Samson Khene

Samson Khene
University College London | UCL · Department of Chemistry

Doctor of Philosophy

About

44
Publications
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835
Citations

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
A novel alternative route to access rhenium(V)−phthalocyanine complexes through direct metalation of metal‐free phthalocyanines (H2Pcs) with a rhenium(VII) salt in the presence of various two‐electron reducing agents is presented. Direct ion metalation of tetraamino‐ or tetranitrophthalocyanine with perrhenate (ReO4−) in the presence of triphenylph...
Article
Synthesis and photophysicochemical properties of [tetrakis 6-(tert-butyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo [b] [1], [4] dioxine) phthalocyaninato] In(III) (InPc-4) and [tetrakis 6-(tert-butyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo [b] [1], [4] dioxine) phthalocyaninato] Zn(II) (ZnPc-5) containing 4-tert-butylcatechol at the peripheral positions are synthesised for application as photo...
Article
This paper reports on the third order nonlinear optical properties of cobalt, nickel and tetrakis(4-terbutylphenoxy)phthalocyaninatocopper(II) isomers, using the Z-scan technique. Metal-free isomers were found to have high nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) values compared to the metalated isomers. Metal-free C2v isomer was found to have the high...
Article
5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin and it indium derivative were synthesised and characterized then covalently linked to CdTe/ZnSe/ZnO semiconductor quantum dots. The nonlinear absorption of the complexes was studied using the Z-scan technique at 532 nm and 10 ns pulse in dimethyl sulfoxide. Indium 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl) porph...
Article
The fabricating of metal oxide thin films onto conducting surfaces continues to grow and their potential applications as surfaces for biosensor applications is of paramount importance. The correct orientation of glucose oxidase redox enzymes yields very important biointerfaces capable of selectively detecting D-glucose as a measure of blood sugar f...
Article
This work employs the open and closed Z-scan aperture technique to comparatively study the nonlinear optical (NLO)properties of nickel and metal free 4-tert-butylphenoxy phthalocyanine, biphenyl bridged bis-4-tert-butylphenoxy phthalocyanine and naphthalene bridged bis-4-tert-butylphenoxy phthalocyanine. Density functional theory (DFT)calculations...
Article
In this study photophysical, nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs)-phthalocyanine nanoconjugate systems containing: 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-(4-pyridyloxy) phthalocyaninato (H 2 TPPc), 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-(4-pyridyloxy) phthalocyanato zinc(II) (ZnTPPc) and 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetra...
Article
This work describes the adsorption of synthesized cobalt mono (CoPc) and binuclear phthalocyanines (CoBiPc) with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to form SWCNT-CoPc or SWCNT-CoBiPc as non-covalent conjugates onto glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The cobalt complexes and their SWCNT-conjugate-modified electrodes were studied for their electroca...
Article
This work presents the spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of metal free binuclear and monomeric 4-(pentylthio)phthalocyanine and cobalt 4,5-(bipentylthio)phthalocyanine. Second order nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) values for the complexes were determined and compared.
Article
Full-text available
The monitoring of heavy metal ions particularly in water is important in safeguarding the environment and humans from the toxic effects these metal ions pose. This work describes the synthesis, characterization and electrocatalytic properties of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Si-NP) in the presence of cobalt or iron phthalocyanines (MPc) f...
Article
Full-text available
The metal-free (H2TPrOPhOPc), cobalt (CoTPrOPhOPc) and manganese (Mn(OAc)TPrOPhOPc) tetra propargyloxyphenoxy phthalocyanines were evaluated their potential as optical limiting materials. The effect of the substituents and the central metal ions on the nonlinear optical properties was evaluated. The metal-free complex exhibited better nonlinear opt...
Article
This work reports on synthesis and characterizations of Ga(III) and In(III) complexes, formed by 2,3-bis[2′-(2′′-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexa-n-butoxy phthalocyanine (1H2) coordinating acetatoindium(III) (1InOAc) and hydroxogallium(III) (1GaOH) Photophysical properties of hydroxogallium(III) phthalocyaninate 1GaOH and acetatoindium(I...
Article
This paper investigates the third order nonlinear optical properties of 4α-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (α-SnOtBpPc) and 4β-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (β-SnOtBpPc) in different organic solvents. The third-order susceptibilities of α-SnOtBpPc and β-SnOtBpPc are reported in different solvents, usi...
Article
In this study, tetra-(4-propargyloxy)phenoxy phthalocyanines (MTPrOPhOPc) were covalently immobilized as thin films onto gold surfaces via click reaction. The gold electrode surfaces were pre-functionalized with phenylazide (Au-PAz) thin film using in-situ diazonium generation followed by electrografting. Copper (I) catalyzed alkynyl-azide cycloadd...
