia. As we come to grips with its many implications, we are slowly beginning to realize the challenges of introducing service-orientation in research. The change also requires a rethinking of strategies used for educating computing professionals....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Web service standards, like several other IT standards, are anticipatory, i.e., they are designed and codified in anticipation of actual adoption and use. As a result, the setting of Web service standards takes on properties that resemble the designing of software artifacts. In contrast, the traditional perspective on standards views them as law-li...
Article
This article presents a study identifying benefits and challenges of a novel hospital-to-hospital information technology (IT) outsourcing partnership (HHP). The partnership is an innovative response to the problem that many smaller, rural hospitals face: to modernize their IT infrastructure in spite of a severe shortage of resources. The investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Service-centric computing is one of the new IT paradigms that are transforming the way corporations organize their information resources. However, research and teaching activities in the IS community are lagging behind the recent advances in the corporate world. This paper investigates the impact of service-centric computing on business and educati...
Article
Full-text available
A major impediment to accurate information retrieval from the World Wide Web is the inability of search engines to incorporate semantics in the search process. This research presents a methodology, CONQUER (CONtext-aware QUERy processing), that enhances the semantic content of Web queries using two complementary knowledge sources: lexicons and onto...
Article
Improving information systems design outcomes requires not only innovations in tools and methodologies, which are design science efforts, but also willingness on the part of potential developers to incorporate these innovations into their design practice. This is particularly true for reuse-based design, because of developers' reluctance to stray f...
Conference Paper
Enterprise integration refers to solutions that facilitate meaningful interactions among heterogeneous legacy applications. The scale, complexity and specificity of most enterprise integration efforts mean that design knowledge for enterprise integration has resisted codification. Important exceptions to this include: use of Business Process Model...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The prerequisites of success and reasons for failure for enterprise integration projects are still not well-understood as evidenced by large failure rates, including cost or schedule overruns, abandoned projects, and projects delivered with diminished functionality. These failures point to the inherently human activities of planning and overseeing...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a discourse and search for appropriate theoretical foundations for Web services. The complexity of Web services technology demands such a foundation. A theoretical foundation can provide adequate guidance not only to accelerate research related to Web services, but can also promote their acceptance. Based o...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, standards for web services are being developed via three different initiatives (W3C, Semantic web services and ebXML). To the best of our knowledge, no theoretical perspectives underlie these standardization efforts. Without the benefit of a strong theoretical basis, the results, within and across these initiatives, have remained pieceme...
Article
In spite of considerable prior research, a generic framework has not emerged for structuring work on object-oriented (OO) metrics. We propose such a framework (Generic Framework) for object-oriented product metrics. The framework captures the generic structure of the underlying metrics space (Metrics Space) based on a mereological and set theoretic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The demands of the global world increasingly dictate that people travel in order to conduct work. Oftentimes, this means that team members are neither strictly here nor there. Teams such as these are hybrids, where members alternate between co-located and distributed contexts. The pervasive nature of information and communication technologies, howe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Amidst constant innovation in information and communication technologies, a new pattern of work is emerging. Hierarchical authority structures are giving way to greater decision-making latitude for individuals and more flexible definitions of job activities (1). This new style of work presents a challenge to existing organizational forms. In this p...
Conference Paper
Designing enterprise-wide integration solutions remains a difficult task. Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP) [1] provide possible design solutions that may be used to compose enterprise-wide integration solutions. Because of the multitude of platforms on which legacy systems are implemented, these composed solutions must ensure platform-independ...
Article
Software maintenance is expensive and difficult because software is complex and maintenance requires the understanding of code written by someone else. A prerequisite to maintainability is program understanding, specifically, understanding the control flows between software components. This is especially problematic for emerging software technologi...
Conference Paper
Web services are an ideal implementation platform for integrating disparate legacy systems because they are platform-independent. Enterprise integration patterns (EIP) represent possible design solutions that may be used to construct these enterprise integration solutions. Constructing design solutions with EIP that build on the platform-independen...
Article
Standardization processes are quickly replacing regulation and competition as the primary method that technical specifications are deployed as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics that ensure materials, products, processes and services are consistently fit for their purposes. Importantly, for Information and Communication Technologi...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying reusable artifacts is a labor-intensive process that demands significant input from expert designers. In this research, we propose a methodology for identifying reusable artifacts by examining commonalities and variations in existing designs and demonstrate how the methodology can be scaled with bootstrapped inputs to populate repositor...
Article
There is an evolution in the process used by standards-development organizations (SDOs) and this is changing the prevailing standards development activity (SDA) for information and communications technology (ICT). The process is progressing from traditional SDA modes, typically involving the selection from many candidate, existing alternative compo...
Article
Full-text available
Relationships are an integral part of the design of a database. Comparing,and integrating relationships from heterogeneous,databases requires that the relationships be mapped,to each other or to a common,classification. Identifying similarities and resolving differences in relationships across large data sources is a resource-intensive task that co...
Conference Paper
The IS field needs more great reviewers. What is a great reviewer? In her June 2005 editorial for MIS Quarterly, Carol Saunders, the MISQ Editor in Chief, contrasts the "gatekeeper" reviewer – one who finds and surfaces "fatal flaws" in research – with the "diamond cutter" reviewer – one who polishes manuscripts so that the gems in it can surface a...
Conference Paper
Industrial buyers who seek to procure inputs have the option of contracting the process out to procurement intermediaries. Many of these intermediaries now operate using Internet-based software to enhance the efficiency of their services. We develop ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The term Software Architecture captures a complex amalgam of representations and uses, real and figurative, that is rendered and utilized by different stakeholders throughout the software development process. Current approaches to documenting Software Architecture, in contrast, rely on the notion of a blueprint that may not be sufficient to capture...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IS research has been criticized for having little influence on practice. One approach to achieving more relevance is to conduct research using appropriate research methods that balance the interests of both researchers and practitioners. This paper examines the similarities between two methods that address this mandate by adopting a proactive stanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Relationships are an essential part of the design of a database because they capture associations between things. Comparing and integrating relationships from heterogeneous databases is a difficult problem, partly because of the nature of the relationship verb phrases. This research proposes a multi-layered approach to classifying the semantics of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emerging paradigm of web services promises to bring to distributed computing the same ∞exibility that the web has brought to the publication and search of information contained in documents. This new paradigm puts severe demands on composition and execution of work∞ows that must survive and respond to changes in the computing and business envir...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Currently Web services composition problems are addressed using AI planning techniques. The team-based approach, with emphases on the sharing of mental models and proactive collaboration, provides an alternative to current static approaches to Web service composition. The approach provides clear advantages for proactive handling of failures that ma...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the viability of implementing Integrated Diagnostics incorporating Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) for Ground Equipment used by the U. S. Marine Corps. The study reviewed the sources of Autonomic Logistics data. the data requirements. the timeliness or required "pull" of such data. its transmission m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the use of scenario-based methods for evaluating collaborative systems. We describe the method, the case study where it was applied, and provide results of its efficacy in the field. The results suggest that scenario-based evaluation is effective in helping to focus evaluation efforts and in identifying the range of technical, human, o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This minitrack hosts three papers covering different aspects of e-commerce development methodologies from different corners of the world. These papers display the widely different concerns and perspectives that are being used by researchers from around the globe in the area of e-commerce systems development methodologies. The first, 'Interoperabili...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that the recent move to service-oriented computing as a dominant paradigm presents an opportunity to the Language-Action community. Service-oriented computing emphasizes communication among independent services as the basic composition unit for application development. This view maps well against the basic premise underlying the Language-A...