Samantha Strindberg

Samantha Strindberg
Wildlife Conservation Society | WCS · Center for Global Conservation

Ph.D. in Statistics

About

119
Publications
45,885
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,828
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1994 - April 2001
University of St Andrews
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Member of the Distance abundance estimation software development team. Design and development of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) Database-Estimation Software System. Development of data entry software for small cetacean surveys.

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Gorilla Journal - popular science
Article
Full-text available
Robust monitoring programs are essential for understanding changes in wildlife population dynamics and distribution over time, especially for species of conservation concern. In this study, we applied a rapid non-invasive sampling approach to the Critically Endangered African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), at nationwide scale in its principa...
Article
Full-text available
Species distributions are influenced by processes occurring at multiple spatial scales. It is therefore insufficient to model species distribution at a single geographic scale, as this does not provide the necessary understanding of determining factors. Instead, multiple approaches are needed, each differing in spatial extent, grain, and research o...
Article
Full-text available
Intact forest landscapes (IFLs) are globally important for maintaining functional ecosystems. Ebo forest (~1400 km2) in Cameroon is one of the largest remaining IFLs in the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forest ecoregion and harbours several IUCN Red-Listed threatened mammal species. We evaluated the status, trends, and distribution of mammals ≥ 0.5 kg...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the ecological factors influencing African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) abundance and distribution is crucial for their conservation management in Central Africa. Dung surveys have been conducted at the landscape scale and confirmed the overwhelming impact of anthropogenic activities on forest elephants. We present results fro...
Article
Full-text available
Small-scale comparisons help us to understand how habitat features and food availability impact primate abundance. This is particularly useful at sites without human impacts, as it allows for the investigation of the natural factors influencing nesting patterns and great ape abundance. We provide a small-scale study of sympatric great ape nests in...
Article
Full-text available
Highlights d 229 African elephants were tracked across forest, Sahel, savanna, and bushveld sites d Protected areas and the human footprint both constrain elephant range size d 62% of the African continent is potential elephant habit, of which elephants use 17% d 85% of potential elephant habitat lies outside current protected areas Correspondence...
Article
Full-text available
Bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus) are rare, mostly nocturnal forest antelopes in tropical Africa that are prized by trophy hunters for their large size, curved horns, and colorful pelage. Estimating bongo population size is difficult because of their low densities and forested habitat, and therefore management decisions have not previously be...
Article
Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) have declined drastically across their range in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Survey data analysed in 2016 estimated a 77% decline in numbers between the mid- 1990s and 2016 and predicted that Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP), and the contiguous Oku Community Reserve (OCR) held much of the...
Article
Full-text available
In tropical Africa, wild meat consumption by rural communities who live in or near protected areas can be a major challenge in the conservation of threatened species. Lemurs and the fossa are among the species consumed in Makira Natural Park, Madagascar. Because of their low reproductive rates and the high human population density, these species ar...
Article
Full-text available
Effective wildlife management requires information on population status and distribution. Survey methods that provide estimates of these population parameters can vary greatly in effort required, area covered, precision of estimates, and cost. Trade-offs are required, because increasing precision and area coverage generally requires increasing fiel...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), referred to as khulan in Mongolian, are among the most mobile ungulates globally. Their movements exceed the much better known migrations of caribou in the Arctic or wildebeest and zebra in the Serengeti-Maasai Mara ecosystem. These wide-ranging movements allow khulan to thrive in large numbers under the harsh cli...
Article
Full-text available
In 2013, we conducted a baseline study on the presence, distribution and occupancy of medium- to large-sized mammals in Bolivia along the San Buenaventura-Ixiamas road that runs parallel to the Madidi National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management boundary and cuts through the Tacana Indigenous Territory and a number of neighboring private...
Book
Full-text available
En 2013, se realizó un estudio de referencia sobre la presencia, distribución y ocupación de mamíferos medianos y grandes a lo largo de la carretera San Buenaventura-Ixiamas, paralela al Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi y que atraviesa el territorio indígena Tacana I y varias propiedades privadas. Se estableció un buffer de...
Article
Full-text available
