Samuel D Brody

Samuel D Brody
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Architecture

About

88
Publications
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5,436
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Publications

Publications (88)
Preprint
The use of crowdsourced data has been finding practical use for enhancing situational awareness during disasters. While recent studies have shown promising results regarding the potential of crowdsourced data for flood mapping, little attention has been paid to data imbalances issues that could introduce biases. We examine biases present in crowdso...
Article
Full-text available
Flood damages occur when just one inch of water enters a residential household and models of flood damage estimation are sensitive to first-floor elevation (FFE). The current sources for FFEs consist of costly survey-based elevation certificates (ECs) or assumptions based on year built, foundation type, and flood zone. We sought to address these li...
Article
This study examines the prediction of three types of household flood hazard adjustment (emergency preparedness, structural mitigation, and nonstructural mitigation) by a comprehensive set of risk perception variables (expected personal consequences, affective response, hazard intrusive thoughts, and hazard intrusive discussions). These risk percept...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to predict road flooding risks based on topographic, hydrologic, and temporal precipitation features using machine learning models. Predictive flood monitoring of road network flooding status plays an essential role in community hazard mitigation, preparedness, and response activities. Existing studies related to the...
Chapter
Over the last several decades, development occurring in vulnerable coastal communities has significantly increased the impacts of flooding. Unfortunately, current U.S. hazard reduction policies mostly take a reactionary approach to flooding and decision-makers are haphazard in implementing mitigation strategies. The result is a muddled distribution...
Article
Urban flooding has become a national challenge in recent years due to a variety of socio-economic and environmental changes alongside rapid land use change in flood-prone areas. Losses from acute and chronic floods have become especially problematic in low-lying urban areas, where stormwater infrastructure deterioration, population growth, and deve...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-disaster planning and mitigation necessitate detailed spatial information about flood hazards and their associated risks. In the US, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) provides important information about areas subject to flooding during the 1 % riverine or coastal event. The binary nature of flood h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pre-disaster planning and mitigation necessitates detailed spatial information about flood hazards and their associated risks. In the U.S., the FEMA Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) provides important information about areas subject to flooding during the 1% riverine or coastal event. The binary nature of flood hazard maps obscures the distribution...
Poster
The impact of recent flood events, such as hurricane Harvey in 2017 which affected the upper Texas coastal region, has sparked new proposals for buying out damaged properties to reduce flood risk and return them to natural open space. Traditionally, buyouts have been carried out with little regard for non-monetary benefits, such as ecological and a...
Article
Flood-related losses in the United States are increasing despite large-scale mitigation efforts. To offset the rising cost of floods, the US Congress passed legislation in 2014 that will augment insurance premiums to make the National Flood Insurance Program more actuarially sound. Consequently, there is interest in lowering flood-related costs to...
Article
Full-text available
Rescue requests during large‐scale urban flood disasters can be difficult to validate and prioritize. High‐resolution aerial imagery is often unavailable or lacks the necessary geographic extent, making it difficult to obtain real‐time information about where flooding is occurring. In this paper, we present a novel approach to map the extent of urb...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid population growth, urbanization, and concentration of valuable assets and strategic infrastructure in coastal regions make coastal inundation, flooding, and storm surge national problems for many countries, including the United States of America (USA). Enhancing coastal resilience is a complex problem and involves an integrated risk managemen...
Article
Understanding how the pattern of urban development affects the nutrients level in streams and rivers is particularly important for planners and policymakers working to maximize stream and river water quality. This study focuses on the Galveston Bay Estuary in Texas, where rapid population growth and development are increasing the nutrient loads in...
Article
In the wake of increasing development in coastal metropolitan areas, there are growing concerns about the impact of a potential storm surge event on residential properties. This study examines how a coastal storm surge suppression system could reduce residential flood losses in the Houston-Galveston region. Losses avoided are measured by analyzing...
Article
Floods have been the costliest and most disruptive of all natural hazards worldwide. In particular, urban flooding continues to be a concern for both developed and developing countries. Increasing physical risk associated with environmental changes combined with rapid land use change and development make many urban areas more vulnerable to floods....
Article
Full-text available
Recovery after hurricane events encourages new development activities and allows reconstruction through the conversion of naturally occurring wetlands to other land uses. This research investigates the degree to which hurricane recovery activities in coastal communities are undermining the ability of these places to attenuate the impacts of future...
