Samuel F Brockington

Samuel F Brockington
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Plant Sciences and Cambridge University Botanic Gardens

PhD

About

92
Publications
31,634
Reads
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3,249
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - January 2015
University of Cambridge
Position
  • NERC Advanced Research Fellow
January 2012 - December 2013
University of Cambridge
Position
  • Marie Curie Re-Integration Fellow
August 2003 - August 2009
University of Florida
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Conical epidermal cells occur on the tepals (perianth organs, typically petals and/or sepals) of the majority of animal-pollinated angiosperms, where they play both visual and tactile roles in pollinator attraction, providing grip to foraging insects and enhancing colour, temperature and hydrophobicity. To explore the evolutionary history of conica...
Article
Full-text available
Here we respond to the paper entitled “ Contribution of anthocyanin pathways to fruit flesh coloration in pitayas ” (Fan et al., BMC Plant Biol 20:361, 2020). In this paper Fan et al. 2020 propose that the anthocyanins can be detected in the betalain-pigmented genus Hylocereus , and suggest they are responsible for the colouration of the fruit fles...
Article
L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid for protein synthesis and is also used in plants to synthesize diverse natural products. Plants primarily synthesize tyrosine via TyrA arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrAa or ADH), which are typically strongly feedback inhibited by tyrosine. However, two plant lineages, Fabaceae (legumes) and Caryophyllales, have Tyr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here we respond to Zhou et al., 2020 'Combined Transcriptome and Metabolome analysis of Pitaya fruit unveiled the mechanisms underlying Peel and pulp color formation' published in BMC Genomics. Given the evolutionary conserved anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in betalain-pigmented species, we are open to the idea that species with both anthocyanins...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) are mutualistic interactions formed between soil fungi and plant roots. AM symbiosis is a fundamental and widespread trait in plants with the potential to sustainably enhance future crop yields. However, improving AM fungal association in crop species requires a fundamental understanding of host colonisation dynamics acro...
Article
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Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are key cell signaling components. The rice ARBUSCULAR RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1 (OsARK1) regulates the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association postarbuscule development and belongs to an undefined subfamily of RLKs. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that ARK1 has an ancient paralogue in spermatophytes, ARK2 . Single ark2...
Article
Full-text available
Tulips ( Tulipa spp.) are one of the most widely appreciated plants worldwide, nevertheless species taxonomy and biogeography are often poorly understood. Most wild tulips inhabit the mountains of Central Asia, a recognised biodiversity hotspot, and a centre of tulip diversity. Despite the presence of several country-level endemic Tulipa species, m...
Article
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Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a co...
Article
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The evolution of a lipid‐based cuticle on aerial plant surfaces that protects against dehydration is considered a fundamental innovation in the colonization of the land by the green plants. However, key evolutionary steps in the early regulation of cuticle synthesis are still poorly understood due to limited studies in early diverging land plant li...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a co...
Article
Full-text available
The Arabidopsis genome contains three genes encoding proteins of the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) WD-repeat (WDR) subfamily. TTG1 is a known regulator of epidermal cell differentiation and pigment production, while LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 and LIGHT-REGULATED WD2 are known regulators of the circadian clock. Here, we discovered a new central role fo...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of L‐DOPA 4,5‐dioxygenase activity, encoded by the gene DODA, was a key step in the origin of betalain biosynthesis in Caryophyllales. We previously proposed that L‐DOPA 4,5‐dioxygenase activity evolved via a single Caryophyllales‐specific neofunctionalisation event within the DODA gene lineage. However, this neofunctionalisation even...
Article
Full-text available
Within the angiosperm order Caryophyllales, an unusual class of pigments known as betalains can replace the otherwise ubiquitous anthocyanins. In contrast to the phenylalanine-derived anthocyanins, betalains are tyrosine-derived pigments which contain the chromophore betalamic acid. The origin of betalain pigments within Caryophyllales and their mu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Most eukaryotic genes comprise exons and introns thus requiring the precise removal of introns from pre-mRNAs to enable protein biosynthesis. U2 and U12 spliceosomes catalyze this step by recognizing motifs on the transcript in order to remove the introns. A process which is dependent on precise definition of exon-intron borders by splic...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract L-Tyrosine-derived specialized metabolites perform many important functions in plants, and have valuable applications in human health and nutrition. A necessary step in the overproduction of specialised tyrosine-derived metabolites in planta is the manipulation of primary metabolism to enhance the availability of tyrosine. Here, we utilise...
Article
Several plant lineages have evolved adaptations that allow survival in extreme and harsh environments including many families within the plant clade Portulacineae (Caryophyllales) such as the Cactaceae, Didiereaceae, and Montiaceae. Here, using newly generated transcriptomic data, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Portulacineae and examined potenti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several plant lineages have evolved adaptations that allow survival in extreme and harsh environments including many within the plant clade Portulacineae (Caryophyllales) such as the Cactaceae, Didiereaceae of Madagascar, and high altitude Montiaceae. Here, using newly generated transcriptomic data, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Portulacineae a...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: The Caryophyllales contain ~12,500 species and are known for their cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear, and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore t...
