Samuel Buckner

Samuel Buckner
University of South Florida | USF · Educational and Psychological Studies

PhD

About

158
Publications
52,657
Reads
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2,495
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - December 2014
Florida Atlantic University
Position
  • Instructor
August 2013 - May 2014
University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
January 2015 - May 2018
University of Mississippi
Field of study
  • Health and Kinesiology
May 2013 - December 2015
Florida Atlantic University
Field of study
  • Exercise Physiology

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Objectives: To examine changes in muscle thickness (MT), soreness (SOR), and isometric torque (ISO) following exercise with pulsed direct current (Neubie) or traditional high-load (TRAD) exercise. Methods: Thirty-two participants had SOR, MT, and ISO measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48h following TRAD and Neubie. Rating of perceive...
Article
Lewis, MH, Siedler, MR, Lamadrid, P, Ford, S, Smith, T, SanFilippo, G, Waddell, B, Trexler, ET, Buckner, S, and Campbell, BI. Sex differences may exist for performance fatigue but not recovery after single-joint upper-body and lower-body resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-This study evaluated sex differences in performanc...
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Full-text available
Purpose To compare muscle growth adaptations between traditional high-load training and low-load training with blood flow restriction (BFR) in the calf muscles over 6 weeks. Methods 27 trained individuals performed calf exercise in both legs for 6 weeks. Each leg was randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: (1) Traditional (70% of 1RM) trai...
Article
The prescription of resistance exercise often involves administering a set number of repetitions to be completed at a given relative load. While this accounts for individual differences in strength, it neglects to account for differences in local muscle endurance and may result in varied responses across individuals. One way of potentially creating...
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Full-text available
It has been suggested that improper post-exercise recovery or improper sequence of training may result in an ‘accumulation’ of fatigue. Despite this suggestion, there is a lack of clarity regarding which physiological mechanisms may be proposed to contribute to fatigue accumulation. The present paper explores the time course of the changes in vario...
Article
Practical blood flow restriction (PBFR) training has been used as a training technique to induce muscular strength and hypertrophy gains while utilizing lighter loads [≤ 40% one repetition maximum (1RM)]. It is unclear if PBFR can be incorporated into traditional training programs to alleviate some exposure to heavy loads. Objective: Compare the im...
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Within the resistance exercise literature echo intensity (EI) is often quantified using different regions of interest (ROI). Purpose: To compare changes in the EI of images of the biceps muscle using different ROI immediately following exercise as well as 24 and 48 hours following exercise. Methods: 27 non-resistance trained individuals visited...
Article
Within the literature examining the periodization of resistance training, “periodization” and “programming” are often confused and used interchangeably. This has resulted in the drawing of inferences regarding the efficacy of periodization from training studies comparing different programming models over short periods of time. As this conflation ha...
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Full-text available
Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodiz...
Article
Previous work in non‐resistance trained individuals has found that an increase in muscle size has no additive effect on changes in strength. However, is thought that muscle growth is of increased importance for resistance trained individuals. Purpose Experiment 1: To examine changes in muscle thickness (MT), and one repetition maximum (1RM) streng...
Article
Adaptation energy was proposed by Hans Selye as a working hypothesis to explain the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), which resulted in loss of adaptation and death following exposure to various noxious agents (e.g., morphine, atropine, formaldehyde) in rodents. Despite being the mechanistic explanation behind his experimen...
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Full-text available
Changes in muscle thickness (MT), isometric torque, and arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) were examined following four sets of twenty unilateral elbow flexion exercise. Participants performed four sets of maximal voluntary contractions with no external load throughout a full range of motion of a bicep curl with and without the application of blood...
Article
Maximal strength testing is often performed to assess the efficacy of training programs or as a way to prescribe exercise load. Generally, it is believed that high load exercise is superior to low load exercise at increasing absolute strength, however this is not always the case (i.e. strength increases similarly between groups). We hypothesized th...
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PurposeThe aponeurosis, a sheet of fibrous tissue, is the deep and superficial fascia where muscle fibers attach in pennate muscles. It is quite possible that the aponeurosis size increases in response to resistance training-induced fiber hypertrophy due to an increase in connection area. As a result, it leads to an increase in anatomical muscle cr...
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Full-text available
Purpose To compare the acute effects of passive movement combined with blood flow restriction (PM+BFR) to passive movement (PM) or blood flow restriction alone (BFR). Methods 20 healthy participants completed: time control (TC), PM, BFR, and PM+BFR (one per leg, over 2 days; randomized). For PM, a dynamometer moved the leg through 3 sets of 15 kne...
Article