The forests of Central Africa contain some of Earth's few remaining intact forests. These forests are increasingly threatened by infrastructure development, agriculture, and unsustainable extraction of natural resources (e.g. minerals, bushmeat, and timber), all of which is leading to deforestation and forest degradation, particularly defaunation,...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Species distribution modelling is a useful tool for determining important habitats. By accounting for specific animal behaviour in the model, it is possible to identify finer‐scale patterns of habitat use. Together with spatially explicit data on anthropogenic activities, models can be used to assess human impacts and inform conservation manage...
Article
Full-text available
The 2016–2017 introduction of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) into livestock in Mongolia was followed by mass mortality of the critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope and other rare wild ungulates. To assess the nature and population effects of this outbreak among wild ungulates, we collected clinical, histopathologic, epidemiologic,...
Article
Full-text available
Bushmeat hunting is widely cited as cause for declines of wildlife populations throughout Africa. Forest duikers (Bovidae, Cephalophinae) are among the most exploited species. Whether current harvest rates imperil duikers is debated because of the difficulty of accurately assessing population trends. To assess population trends, we first reviewed l...
Article
Full-text available
The tropical forests of Western Equatorial Africa are home to extraordinary biodiversity, including sympatric chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). The region is also comprised of significant stands of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL) that are in rapid decline. As part of a regional monitori...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to designate priority areas for conservation have had a long history, with most modern initiatives focused on either designating areas important for biodiversity or those least impacted by direct human disturbance. Ecologically intact ecosystems are becoming increasingly limited on the planet, making their identification and conservation an...
Article
Breeding bird response to habitat rehabilitation after anthropogenic disturbance has received little attention in the Arctic. The North Slope of Alaska is an important breeding ground for many populations of migratory birds and has also supported major oilfields since the late 1960s. The most obvious impacts of industrial development to nesting bir...
Article
Full-text available
We explain the approach used in the first ever rangewide assessment of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees, recently published in Science Advances. We examined the weight of each potential driver of the density of these two great ape taxa, which allowed us to estimate abundance across their geographic range and refine their distributio...
Article
Full-text available
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” is easy to understand, but sometimes it takes a long time to assemble those parts, and a great deal of effort – the effort in our case: thousands of kilometres walked through the forests of Central Africa by a large number of people from many different organisations, across many countries, for a deca...
Data
http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/4/eaar2964/DC1
Article
Full-text available
We present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. We used spatial modeling to investi...
Article
The extraction of timber often conflicts with the well-being and conservation of wildlife. In particular, there is a need to better understand the impact of tree removal under selective logging regimes on local ecological communities. We conducted ape nest counts along line transects before, during, and after logging to assess the impact of timber...
Chapter
The principal prey of tigers are typically large, diurnal ungulates and can be visually detected and counted by observers while walking, riding domesticated elephants, or in very open habitats from aircraft, moving along a straight line.
Article
Full-text available
Mongolia’s Gobi Desert ecosystem, a stronghold for populations of the Asiatic wild ass (khulan) Equus hemionus and the goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, faces conservation challenges as a result of rapid economic development, including mining-related infrastructure projects. There is a paucity of reliable data on population abundance for these...
Article
Marine protected areas or replenishment zones have become one of the more popular tools within an ecosystem-based management approach aimed at balancing environmental health with socio-economic needs. We examined changes in populations of an ecologically representative suite of focal species, including ones important to local small-scale fisheries,...
Article
Full-text available
One of the largest legal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fisheries in the world occurs in Caribbean Nicaragua, where annually thousands of endangered turtles are captured for consumption. Understanding characteristics of turtles caught and assessing trends can provide insights into population status and resource management needs. From 1994 to 2011, g...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and precise surveys of primate abundance provide the basis for understanding species ecology and essential information for conservation assessments. Owing to the elusive nature of wild apes and the vast region of dense forest they inhabit, population estimates of central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western lowland gorilla...
Article
Many remaining wild tiger populations persist in small numbers at sites where densities are less than half of their estimated carrying capacity and will continue to decline if not protected from poaching. Although law enforcement is frequently used to protect tigers and their prey, the conditions under which enforcement is likely to be effective in...
Article
Full-text available
