Samuel Stuart

Samuel Stuart
Regeneron

PhD Neuroscience, MSc Physiotherapy, BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science

About

219
Publications
45,907
Reads
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1,327
Citations
Citations since 2016
193 Research Items
1286 Citations
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Introduction
Associate Director at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Visiting Associate Professor at Northumbria University in the UK. Previous Associate Professor and Director of the Physiotherapy Innovation Laboratory (PI Lab) at Northumbria University. Previous Parkinson's Foundation Post Doctoral Fellow at Oregon Health and Science University in the USA. Twitter: @samstuart87 email: samuel.stuart@regeneron.com
Additional affiliations
October 2022 - present
Northumbria University
Position
  • Visiting Associate Professor
September 2022 - October 2022
Northumbria University
Position
  • Associate Professor
November 2019 - August 2022
Northumbria University
Position
  • Senior Research Fellow
Education
January 2013 - July 2016
Newcastle University
Field of study
  • Neuroscience
January 2011 - January 2013
Northumbria University
Field of study
  • Physiotherapy (Pre-registration)
September 2006 - June 2009
University of Sunderland
Field of study
  • Sport and Exercise Science

Publications

Publications (219)
Article
Full-text available
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored; 1) saccade frequency whe...
Article
Full-text available
An emerging body of literature has examined cortical activity during walking and balance tasks in older adult and Parkinson’s disease (PD) participants, specifically using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) or electroencephalography (EEG) devices. This review aimed to provide an overview of this developing area, in order to inform diseas...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Mobility declines with age and further with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Walking and turning ability, in particular, are vital aspects of mobility that deteriorate with age and are further impaired in PD. Such deficits have been linked with reduction in automatic control of movement and the need for co...
Article
Background and Purpose: Gait and turning impairments are common in people with Parkinson disease (PwPD). Tactile cues delivered in open or closed-loop modalities may improve gait and turning in PwPD, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests attention stemming from the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) may play a role in cue response, but...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gait impairments are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and increase falls risk. Visual cues can improve gait in PD, particularly freezing of gait (FOG), but mechanisms involved in visual cue response are unknown. This study aimed to examine brain activity in response to visual cues in people with PD who do (PD+FOG) and don’t report FOG...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Turning is a complex measure of gait that accounts for over 50% of daily steps. Traditionally, turning has been measured in a research grade la-boratory setting, however, there is demand for a low-cost and portable solution to measure turning using wearable technology. This study aimed to determine the suitability of a low-cost inertial...
Article
Full-text available
Various cueing strategies (internal and external) have been used to alleviate gait deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it remains unclear which type of cueing strategy is most effective at different disease stages or with more severe walking impairment, such as freezing of gait (FOG). The underlying neural mechanisms of response to cuein...
Article
We previously showed that both open-loop (beat of a metronome) and closed-loop (phase-dependent tactile feedback) cueing may be similarly effective in reducing Freezing of Gait (FoG), assessed with a quantitative FoG Index, while turning in place in the laboratory in a group of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite the similar changes on th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Exploring the practicality and feasibility of multimodal Sports Related Concussion (SRC) assessments compared to the reference standard (SCAT5) in university athletes. Significant challenges remain in the monitoring and assessment of suspected Sports Related Concussion (SRC). The most commonly used mechanism within amateur sports, is the 5th versi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Running gait assessment has traditionally been performed using subjective observation or expensive laboratory-based objective technologies, such as 3D motion capture or force plates. However, recent developments in wearable devices allow for continuous monitoring and analysis of running mechanics in any environment. Objective measurement...
Article
Full-text available
Visual and cognitive dysfunction are common in Parkinson’s disease and relate to balance and gait impairment, as well as increased falls risk and reduced quality of life. Vision and cognition are interrelated (termed visuo-cognition) which makes intervention complex in people with Parkinson’s (PwP). Non-pharmacological interventions for visuo-cogni...
Article
Introduction: Following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), patients are often advised to restrict physical activity until full symptom resolution followed by gradual return to activity. However, extended rest periods may prolong recovery and contribute to persistent symptoms. Emerging evidence suggests early active rehabilitation that increases he...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the neural activity during turning in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Background: Turning is impaired in PD with links to freezing of gait (FOG) and falls risk. Specifically, turning is slow and elicits FOG episodes in PD, which can be worsened by performing a secondary task when turning (i.e., dual-tasking). The neural mechanism...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: To explore experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) in using technology as part of a home-based visuo-cognitive training programme compared to traditional approaches to rehabilitation. Background: Visual and cognitive dysfunction are common in PwP, and relate to mobility impairment and increased falls risk. Novel technologies and mo...