Article
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Evidence-based assessments of extinction risk are established tools used to inform the conservation of plant species, and form the basis of key targets within the framework of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). An overall picture of plants threat assessments is challenging due to the use of a variety of methodologies and range in sc...
Article
Evidence-based assessments of extinction risk are established tools used to inform the conservation of plant species, and form the basis of key targets within the framework of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). An overall picture of plants threat assessments is challenging due to the use of a variety of methodologies and range in sc...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding plant evolution and diversity in a phylogenomic context is an enormous challenge, due in part to limited availability of genome-scale data across phylodiverse species. The 10KP (10,000 Plants) Genome Sequencing Project will sequence and characterize representative genomes from every major clade of embryophytes, green algae, and protis...
Article
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Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve o...
Article
Diverse natural products are synthesized in plants by specialized metabolic enzymes, which are often lineage-specific and derived from gene duplication followed by functional divergence. However, little is known about the contribution of primary metabolism to the evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. Betalain pigments, uniquely found in the...
Article
Full-text available
Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world’s botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve o...
Article
Full-text available
The role played by whole genome duplication (WGD) in plant evolution is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages such as superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of the macroevolutionary legacy of polyploidy are limited by an incomplete sampling of these events across the tree of life. To better locate and understand these events, we need comprehensive taxonomic sampling as well as homology inference methods that accurately reconstruct the frequency and location of gene duplications. We assembled a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role whole genome duplication (WGD) plays in the history of lineages is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages including superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the po...
Article
Full-text available
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies of the macroevolutionary legacy of paleopolyploidy are limited by an incomplete sampling of these events across the tree of life. To better locate and understand these events, we need comprehensive taxonomic sampling as well as homology inference methods that accurately reconstruct the frequency and location of gene duplications. We assembl...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: We describe a field and laboratory workflow developed for plant phylotranscriptomic projects that involves cryogenic tissue collection in the field, RNA extraction and quality control, and library preparation. We also make recommendations for sample curation. Methods and Results: A total of 216 frozen tissue samples of Caryop...
Preprint
Full-text available
The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g. Venus flytrap, sundews and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. To exp...
Chapter
The first two decades of the twenty-first century have been marked by a growing acceptance, both by politicians and by the public at large, of the need to focus on scientific research that can tackle the global problems facing humankind. In 2009 Professor John Beddington, then the UK government’s chief scientific advisor, brought these issues to pu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Premise of the study: We describe a field and lab workflow developed for plant phylotranscriptomic projects, involving field collected cryogenic tissues, RNA extraction and quality control, and library preparation. We also make recommendations for sample curation. Methods and Results: 216 frozen tissue samples of Caryophyllales and other angiosperm...
Article
Full-text available
Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytoh...
Article
Full-text available
Betalain pigments are unique to the Caryophyllales and structurally and biosynthetically distinct from anthocyanins. Two key enzymes within the betalain synthesis pathway have been identified: 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA) that catalyzes the formation of betalamic acid and CYP76AD1, a cytochrome P450 gene that catalyzes the formation of cyclo-DOPA. We per...
Data
Table S2 Information for 14 newly sequenced transcriptomes: provenance, herbarium vouchers, type of material
Data
Table S3 List of 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA) gene accessions and corresponding taxa
Data
Table S4 List of CYP76AD1 gene accessions and corresponding taxa
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary developmental biology has come to prominence in the past two decades, in both the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom, particularly following the description of homeotic genes linked to key morphological transitions. A primary goal of evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) is to define how developmental programs are modified...
Article
Full-text available
Many phylogenomic studies based on transcriptomes have been limited to “single-copy” genes due to methodological challenges in homology and orthology inferences. Only a relatively small number of studies have explored analyses beyond reconstructing species relationships. We sampled 69 transcriptomes in the hyperdiverse plant clade Caryophyllales an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Brunkard et al. propose that the identification of novel LEAFY sequences contradicts our model of evolution through promiscuous intermediates. Based on the debate surrounding land plant phylogeny and on our analysis of these interesting novel sequences, we explain why there is no solid evidence to disprove our model.
Article
Full-text available
Molecular studies have shown that Molluginaceae in the traditional sense is polyphyletic. Several genera have already been separated into various families (e.g. Caryophyllaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Microteaceae), but recent studies have shown that Macarthuria and Hypertelis also make Molluginaceae polyphyletic if they remain to be included...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these t...
Article
Full-text available
The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development that has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations but the origin and evolutionary significance of this vari...