It is suggested that changes in echo-intensity (EI) measured through ultrasound can detect muscle swelling. However, changes in EI have never been examined relative to a non-exercise control following naïve exposure to exercise. Purpose: Examine the changes in muscle thickness (MT), EI and isometric strength (ISO) before, immediately after, and 2...
Article
Although often used as a surrogate, comparisons between traditional blood pressure measurements and limb occlusion assessed via hand-held Doppler have yet to be completed. Using limb occlusion pressure as a method of assessing systolic pressure is of interest to those studying the acute effects of blood flow restriction, where the removal of the cu...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare acute changes in muscle thickness (MT) between A-mode and B-mode ultrasound before and after four sets of biceps curls. Approach: Participants visited the laboratory on two separate occasions. The first visit consisted of paperwork and one repetition maximum (1RM) strength assessment. During th...
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The periodization of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimizing muscle size and strength adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the general adaptation syndrome, which provides the theoretical framework underlying periodization,...
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Full-text available
Purpose: To determine differences in two distinct resistance training protocols and whether true variability be detected after accounting for random error. Methods: Individuals (n=151) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a traditional exercise group performing four sets to failure; (2) a one-repetition maximum (1RM) performing a 1...
Article
Low-load exercise performed to or near task failure appears to result in similar skeletal muscle adaptations as low-load exercise with the addition of blood flow restriction (BFR). However, there may be a point where the training load becomes too low to stimulate an anabolic response without BFR. This study examined skeletal muscle adaptions to ver...
Article
The purpose was to examine changes in the perceptual responses to lifting a very low load (15% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with and without (15/0) different pressures [40% (15/40) and 80% (15/80) arterial occlusion pressure] and compare that to traditional high load (70/0) resistance exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and discomfort we...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute muscular response with resistance exercise between the following conditions [labeled (% one-repetition maximum/% arterial occlusion pressure)]: high-load (70/0), very low-load (15/0), very low-load with moderate (15/40), and high (15/80) blood flow restriction pressures. Twenty-three participants c...
Article
The generality of strength suggests that a "strong" individual will typically exhibit higher values of strength across a wide range of strength tasks for a given muscle relative to their weaker counterpart. This concept is often extended to adaptation, suggesting that increasing strength on a given movement or strength task with a given muscle shou...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine acute changes in muscle thickness (MTH) and echo-intensity (EI), following four sets of biceps curls, when it is known that the change in MTH is due entirely to swelling. Approach: Forty-nine resistance-trained men and women participated in this study. Individuals in the experimental group (n =...
Article
Objective: To investigate vascular adaptations to eight weeks of resistance exercise, with and without different pressures of blood flow restriction (BFR), in the upper and lower body. Approach: Forty individuals (men=20, women=20) completed eight weeks of resistance exercise at very low loads (15% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)), with two leve...
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Full-text available
Blood flow restriction training using a practical (non‐pneumatic) elastic‐cuff has recently increased in popularity. However, a criticism of this method is that the pressure applied and the amount of blood flow restriction induced is unknown. The aim was to quantify blood flow following the application of an elastic‐cuff and compare that to what is...
Article
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy commonly occurs with repeated bouts of resistance exercise as well as following the administration of exogenous drugs. This increase in muscle size is thought to be mechanistically important for the increase in muscle function. However, at present, there is no experimental evidence that would support any paradigm in whic...
Article
The purpose was to examine the acute skeletal muscle response to high load exercise and low‐load exercise with and without different levels of applied pressure (BFR). A total of 22 participants completed the following four conditions: elbow flexion exercise to failure using a traditional high load [70% 1RM, (7000)], low load [15% 1RM,(1500)], low l...
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ABSTRACT FOR DECADES, MOST SCIENTISTS AND PRACTITIONERS HAVE AGREED THAT MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY ALSO INDUCES STRENGTH GAINS. HOWEVER, A RECENT PUBLICATION “THE PROBLEM OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY: REVISITED,” BUCKNER, SL, DANKEL, SJ, MATTOCKS, KT, JESSEE, MB, MOUSER, JG, COUNTS, BR, ET AL. THE PROBLEM OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY: REVISITED. MUSCLE NERVE 54: 1012–1...
Article
Objective: To examine the acute changes in blood flow and blood pressure of very low load knee extensor exercise (15% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with and without different levels of applied pressure to determine how these effects might differ from high load exercise. We also sought to examine if this differed between men and women. Approach:...
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Full-text available
An inability to lift loads great enough to disrupt muscular blood flow may impair the ability to fatigue muscles, compromising the hypertrophic response. It is unknown what level of blood flow restriction (BFR) pressure, if any, is necessary to reach failure at very low-loads [i.e., 15% one-repetition maximum (1RM)]. The purpose of this study was t...
