Samuel Vilchez

Samuel Vilchez
National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, León · Microbiology and Parasitology

PhD

About

45
Publications
4,115
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554
Citations

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Background: Norovirus and sapovirus cause a large burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children. We assessed protection conferred by norovirus and sapovirus AGE episodes against future episodes. Methods: Between June 2017-July 2018 we recruited 444 newborns in León, Nicaragua. Weekly household surveys identified AGE episodes over 36 mo...
Article
Background Malnutrition and diarrhea are leading causes of death in children under five years old. Rice bran is a nutrient dense prebiotic available globally. Objectives The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the effects of daily rice bran supplementation on environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) markers, total fecal secretory I...
Preprint
Background Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Breastfeeding prevents AGE generally; however, it is unknown if breastfeeding prevents AGE caused specifically by norovirus and sapovirus. Methods We investigated the association between breastfeeding and norovirus or sapovirus AGE episodes in a birth...
Article
Full-text available
Group B Streptococci (GBS) are important causes of neonatal sepsis and meningitis globally. To elucidate the potential benefits of maternal GBS vaccines, data is needed on the epidemiology of maternal GBS rectovaginal colonization, distribution of serotypes, and resistance to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). We collected rectal and vaginal...
Article
Arsenic (As) exposure is a global public health concern affecting millions worldwide and stems from drinking water and foods. Here, we assessed how agronomic practices and postharvest fermentation techniques influence As concentrations in rice bran, and calculated health risks from consumption. A global suite of 53 rice brans were tested for total...
Article
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Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is associated with chronic gut inflammation affecting nutrient absorption and development of children, primarily in low- and middle-income countries. Several studies have shown that rice bran (RB) supplementation provides nutrients and modulates gut inflammation that may reduce risk for undernutrit...
Article
Campylobacteriosis is an important contributor to the global burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In Nicaragua, the burden, risk factors, and species diversity for infant campylobacteriosis are unknown. Between June 2017 and December 2018, we enrolled 444 infants from León, Nicaragua, in a population-based birth cohort, conducting weekly househol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sapovirus is increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. We identified risk factors and characterized the clinical profile of sapovirus AGE in a birth cohort in León, Nicaragua. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a birth cohort (n = 444). Fieldworkers conducted weekl...
Article
Objectives Self-reporting methods for dietary exposure are error-prone and have had limited impact to identify food components that mitigate disease risk. The purpose of this study was to use non-targeted and targeted metabolomics from feeding trials with rice bran and navy beans for the identification of dietary biomarkers across the lifespan. Me...
Article
Objectives: The gut microbiota varies across human populations. The first years of life are a critical period in its development. While delivery mode and diet contribute to observed variation, the additional contribution of specific environmental factors remains poorly understood. One factor is waterborne enteric pathogen exposure. In this pilot s...
Article
Rotavirus is the leading cause of childhood deaths due to diarrhea. Although existing oral rotavirus vaccines are highly efficacious in high-income countries, these vaccines have been demonstrated to have decreased efficacy in low- and middle-income countries. A possible explanation for decreased efficacy is the impact of gut microbiota on the ente...
Article
Full-text available
Rice bran supplementation provides nutrients, prebiotics and phytochemicals that enhance gut immunity, reduce enteric pathogens and diarrhea, and warrants attention for improvement of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in children. EED is a subclinical condition associated with stunting due to impaired nutrient absorption. This study investiga...
Article
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Waterborne Escherichia coli are a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), including but not limited to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) mechanisms. This study quantified and described ESBL- and KPC-producing E. coli in Northern Colorado from sewer water, surface water, and influent and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rice bran supplementation provides nutrients, prebiotics and phytochemicals that enhance gut immunity, reduce enteric pathogens in mice and diarrhea in neonatal pigs, and warranted attention for improvement of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in children at risk. EED is a condition that drives childhood stunting via intestinal dysbiosis and...
Article
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics, and resulted in 378–430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics and resulted in 378-430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara h...
Research
Full-text available
In May 2015, WHO launched the Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance genes are common and widespread contaminants fecal wastes and water. Understanding and addressing the role of water and waste in combatting antimicrobial resistance is an important element of the Global A...
Article
Background: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a common intestinal condition among children living in low and middle income countries and is associated with diminished enteric immunity to gastrointestinal pathogens, and possibly, to oral vaccine antigens. The goal of this study was to examine associations between biomarkers of EE and immunogenicity...
Article
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Adherence to the World Health Organization's infant feeding recommendations is intended to promote optimal growth, development, and health for infants. Evidence from the scientific literature shows that cultural and family traditions play a major role in breastfeeding and complementary feeding behaviors. The objectives were to describe feeding prac...
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Background Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the...
Article
Full-text available
To better understand underlying causes of lower rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-middle income countries (LMICs), we measured innate antiviral factors in Nicaraguan mothers' milk and immune response to the first dose of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in corresponding infants. No relationship was found between concentrations of innate facto...
Article
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Understanding how the gut microbiota is affected by diarrhea episodes may help explain alterations in intestinal function among children in low-income settings. This study examined the composition of the gut microbiome of Nicaraguan children both during diarrhea episodes and while free of diarrhea for at least 2 months. Relative abundances of bacte...
Article
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Background: Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement routine immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). In this RV5-immunized population, understanding infectious etiologies of childhood diarrhea is necessary to direct diarrhea treatment and prevention efforts. Methods: We followed a population-based sample of child...
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Diarrhoea remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children in Nicaragua. As the majority of diarrhoeal cases are treated at home and appropriate household management can lessen severity of diarrhoea, the objective of this study was to examine household management of childhood diarrhoea. A simple random sample of households was s...
Article
Full-text available
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea among young children in developing countries. ETEC vaccines offer promise in reducing the burden of ETEC disease; the development of these vaccines relies on the characterization of ETEC isolates from variety of settings. To best reflect the full spectrum of ETEC...
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We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua.
Article
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In developing countries, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major causes of death in children under 5 years of age. It is known that diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an important aetiological agent of infantile diarrhoea in Nicaragua. However, there are no recent studies on antimicrobial resistance among intestinal E. coli isolates in Nicar...
Article
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We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHE...
Article
The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharides (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 94/D4 and the international type strain E. coli O82 have been determined. Component analysis and (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy experiments were employed to elucidate the structure. Inter-residue correlations were determined by (1)H, (13)...
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Full-text available
Escherichia coli remains an important aetiological agent of infantile diarrhoea in Nicaragua. However, little is known about whether there is a high prevalence of endemic strains or whether infection is due to the epidemic spread of virulent clones. This study was undertaken to determine the diversity and distribution of clonal groups in a populati...
Article
Full-text available
Diarrhoeal disease is a public health problem worldwide, mostly affecting children in developing countries. In Nicaragua, diarrhoea is the second greatest cause of infant mortality. During the period March 2005 to September 2006, a total of 526 faecal samples from children aged 0-60 months (381 with and 145 without diarrhoea) from León, Nicaragua,...

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