Article
Cobalt binuclear phthalocyanine (CoBiPc) bearing pentanethio substituents at the peripheral positions were synthesized. The immobilization of the synthesized cobalt phthalocyanines on gold electrode was achieved using self-assembled monolayer method (SAM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin Probe (KP) techniques were used to characte...
Article
The facile method of synthesizing of tetra (4-propargyloxy phenoxy) phthalocyanines with the terminal alkynyl (C≡C) group is reported. The synthesized phthalocyanines are the unmetallated (H2TPrOPhOPc) and the metallated complexes of cobalt (CoTPrOPhOPc) and manganese (Mn(OAc)TPrOPhOPc). The fluorescence properties of H2TPrOPhOPc and Mn(OAc)TPrOPhO...
Article
Full-text available
The synthesis of ball–type indium phthalocyanine (complex 4) and its covalent attachment to glutathione (GSH–) capped (Ag, Au, CdTeSe, CdTeSe/ZnO) nanoparticles are reported in this work. Furthermore, their photophysical and nonlinear optical behaviour were investigated. We observed a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yield with corresponding in...
Article
Full-text available
In this work the synthesis, spectral characterization and non-linear optical properties of metal-free 4y/-(4-ferf-butyl-phenoxy)phthalocyanine isomers are described and compared to the previously reported alpha derivative. The second-order nonlinear optical properties of the phthalocyanine isomers were investigated using the Z-scan technique and co...
Article
To figure out the different electrochemical performance of ordered and disordered nano-intermetallic catalysts and their mechanisms, we successfully synthesized AuCu/C electrocatalysts through a modified co-precipitation method and obtained their ordered and disordered structure at different temperatures. A systematic comparison between the ordered...
Chapter
The chapter reviews an electrocatalytic behavior of mononuclear metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) when combined with various nanomaterials. In addition, the chapter presents electrode modification using the least studied, binuclear phthalocyanines alone or in the presence of nanomaterials. The nanomaterials included are carbon nanotubes, metal nanopart...
Article
Full-text available
The spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of the positional isomers of metal free 4α-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) phthalocyanine are presented. Second order nonlinear polarizability (β), imaginary hyperpolarizability (Im(γ)) and imaginary susceptibility (Im[χ(3)]) values were determined for the four positional isomers. The measured β values of th...
Article
Tris-{1(4),8(11),15(18),22(25)-tetra(4-tertbutylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato} dineodymium (III) was synthesised and its nonlinear optical and fluorescence behavior was studied. Low fluorescence quantum yield (ФF = 0.03) was obtained with a fluorescence lifetime τF = 4.31 ns for this complex. Nonlinear optical parameters for the complex were determined...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of different redox mediators on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by an iron porphyrin complex, iron(III) meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine chloride [FeIIITMPyP], in 0.1 M triflic acid were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and spectroelectrochemistry in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculation...
Article
Third order nonlinear optical properties were determined for phthalocyanine complexes 1–10 containing In, Ga and Zn central metals and tetra- or octa-substituted with benzyloxyphenoxy, phenoxy, tert-butylphenoxy and amino groups at peripheral or non-peripheral positions. The phthalocyanines were embedded in poly (methyl methacrylate) polymer in the...
Article
The development of poly[allylSB-co-EGDMA] beads containing a tetradentate ligand was achieved via suspension polymerization. The catalyst poly[allylSB-co-EGDMA]-VO was synthesized by reacting VIVOSO4 with poly[allylSB-co-EGDMA]. XPS and EPR were used to confirm the presence of vanadium (V4+) on the beads. The synthesized catalyst (poly[allylSB-co-E...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we have developed a novel nanoprobe for H2O2 based on the conjugation of CdTe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to different metal tetraamino-phthalocyanine (MTAPc): (M = (OAc)Al, {OAc = acetate}, Ni and Zn). Chemical coordination of the QDs to the MTAPc resulted in the fluorescence "switch off" of the linked QDs which was associated with Först...
Article
Core–shell CdTe@ZnS quantum dots capped with glutathione (CdTe@ZnS–GSH) were covalently linked to zinc octacarboxy phthalocyanine (ZnPc(COOH)8). The conjugate was characterized by UV/Vis, infrared and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopies as well as transmission electron and atomic force microscopies. The fluorescence quantum yields of the core CdTe c...
Data
A new nanocomposite catalyst consisting of high-loading cobalt oxide (CoO) on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared in this work. Its high activity for the ORR in alkaline electrolyte was determined using the rotating disk electrode technique, and further confirmed in real alkaline membrane fue...