Article
Full-text available
Turning is a common impairment of mobility in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), which increases freezing of gait (FoG) episodes and has implications for falls risk. Visual cues have been shown to improve general gait characteristics in PD. However, the effects of visual cues on turning deficits in PD remains unclear. We aimed to (i) compare the...
Article
Full-text available
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI or concussion) is receiving increased attention due to the incidence in contact sports and limitations with subjective (pen and paper) diagnostic approaches. If an mTBI is undiagnosed and the athlete prematurely returns to play, it can result in serious short-term and/or long-term health complications. This demonst...
Article
Full-text available
Gait assessment is essential to understand injury prevention mechanisms during running, where high-impact forces can lead to a range of injuries in the lower extremities. Information regarding the running style to increase efficiency and/or selection of the correct running equipment, such as shoe type, can minimize the risk of injury, e.g., matchin...
Presentation
Postural control involves hierarchical coordination of sensorimotor circuits mediated through automatic, subcortical mechanisms and top-down cortical mechanisms. Cortical involvement in balance and gait has traditionally been inferred indirectly, through degradation in performance during a cognitive task. Direct measures of brain activity during ba...
Conference Paper
Contemporary approaches to gait assessment use wearable devices within free-living environments to capture habitual information, which is more informative compared to data capture in the lab. Wearables range from inertial to camera-based technologies but pragmatic challenges such as analysis of big data from heterogenous environments exist. For exa...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of different methods of resistance training (RT) on functional capacity in older adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov databases, from inception to December 2021. Eligibility cr...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND & AIM: Sports-Related Concussion (SRC) encompasses symptom, visual, cognitive and motor impairments, where accurate and timely recognition is crucial to reduce incidences of misdiagnosis, which can increase morbidity risk [1]. Yet current non-digital tools, e.g Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT5) criteria [2] relies on symptom reso...
Presentation
Background and aim: The study of the neural underpinnings of movement in neurological conditions has traditionally been conducted with associative studies that have used static imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Previous work correlated movement outcomes with imaging or assessed ass...
Article
Running gait assessment and running shoe recommendation is important for the injury prevention of runners who exhibit different skill-levels and running styles. Traditionally, running gait assessment for shoe recommendation relies upon a combination of trained professionals (e.g., sports-therapists, physiotherapists) and complex equipment such as m...
Book
This volume explores the latest eye-tracking methodologies that help researchers understand the background, methods, and applications involved in these studies. The chapters in this book cover topics such as methods and models of eye-tracking in natural environments; natural gaze informatics (i.e., assisted wheelchair mobility); eye-tracking applic...
Chapter
Eye movements are an important aspect of neurological clinical assessment, as abnormal eye movements can indicate underlying neurological and disease processes. Eye-tracking recordings are also often performed following neurological injury or disease in order to study the underlying neurological mechanisms involved in controlling eye movement. The...
Chapter
This chapter will provide an overview of the past and current topics in eye movement research, which will be more widely addressed within the proceeding chapters in this book. A greater understanding of eye movements and how eye-tracking technology works, as well as what populations it is used with, will allow its application and adoption within pr...
Article
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to gait initiation are impaired in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), particularly in those who report Freezing of Gait (FOG). External cues can improve gait parameters in people with PD, but the effects of visual cues on gait initiation are poorly known. The study aimed to (i) assess differences, d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical function remains a crucial component of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessment and recovery. Traditional approaches to assess mTBI lack sensitivity to detect subtle deficits post-injury, which can impact a patient’s quality of life, daily function and can lead to chronic issues. Inertial measurement units (IMU) provide a...
Article
Background: Evaluation of balance disorders is necessary for treatment and rehabilitation. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) has been shown to distinguish between different neurological populations. So far, no study has examined the validity of the subsystems of this test in comparison with objective evaluation. Objectives: This study a...
Conference Paper
Running gait assessment is critical in performance optimization and injury prevention. Traditional approaches to running gait assessment are inhibited by unnatural running environments (e.g., indoor lab), varied assessor (i.e., subjective experience) and high costs with traditional reference standard equipment. Thus, development of valid, reproduce...
Conference Paper
Wearables are objective tools for human activity recognition (HAR). Advances in wearables enable synchronized multi-sensing within a single device. This has resulted in studies investigating use of single or multiple wearable sensor modalities for HAR. Some studies use inertial data, others use surface electromyography (sEMG) from multiple muscles...
Chapter