Article
Economic losses from floods along the Gulf of Mexico have triggered much debate on different strategies to reduce risk and future adverse impacts from storm events. While much of the discussion has focused on structural engineering approaches to flood mitigation, increasing emphasis is being placed on avoidance strategies, such as the protection of...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, wetlands in the United States have been lost due to agriculture, anthropogenic activities, and rapid urbanization along the coast. Such losses of wetlands have resulted in high flooding risk for coastal communities over the period of time. In addition, alteration of wetlands via the Section 404 Clean Water Act permits can increase the...
Article
Among all natural hazards inflicting the United States floods continue to impose the most economic disruption. Increasing physical risk coupled with development in flood-prone areas has amplified the adverse economic and human impacts of flooding. In an effort to counter mounting flood losses, the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency introduced...
Article
The 100-year floodplain is the traditional indicator of flood risk and the area in which specific flood mitigation requirements are required to occur in the United States. However, recent studies have indicated that there is a growing disconnect between the 100-year floodplain and the location of actual losses. As a result, there is a strong need t...
Article
Public perceptions of risk from climate change are an important determinant of the willingness of citizens to support climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Although there is a growing body of research focusing on a variety of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that affect an individual's perception of risk, only a few stu...
Article
Full-text available
Storm surge protection systems have proven effective in protecting populations in developed areas and can allow for development in otherwise potentially flood-prone areas. Resultant intensification of land conversion can result in large scale habitat fragmentation. Simultaneously, urbanized areas worldwide are increasingly accumulating large amount...
Article
Individual households have increasingly borne responsibility for reducing the adverse impacts of flooding on their property. Little observational research has been conducted, however, at the household level to examine the major factors contributing to the selection of a particular household adjustment. This study addresses the issue by evaluating s...
Article
Federally-backed flood insurance is the primary mechanism by which residents in the United States (US) prepare for and recover from floods. While there is a growing literature on the general uptake of flood insurance, little work has been done to address the factors motivating residents to voluntarily buy and maintain federally-based insurance poli...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the ecology of an ecosystem. Such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones, where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. On the Texas (USA) coast of th...
Article
Despite increasing economic losses from floods in coastal communities, little observational research has been done at a fine spatial scale to identify the relative influence of residential location in predicting adverse economic impacts. In response, this study conducts a parcel-level analysis of flood losses to identify the influence of specific l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Texas coastal wetlands are dynamic marsh-mangrove ecotones that play an important role in fishery recruitment, storm buffering, and carbon storage. Historically, C4 salt marsh plants, such as Spartina alterniflora, have dominated the Texas Gulf Coast. For the past 2-3 decades, some of these ecosystems have experienced community shifts with woody tr...
Article
Full-text available
As property damage from flooding continues to increase, particularly in coastal areas, the adoption of strategies to mitigate these losses has never been more important to protecting the health and safety of coastal communities. Both structural and non-structural flood mitigation activities are being considered to buffer the adverse consequences of...
Article
In an effort to counteract mounting flood losses, FEMA introduced the Community Rating System (CRS) in 1990 as a way to encourage local jurisdictions to exceed the National Flood Insurance Program's minimum standard for floodplain management. While the program has grown since its inception, there is little understanding of the degree to which mitig...
Article
Open space protection is increasingly being used for flood mitigation at the local level. However, little if any empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of this land use policy in terms of reducing actual damage caused by floods. Our study addresses this issue by statistically examining the performance of open space dedicated for...
Article
Although the 100-year floodplain is the traditional indicator of risk from flooding and a catalyst for mitigation decisions in the United States, increasing evidence indicates that this boundary is not sufficient in representing actual economic losses caused by floods. Although studies have demonstrated that up to 50% of losses occur outside floodp...
Article
Despite mounting economic losses from both acute and chronic flood events in coastal areas of the U.S., little empirical research has been conducted on the importance of existing landscape-level ecological components in mitigating the economic impacts to vulnerable coastal communities over the long term. In recognition of this lack of knowledge bas...
Article
An understudied, but central aspect in understanding flood impacts is the way we conceptualize, identify, and delineate risk. The 100-year floodplain is the longstanding metric in the United States for determining and acting upon the possibility of an area being inundated. This spatial delineation guides local planning and development decisions, tr...
