Samuel P. León

Samuel P. León
Universidad de Jaén | UJAEN · Department of Pedagogy

Doctor of Psychology

About

50
Publications
7,167
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396
Citations

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Emotional intelligence, self-concept, academic stress and personality have been associated with university students’ academic performance. The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between self-concept and academic stress in Education students from different Universities in the region of Andalusia (Spain), analysing the mediational role o...
Article
Full-text available
The pandemic has had psychological effects on the university population. Factors such as emotional intelligence, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affected by the situation generated by COVID-19. This study aims to analyze how EI, coping strategies and levels of anxiety, depression and stress have been affecte...
Article
Modern society is becoming increasingly interested in people who are emotionally competent and who have the psychosocial skills required to be successful within the current social environment. However, no studies have been published on the assessment of the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on mental health if we assume the possible mediation of...
Article
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Academic achievement is a factor of interest in both psychology and education. Determining which factors have a negative or positive influence on academic performance has produced different investigations. The present study focuses on analyzing the relationship between resilience, emotional intelligence, self-concept and the academic achievement of...
Article
Full-text available
University students face many challenges that affect their mental health during this stage. Psychosocial aspects, such as resilience, help to address the imbalance they often experience in their daily lives. The aim is to find the relationship between students' resilience and their mental health, while analyzing the mediating role played by persona...
Article
University students face many challenges that affect their mental health during this stage. Psychosocial aspects, such as resilience, help to address the imbalance they often experience in their daily lives. The aim is to find the relationship between students' resilience and their mental health, while analyzing the mediating role played by persona...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the influence of punitive parental discipline on child-to-parent violence (CPV). The moderating roles of parental context (stress and parental ineffectiveness), mode of implementation of parental discipline (parental impulsivity or warmth/support) and the gender of the aggressor in the relationship between punitive discipline an...
Article
Inclusion is one of the most important and emerging areas for school improvement. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of high school students with the aim of determining whether there is a shared and inclusive education within their schools. An explanatory model was developed, based on the responses of 365 students from the part...
Article
Full-text available
Self-concept is a key factor in any teaching–learning process in pre-service teachers. How�ever, it could be negatively affected by academic stress, which is constituted by stressors, stress symptoms, and coping strategies. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between academic stress and self-concept in this population. This was a...
Article
Since Gardner suggested that human beings hold multiple intelligences, numerous teachers have adapted and incorporated the multiple intelligence theory (MIT) into their daily routine in the classroom. However, to date, the efficacy of MIT–inspired methodologies remains unclear. The focus of the present study was to perform a systematic review and a...
Article
Full-text available
University is characterized by a critical stage where students experience their sexuality, across a range of relationships. From these experiences, university students consolidate their personality and their sexual role. Factors such as age, sex, or traumatic experiences of violence or sexual abuse can affect their sexual role. The present study ai...
Article
PowerPoint is a basic tool for university teaching. Teachers use it extensively for presenting material. At times, it is used as a guide for organizing lessons, at other times it is used with the intention of summarizing essential curricular content. The way in which PowerPoint is used and the form it takes differs between faculties. The present ar...
Article
Project-based learning (PjBL) is becoming widespread in many schools. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the empirical evidence assessing the impact of PjBL on academic achievement of kindergarten and elementa...
Article
Full-text available
La evaluación tiene un papel muy importante en los procesos de aprendizaje en contextos educativos. Así, las evaluaciones activas, donde el alumno tiene un papel protagonista, cada vez están tomando mayor presencia como complemento a las evaluaciones tradicionales debido a su probado valor formativo. El presente estudio trata de analizar el impacto...
Article
Objective The structure, reliability, and validity of the Child-to-Parent Violence Questionnaire (CPV-Q) for youth is analyzed. Additionally, the frequency of child-to-parent violence and the reasons for carrying it out are analyzed. Background Child violence toward parents is a type of violence that has recently garnered great social and scientif...
Article
Full-text available
The present work empirically examines the validity of Student Self-Assessment (SSA) as an educational assessment in higher education. We briefly review the principle methodological factors that could affect SSA validity, as well as the main findings identified in the literature. One empirical study is presented that compares student-self evaluation...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Academic engagement has been reported in the literature as an important factor in the academic achievement of university students. Other factors such as emotional intelligence (EI) and resilience have also been related to students’ performance and quality of life. The present study has two clearly delimited and interrelated objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