Article
The purpose was to compare unilateral exercise-induced changes in arterial occlusion pressure between the exercising and non-exercising arm. Participants had arterial occlusion pressure measured before and after exercise in: both arms simultaneously (Double AOP), the exercise limb only (Exercise AOP), and the non-exercise limb only (Non-exercise AO...
Article
Introduction/background: To determine the influence of ultrasound probe tilt on reliability and overall changes in muscle thickness and echo-intensity. Materials and methods: Thirty-six individuals had a total of 15 images taken on both the biceps brachii and tibialis anterior muscles. These images were taken in 2° increments with the probe tilt...
Article
Objectives: To investigate the skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass (SM-FFM) ratio in female and male athletes, as well as to examine the relationship between ultrasound predicted SM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured SM. Methods: Seven female track and field athletes (Female), 8 male collegiate swimmers (Male-G1) and 8 male collegia...
Article
Objective: To determine whether the perceived tightness scale could be used to set sub-occlusive blood flow restriction pressures. A secondary aim was to determine variables that may impact individual ratings. Approach: One hundred and twenty participants completed three separate conditions in one limb within the upper and lower body. Participan...
Article
The relationship between grip strength and mortality is often used to underscore the importance of resistance exercise in physical activity guidelines. However, grip strength does not appear to appreciably change following traditional resistance training. Thus, grip strength could be considered reflective of strength independent of resistance exerc...
Article
It is proposed that, at very low loads, greater blood flow restriction (BFR) pressures might be required for muscular adaptation to occur. The cardiovascular and hyperemic response to very low loads combined with relative levels of BFR is unknown. Methods: Ninety-seven participants were recruited and assigned to one of four exercise conditions: 1...
Article
A training program consisting of working up to a one-repetition maximum (1RM) results in similar strength adaptations as traditional resistance exercise, while also decreasing the volume of work necessary to achieve this outcome. However, little is known regarding the cardiovascular adaptations to this type of training. Objective: To examine chroni...
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Full-text available
Purpose: To determine the acute cardiovascular and perceptual responses of low-load exercise with or without blood flow restriction and compare those responses to that of moderately heavy exercise. Methods: Twenty-two participants completed unilateral elbow flexion exercise with a moderately heavy-load- [70% one-repetition maximum (1RM); 70/0] a...
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Purpose Studies examining perceptual and arterial occlusion responses between blood flow restricted exercise and high load exercise often prescribe an arbitrary number of repetitions, making it difficult for direct comparisons. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare these protocols when performed to volitional failure. Methods Individ...
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Full-text available
Laurentino, GC, Loenneke, JP, Mouser, JG, Buckner, SL, Counts, BR, Dankel, SJ, Jessee, MB, Mattocks, KT, Iared, W, Tavares, LD, Teixeira, EL, and Tricoli, V. Validity of the handheld Doppler to determine lower-limb blood flow restriction pressure for exercise protocols. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Handheld (HH) Doppler is frequently us...
Article
Background A training program consisting of only one-repetition maximum (1RM) training results in similar strength adaptations as traditional resistance exercise. However, little is known regarding the affective or behavioral responses to this type of training. Aim To examine the affective and behavioral response to either a traditional resistance...
Article
Introduction: World powerlifting records within the super heavyweight class are typically held by those with not only the greatest absolute muscle strength but also the greatest amount of skeletal muscle mass (SM). Case Presentation: We examined the absolute and relative SM and muscle architecture of a 30 year old drug-free raw (i.e. without the us...
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Full-text available
Blood flow restriction by itself or in combination with exercise has been shown to produce beneficial adaptations to skeletal muscle. These adaptations have been observed across a range of populations, and this technique has become an attractive possibility for use in rehabilitation. Although there are concerns that applying blood flow restriction...
Article
Resistance exercise is typically performed to increase both muscle size and strength and is regularly incorporated into training programs for sports performance. Presumably, the exercise would be expected to increase the force producing capabilities of skeletal muscle, which may have subsequent influence on various sports related abilities. Interes...
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Objectives: To examine the amount of absolute and relative skeletal muscle mass (SM) in large sized athletes to investigate the potential upper limit of whole body muscle mass accumulation in the human body. Methods: Ninety-five large-sized male athletes and 48 recreationally active males (control) had muscle thickness measured by ultrasound at...
Article
Purpose: To examine the hemodynamic responses to relative pressures using two commonly used cuffs (10 and 12 cm). Methods: In a random order over two laboratory visits, one cuff was applied to the right proximal thigh of the participant (men = 17, women = 14), and arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) was measured. Ultrasound measures of blood flow,...