Article
Social factors influence the ability of coastal communities and their populations to anticipate, respond, resist, and recover from disasters. Galveston, TX, offers aunique opportunity to test the efficacy of social vulnerability mapping to identify inequalities in the ways that different parts of the community may react to a disaster. We describe s...
Article
Despite the increasing interest in climate change policy in the US, little systematic research has been conducted on the willingness of individuals to change their behaviour to mitigate the problem. Understanding behavioural change is critical if federal and local governments intend to implement programmes requiring actions to mitigate and adapt to...
Article
The rising cost of floods is increasingly attributed to the pattern and form of the built environment. Our study empirically tests this notion by examining the relationship between development intensity and property damage caused by floods. We examine five years of insured flood loss claims across 144 counties and parishes fringing the Gulf of Mexi...
Article
Local jurisdictions play a critical role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. This study analyzes the theoretical framework of locally driven climate change actions and uses geographic information system (GIS) to map local jurisdictions’ climate change policy efforts in three Pacific states – California, Oregon, and Washington. The results...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides details of work undertaken in Phase 3 of the Status and Trends of Coastal Vulnerability to Natural Hazards Project exploring changing vulnerabilities and overall resilience of Texas Coastal Counties associated with the Texas Coastal Management Zone. In addition to updates on the Texas Sustainable Coastal Initiative and the Texa...
Article
A basic proposition of ‘agency theory’ is that output-based performance incentives encourage greater effort. However, studies find that incentive schemes can distort effort if rewards for performance are discrete or non-linear. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS) is a flood mitigation programme with a non-...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, mitigating the adverse impacts of flooding has increasingly become the responsibility of local decision makers. Despite the importance of understanding why flood mitigation techniques are implemented at the local level, few empirical studies have been conducted over the last decade. Our study addresses this lack of research by...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, mitigating the adverse impacts of flooding has increasingly become the responsibility of local decision-makers. Despite the importance of understanding how and why flood mitigation techniques are implemented at the local level, few large-scale, empirical studies have been conducted in recent years. Our study examines the curre...
Article
We analyze household flood insurance purchases in Florida from 1999 to 2005, and the extent to which household insurance purchases correspond with flood mitigation activities by local governments involved in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS). Regression results indicate that household flood insurance pur...
Article
Full-text available
The major planning theories provide a theoretical foundation for environmental planning. This study extends the major planning theories and develops a robust conceptual framework to measure the key factors influencing local environmental-plan quality. A random sample of forty Californian local comprehensive land-use plans and associated planning pr...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzes the spatial distribution of crime outcomes at the county scale in Florida as a function of natural disasters. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and conditional fixed effects negative binomial statistical techniques are used. Four crime outcomes are analyzed: index crimes, property crimes, violent crimes, and domestic violence...
Article
Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially repetitive over time, local decisionmakers often have an opportunity to learn from previous events and make proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse effects of a subsequent stor...
Article
Full-text available
Problem: Solar energy has potential to solve many types of planning problems. Knowing where existing household solar energy users are located and what factors explain this distribution can help craft appropriate local policies. Purpose: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of households who heat their homes with solar energy across the cont...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a growing body of research examining public perceptions of global climate change, little work has focused on the role of place and proximity in shaping these perceptions. This study extends previous conceptual models explaining risk perception associated with global climate change by adding a spatial dimension. Specifically, Geogr...
Article
This study examines the factors motivating local jurisdictions in the United States (U.S.) to voluntarily adopt policies that mitigate the anthropogenic sources of climate change when there are powerful political and economic incentives to do otherwise. Specifically, we explain adoption of the Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) program at the coun...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the reasons why a US locality would voluntarily commit to the Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) campaign. Using geographic information systems analytic techniques, we map and measure a locality’s vulnerability to climate-change impacts at the county level of spatial precision. We analyze multiple measures of climate-change vulnerabilit...
Chapter
Floods continue to pose the greatest threat to the property and safety of human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. While the link between urbanization and flooding is established, the degree to which specific characteristics of the built environment affect the level of damage sustained by a community has never been thorough...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Pacific coastal states are at risk from both locally and distantly generated tsunamis. This vulnerability can be reduced by effective hazard management plans, but no studies have been conducted to determine how local jurisdictions have incorporated tsunami hazard management into their planning frameworks. This paper analyzes the quality of...