1) Background: Educational attention to gifted students has not been a well-established line of research due to the multiple conceptions about their characterisation. While educational attention has tended to respond to students who present learning difficulties due to their limitations, it has been observed that gifted students may also fail in th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Self-evaluation is a multidimensional construct that has raised increasing interest within educational research at different educational stages. Different studies have pointed out the important role that Student Self-Assessment plays in improving student learning and ensuring the sustainability in instructional and evaluation processes....
Article
Full-text available
Project-based learning (PjBL) is becoming widespread in many schools. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the empirical evidence assessing the impact of PjBL on academic achievement of kindergarten and elementa...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: An abacus is an instrument used to perform different arithmetic operations. The objective was to analyze the benefits of mathematical calculations made with an abacus to improve the concentration, attention, memory, perceptive attitudes, and creativity cognitive abilities of primary school students. (2) Methods: A total of 65 childr...
Article
Full-text available
Child-to-parent violence has dramatically risen in the last decade, becoming a concerning issue in many countries, so research on this issue has also increased. However, most of the studies on this topic have been conducted with samples of adolescents, and very few with samples of parents. In addition, the variety of assessment instruments does not...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between child-to-parent violence (CPV) and the perceived parental warmth dimension has been well established. However, it is necessary to further investigate the nature of this relationship considering the involvement of other variables. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of cognitive (hostile attribution), emotion...
Article
Previous research has shown that instrumental training can encourage the formation of binary associations between the representations of the elements present at the time of learning, that is, between the discriminative stimulus and the instrumental response (the S-R association), between the stimulus and outcome (the S-O association), and between t...
Article
Nowadays we can find a number of experiments that have showed the importance of learning in several situations related with survival of many animal species. For instance, knowledge acquired in the early stages of life could be crucial on the choice of egg-laying site. In this study we explored the influence of Pavlovian conditioning of silkworm lar...
Article
Introduction: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the role of social- cognitive processing in the relation between violence exposure at home and child-to-parent violence. Methods: The study included 1,624 adolescents (54.9% girls) aged between 12 and 18 years (Mage = 14.7, SD = 1.7 years) from Jaén and Oviedo (Spain) who com...
Article
One of the most relevant behaviors in the life of some insects is oviposition, because reproductive fitness largely depends on the choice of egg-laying site. We report one experiment that explored the influence of Pavlovian conditioning on oviposition choices of the silkworm. Our results show that moths that jointly experienced an odor (conditioned...
Poster
The Hopkins host selection principle (HHSP) states that insects prefer to oviposit on the host plant they consumed as larvae. Thus, the moth of the silkworm, which only eats mulberry leaves during the larvae phase, should prefer to lay the eggs close to the mulberry leaves. Hence, oviposition decisions can be influenced by larval experience. To exp...
Conference Paper
The Hopkins host selection principle (HHSP) states that insects prefer to oviposit on the host plant they consumed as larvae. Thus, the moth of the silkworm, which only eats mulberry leaves during the larvae phase, should prefer to lay the eggs close to the mulberry leaves. We designed an experiment with two objectives: 1) testing this principle in...
Article
Full-text available
Select literature regarding cue competition, the contents of learning, and retrieval processes is summarized to demonstrate parallels and differences between human and nonhuman associative learning. Competition phenomena such as blocking, overshadowing, and relative predictive validity are largely analogous in animal and human learning. In general,...
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments in human instrumental learning explored the associations involving the context that develop after three trials of training on simple discriminations. Experiments 1 and 4 found a deleterious effect of switching the learning context that cannot be explained by the context-outcome binary associations commonly used to explain context-s...
Article
Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the method...
Article
Appetitive behavior is stronger when organisms are given a variety of foods than when they are repeatedly given the same food (the variety effect). Two experiments examined the variety effect in an operant food-seeking task. In both experiments, rats received a 45-mg food pellet for every 4th lever press over a series of daily 30-min sessions. The...
Article
Full-text available
One experiment assessed predictions from the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP, J. M. Rosas, J. E. Callejas-Aguilera, M. M. Ramos-Álvarez, & M. J. F. Abad, 2006, Revision of retrieval theory of forgetting: What does make information context-specific? International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, Vol. 6, pp. 147-166) that...
Article
Full-text available