Advancements in Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the manufacture of affordable and efficient wearable devices. In sensor-based gait analysis, motion and biofeedback sensor devices are easily attached to different parts of the body. Instrumentation of gait using different sensor technologies enables researchers and clinicians to ca...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Gait impairment occurs across the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI); from mild (mTBI) to moderate (modTBI), to severe (sevTBI). Recent evidence suggests that objective gait assessment may be a surrogate marker for neurological impairment such as TBI. However, the most optimal method of objective gait assessment is still not we...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pragmatic challenges remain in the monitoring and return to play (RTP) decisions following suspected Sports Related Concussion (SRC). Reliance on traditional approaches (pen and paper) means players readiness for RTP is often based on self-reported symptom recognition as a marker for full physiological recovery. Non-digital approaches al...
Poster
Full-text available
Background In clinics and rehabilitation centres, assessment of human motion, especially kinematics of the lower limb, is very important to determine suitable treatments for patients[1]. Motion capture systems and electronic goniometers are perceived as the reference standards for estimation of joint kinematics but are costly and have low accessibi...
Presentation
Full-text available
Examining The Use Of Wearables For Remote Monitoring Of Balance, Gait And Sleep In Sports- Related Concussion : A Single Subject Study In Rugby Union
Presentation
Purpose: Following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis, patients are often advised based on current guidelines to restrict cognitive and physical activity (energy demands) until full symptom resolution, which is followed by a graduated return of increasing cognitive and physical activity levels. However, research has found extended peri...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose Impairments while turning are among the most common mobility impairments in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, turning is often a trigger for freezing of gait (FOG) episodes and has implications for falls risk. There are currently limited interventions to ameliorate turning deficit in PD. Visual cues have been shown to impro...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose: The severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ranges from mild (mTBI) to severe, with impairment in motor function across the spectrum. TBI can transcend from acute (days to weeks) to chronic (months to years) time periods, significantly impacting physical function and quality of life. Traditional TBI functional assessment is based on subje...
Presentation
Purpose Walking and eye movement impairments are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are linked to increased falls risk. Visual cues (transverse taped lines on the floor to step over) are a physiotherapy intervention to improve gait in PD, particularly in those who report freezing of gait (FOG). However, the response to visual cues is variable i...
Presentation
Purpose: Concussion is prevalent in young adult (YA) rugby players and can impact motor, cognitive and sensory dysfunction. Mobility Lab (v1) is a research-grade wearable sensor system for comprehensively assessing balance and gait. The use of wearable sensors within sports such as rugby may enable pitch-side physiotherapists and doctors to instant...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose: Gait characteristics such as turning are commonly impaired in neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traditionally, these characteristics have been measured in a laboratory setting using expensive 3D motion capture or research-grade inertial sensor systems, such as the Opal (APDM Inc., Portlan...
Poster
Purpose: Visual and cognitive impairments are common non-motor symptoms (NMS) in people with Parkinson’s (PwP). These NMS impact on balance and gait impairments, leading to reduced quality of life and increased risk of falls, hospitalisation, and mortality. There is limited evidence for rehabilitation of visual or cognitive impairment in PwP, with...
Presentation
Full-text available
Athletes that participate in contact sport are at risk of suffering Sports-Related Concussion (SRC). A traditional approach of SRC testing relies on the 5th version of the pen-and-paper based sports concussion assessment tool (SCAT5). An open, digital equivalent may facilitate more efficient and transparent assessment. We describe a co-created deve...
Article
Instrumented balance and gait test are an important component of physical capability assessment in clinical examinations. This study provides insight to a new generation Open Movement inertial-based wearable (AX6, Axivity, UK) compared to a previously validated reference (AX3). The AX6 was assessed for its ability to quantify a battery of tasks tha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clinical and laboratory assessment of people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) indicate impairments in eye movements. These tests are typically done in a static, seated position. Recently, the use of mobile eye-tracking systems has been proposed to quantify subtle deficits in eye movements and visual sampling during different task...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Challenges remain in sports-related concussion (SRC) assessment to better inform return to play. Reliance on self-reported symptoms within the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool means that there are limited data on the effectiveness of novel methods to assess a player’s readiness to return to play. Digital methods such as wearable technolo...
Article
Objectives This interventional pilot study aimed to 1) examine whether a novel wearable vibro-tactile feedback device (‘UpRight Go’) effective and feasible to improve postural alignment in Parkinson’s disease (PD); 2) explore relationships between postural alignment and attention in PD; 3) explore effect of vibro-tactile device on balance and gait;...
Poster
Full-text available
This pilot study will contribute to our understanding of the effects of technological visuo-cognitive training (TVT) in people with Parkinson's and provide preliminary data to support a larger, multi-centre trial. If TVT is demonstrated to be feasible and effective, it presents the possibility of a novel, non-pharmological rehabilitation strategy t...