Article
Studies on the impacts of hurricanes, tropical storms, and tornados indicate that poor communities of colour suffer disproportionately in human death and injury.(2) Few quantitative studies have been conducted on the degree to which flood events affect socially vulnerable populations. We address this research void by analysing 832 countywide flood...
Article
Floods continue to pose the greatest threat to the property and safety of human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the built environment and flood impacts in Texas, which consistently sustains the most damage from flooding of any other state in the country. Specifically, we calcu...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 200 years, an estimated 53% (about 47 million ha) of the original wetlands in the conterminous United States have been lost, mainly as a result of various human activities. Despite the importance of wetlands (particularly along the coast), and a longstanding federal policy framework meant to protect their integrity, the cumulative imp...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and mitigation policies adopted by a locality indelibly impact urban form, landscape, and economy. The Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) has become a dominant movement organizing the localities to proactively address climate change. This study examines metropolitan area commitment to the CCP. Geographic information systems (GIS) an...
Article
This study examines the distribution of commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) of hazardous waste in the southeast. Four hypotheses are tested: (1) economic rationality, (2) social inequity, (3) civic capital, and (4) scientific rationality. The data set is a match of records on operational TSDFs and large quantity generator...
Article
This research note examines children's mortality resulting from forces of nature, including heat exposure, cold exposure, storms and flooding, lightning strikes, avalanches, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Data indicate that in the United States, children's risk of death resulting from natural disasters is relatively low. However, differential...
Article
The rising economic cost of floods in the United States cannot be explained solely by monetary inflation or growth in coastal populations. Damaging flood events are also influenced by the way society plans for and physically develops its communities, influencing where structures and impervious surfaces are concentrated and how hydrological systems...
Conference Paper
Floods continue to pose the greatest threat to the property and safety of human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. While the link between urbanization and flooding is established, the degree to which specific characteristics of the built environment affect the level of damage sustained by a community has never been thorough...
Article
Full-text available
Inland flooding remains one of the greatest threats to the safety of human population in the United States (US). While few large-scale studies exist, the potential role of naturally occurring wetlands in mitigating flood duration and intensity has been widely discussed. This study examines the relationship between wetland alteration and coastal wat...
Article
Full-text available
Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be util...
Article
Climate scientists note that the effects of climate change vary regionally. Citizen willingness to absorb the costs of adaptation and mitigation policies may correspond with these place-specific effects. Geographic information systems (GIS) analytic techniques are used to map and measure survey respondents' climate change risk at various levels of...
Article
Full-text available
Floods continue to pose a significant threat to the property and safety of human populations in the United States. The economic impact from floods is estimated in the billions of dollars annually, and these losses are exacerbated by increasing development. This article examines the impact of wetland alteration on flood damage among local jurisdicti...
Article
While university-level education is increasingly recognized as an important component of sustain-able approaches to development, little empirical research has been done on the impact of sustain-ability education on student behavior. This study relies on an evidence-based research approach to better understand how graduate coursework on sustainable...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to use ecological footprint analysis (EFA) in an interdisciplinary graduate level course on sustainable development to better how education can facilitate learning and transform the perceptions and behavior of class participants. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses an untreated control group research...
Article
The role of industry participation in collaborative ecosystem approaches to management initiatives has received limited attention. We first review the literature describing the role of industry in ecosystem management (EM) collaborations, and present a framework for investigating the motivations for industry participation. In order to better unders...
Article
Full-text available
While sprawling growth patterns have be- come a major issue for planners and envi- ronmental managers, little empirical re- search has been conducted on the adoption of sprawl-reduction policies in local plans. The authors systematically evaluate the comprehensive plans of forty- six local jurisdictions in southern Florida for the presence of five...
Article
Full-text available
Although the components of plan quality are well defined, little empirical research has been conducted to understand the degree to which policies are being implemented after plan adoption and the factors contributing to the variation in plan implementation. The authors test the efficacy of land-use planning and plan implementation in Florida by mea...
Article
Past research on environmental perceptions has, for the most part, treated responses as independently distributed across a given study area. However, a random sampling of respondents may not necessarily produce a randomly distributed pattern of views on the natural environment. This article explores the degree to which perceptions of water quality...