León, Abad y Rosas, (2010b) demostraron que la atención al contexto se pierde conforme aumenta el entrenamiento. Así, a medida que aumenta el entrenamiento se observa una mayor generalización entre contextos distintos al de entrenamiento al perderse la atención. El objetivo del presente estudio fue poner a prueba ésta idea empleando una tarea instr...
Article
Full-text available
León, Abad and Rosas (2010b) shown that as the training increased attention to the context decreased. Thus, increasing the training might produce a greater generalization between different contexts. The main goal of the present experiments was to test this idea modifying different values of the context (i. e., colors) using an instrumental task wit...
Article
In two experiments rats were trained to find one of two submerged platforms that were located in diagonally opposite corners-the correct corners-of a rectangular pool. Additional training was given to endow two different landmarks with excitatory and inhibitory properties, by using them to indicate where a platform was or was not located in either...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted using a human instrumental learning task with the goal of evaluating the mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of context-switching on responding to an unambiguous stimulus when contexts are informative to solve the task. Participants were trained in a context-based reversal discrimination in which two iscriminati...
Article
Context specificity of rats' conditioned taste aversion as a function of context experience was assessed in two experiments. Rats received a single pairing between a flavor X and a LiCl injection in a distinctive context (context A) being subsequently tested either in the same context or in a different but equally familiar context (context B). Expe...
Article
Four experiments explored the role of contexts in information retrieval after different levels of acquisition training in human predictive learning. Participants were trained where cue (X) was followed by an outcome in context A while a different cue (Y) was followed by the absence of the outcome in context B. When 4 training trials with each cue w...
Article
Full-text available
In an experiment with rats, an appetitive conditioning method was used to investigate the generality of the hypothesis that extinction should arouse attention to contextual cues, resulting in all learning in that context becoming context specific. Rats received appetitive conditioning with a tone either while extinction of a flasher occurred (Group...
Article
Full-text available
Para profundizar en el conocimiento del aprendizaje como proceso psicológico es necesario esclarecer cuáles son sus contenidos. En este sentido, durante parte del siglo pasado numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado a determinar qué asociaciones están implicadas tanto en el aprendizaje pavloviano como instrumental en animales no humanos, siendo m...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments with human participants are presented that differentiate renewal from other behavioral effects that can produce a response after extinction. Participants played a video game and learned to suppress their behavior when sensor stimuli predicted an attack. Contexts (A, B, & C) were provided by fictitious galaxies where the game play to...
Article
Contexts are sometimes informative about relationships that occur within them and sometimes not. The goal of this experiment was to determine the effect of that information value on the context-specificity of learning. Participants performed an instrumental task within a computer game in which they defended different Andalucía beaches (contexts) by...
Article
Full-text available
Numerosas investigaciones tanto en animales como en humanos muestran cómo en ciertas situaciones los estímulos contextuales pueden tomar un papel crucial en la recuperación de la información aprendida. Una de estas situaciones es cuando los contextos donde el aprendizaje tiene lugar poseen valor informativo, en cuyo caso toda la información aprendi...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this experiment was to assess the impact that experience with a task has on the context specificity of the learning that occurs. Participants performed an instrumental task within a computer game where different responses were performed in the presence of discriminative stimuli to obtain reinforcers. The number of training trials (3, 5,...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment in human predictive learning was conducted with the goal of exploring the role of the informative value of the context where the information is learned on context dependency of performance. Three groups of participants received training on a discrimination between two cues (X and Y) while another cue (Z) was always followed by the out...
Article
An experiment in human predictive learning was conducted with the goal of exploring the role of the informative value of the context where the information is learned on context dependency of performance. Three groups of participants received training on a discrimination between two cues (X and Y) while another cue (Z) was always followed by the out...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment in human predictive learningwas conducted with the goal of exploring the roleof the informative value of the context where theinformation is learned on context dependency of performance.Three groups of participants received trainingon a discrimination between two cues (X and Y)while another cue (Z) was always followed by the outcomein...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Hello,
I have a polytonic VD with 5 levels (q1, q2, q3, q4, NSNC).
I measure the values of this VD in 3 factors which have different parameters (Factor1 = 11 Itmes, Factor2 = 5, Factor3 = 7) in 120 participants.
This allows me to calculate the frequency of each level of the VD for each of the factors.
Example. Factor1: q1 = 42.12, q2 = 12.22, q3 = 3.6, q4 = 11.25, NSNC = 26.02.
Could I calculate if there are statistical differences between the different levels of my categorical variable?
Example: Factor1 <Factor2 for q1, or Factor 3> Factor 1 for NSNC

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