Article
An electrospun polystyrene (PS) fiber incorporating tetraphenoxy phthalocyanine complex of lutetium (LuTPPc/PS) as a photosensitizer was applied for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous solution in the presence of visible light. The photocatalytic activity of the LuTPPc in the fiber was compared to that of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) incorpo...
Article
Following the first suggestion of inherent molecular chirality in asymmetrically substituted subphthalocyanines by Torres and co-workers in 2000, elucidation of the relationship between structure and chirality has become an important issue. However, separation of the enantiomers has been prevented by the low solubility of the molecules synthesized...
Article
Cadmium tellurite quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) are linked to nickel tetraamino phthalocyanine (CdTe-QDs-NiTAPc) through an amide bond. Differential pulse voltammetry shows that that NiTAPc stabilizes the QDs against oxidative disintegration into metallic products on oxidation. Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and pentachlorophenol...
Article
We described the synthesis of nickel octadecylphthalocyanine (NiPc(C10H21)8), followed by its adsorption on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to form SWCNT-NiPc(C10H21)8 conjugates. SWCNT-NiPc(C10H21)8 was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and for the electrooxidation of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol. The SWCNT and NiPc(C1...
Article
Porphyrin nanorods (PNR) were prepared by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrin molecules consisting of free base meso-tetraphenylsulfonate porphyrin (H4TPPS42-) and meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MTMePyP4+ M = Sn, Mn, In, Co). These consist of H4TPPS42--SnTMePyP4+, H4TPPS42--CoTMePyP4+, H4TPPS42--InTMePyP4+ and H4TPPS4...
Article
In this work the interaction between peripherally (β) substituted nickel tetrahydroxyphthalocyanines (β-NiPc(OH)4 and β-Ni(O)Pc(OH)4) with p-chlorophenol is theoretically rationalised by performing calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Density functional theory (DFT) and molecular orbital theory are used to calculate the condensed Fukui function fo...
Article
Molecular films of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) complexes, tetra-substituted with 2-diethylaminoethanethio at the peripheral (Mn(OAc)-β-TDEAETPc, 1) and non-peripheral (Mn(OAc)-α-TDEAETPc, 2) positions were formed on glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization and electrodeposition respectively. Atomic force microscopy images confirmed the...
Article
Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of iron (SAM-1), cobalt (SAM-2) and manganese (SAM-3) phthalocyanine complexes, tetra-substituted with diethylaminoethanethio at the non-peripheral positions, were formed on gold electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF). Electrochemical, impedimentary and surface properties of the SAM films were investigated. Cyclic...
Article
The preparation of zinc phthalocyanine derivatives peripherally substituted with 2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid is reported for the first time in this study. In order to determine the potential of these water soluble complexes as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy, photophysical and photochemical studies were carried out on...
Article
This work reports on the use of nickel(II) tetrahydroxy (NiPc(OH)4) and (poly-Ni(OH)Pc(OH)4) phthalocyanine complexes as films on ordinary poly graphite electrode (OPGE) for the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The NiPc(OH)4 film was electrotransformed to Ni(OH)Pc(OH)4 film in aqueous 0.1M NaOH solution to the ‘O–Ni–O oxo’ bridge...
Article
Non-peripherally (α) tetra- (9) and octa-(7) substituted dodecyl-mercapto tin(IV) phthalocyanines were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior studied. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry show ring-based reductions for 7 and 9, the former shows two ring oxidations, while the latter shows only one ring-based oxidation. The adsorpti...
Article
Three non-peripherally substituted tin(IV) macrocylic compounds, octahexylphthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (3a), octahexyltetrabenzo-5,10,15- triazaporphyrinato dichlorotin(IV) (3b) and octadecylphthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (3c) were synthesized and their photophysical and electrochemical behavior studied. Complex 3b, containing a CH group in p...
Article
This work reports on the microwave synthesis of tetrasulfonated tin phthalocyanine and tetrasulfonated tin α,β,γ-tetrabenzcorrole. The latter was only formed at low ratios (<1:8) of 4-sulfophthalic acid to urea. Both complexes are aggregated in aqueous media, but can be partly or fully disaggregated by the addition of Triton X-100. The α,β,γ-tetrab...

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There is a need for the protection of sensitive optical sensors and components from laser damage. A device designed to keep the power, irradiance, energy or fluence transmitted by an optical system below some specified maximum value is known as optical limiter (OL).