The decline of sea turtle populations in the Caribbean has led to intensive recovery efforts. In Belizean waters, hawksbill turtles are seemingly making a comeback. At Glover's Reef Atoll particularly, juvenile hawksbill turtles are found in the fore-reef habitat. The population status and dynamics of this foraging aggregation were assessed to info...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Link: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/9406/0
Article
Full-text available
Eastern Mongolia supports one of the most important breeding populations of the White-naped Crane Antigone vipio (WNC), which is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ by the IUCN. Large numbers of WNCs were found to be breeding at high densities within the Ulz River basin during surveys conducted in 2000 and 2001, along a 270 km section of the river. Followin...
Article
Full-text available
Somatic growth dynamics are an integrated response to environmental conditions. Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are long-lived, major consumers in coral reef habitats that move over broad geographic areas (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). We evaluated spatio-temporal effects on hawksbill growth dynamics over a 33-yr period and 2...
Article
Reliable assessments of species' status are prerequisites for monitoring the success of conservation programmes. However, survey conditions such as terrain and inaccessibility, compounded by the low densities of many species across Southeast Asia and other parts of the world are considerable barriers to obtaining robust populations estimates. We us...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coast...
Research
Full-text available
report evaluates the effectiveness of aerial surveys in monitoring large African vertebrates at the landscape level.
Research
Full-text available
A Wildlife Conservation Society Report. Suggested citation: Stokes, EJ, Malonga, R, Rainey, HJ & Strindberg S (2008). Western lowland gorilla surveys in northern Republic of Congo: Summary scientific report. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York. 14 pp.
Article
Full-text available
This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and communi...
Article
Full-text available
Passive acoustic monitoring was used to document the presence of singing humpback whales off the coast of Northern Angola, and opportunistically test for the effect of seismic survey activity in the vicinity on the number of singing whales. Two Marine Autonomous Recording Units (MARUs) were deployed between March and December 2008 in the offshore e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The forest and savannah elephants of Africa are now thought to have diverged about five million years ago, at about the same time as the divergence of Asian elephants and woolly mammoths. Recent research has demonstrated that, in the absence of forest elephants, the African tropical forest ecosystem alters in structure, diversity, and composition....
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Habitat loss and hunting threaten bonobos (Pan paniscus), Endangered (IUCN) great apes endemic to lowland rainforests of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conservation planning requires a current, data-driven, rangewide map of probable bonobo distribution and an understanding of key attributes of areas used by bonobos. We present a rangewi...
Conference Paper
Habitat loss and degradation, over-exploitation of resources, invasive species, pollution, disease, and climate change are conservation priorities. Road proliferation facilitates all of these, yet how many conservation organisations have a Roads Coordinator? In tropical forests road impacts can be catastrophic. In central Africa, large mammals are...
Article
Through the analysis of a case study from Amazonian Ecuador, this paper evaluates the impacts of two oil-road management approaches on the structure and composition of wildlife communities (large- or medium-sized mammals and game bird species). In a free-access road, where forest has been cleared and fragmented by colonists, fewer species were foun...
Article
Full-text available
1. The southern stingray Dasyatis americana is a benthic mesopredator found in varying densities throughout Caribbean shallow reef systems, yet despite its increasing inclusion in fisheries, many aspects of its population ecology are still unknown. 2. Belt transects and distance sampling techniques were used to estimate seasonal abundance of an une...
Article
Full-text available
African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by...
Data
Full-text available
Analysis results for top-ranking predictive models (excluding hunter sign as an explanatory variable), which included (a) the Human Influence Index (HII), or (b) human population density and proximity to road (SPD). Details of the variables included in each model are given and percent deviance explained and UBRE score value. Estimated average eleph...
Data
Full-text available
Estimates of percentage extremely low density elephant range across the Central African forests and by country (relative to each country’s forested area) for 2002 and 2011 for the top-ranking predictive models, which included the survey year variable. Elephants are assumed to be almost absent when dung density falls below a threshold value of 100 e...
Data
Full-text available
Estimated conditional dependence of elephant dung density for top-ranking multi-variable models without hunter-sign used for prediction across the Central African forests, using the variables available across Central Africa either as GIS layers or in country-specific databases. Plots shown are for models with variables (A) survey year∧, Human Influ...
Data
Full-text available
Estimated conditional dependence of elephant dung density considering survey year by country for a multi-variable models including hunter sign. Survey year by country focusing on the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Gabon for the model with variables hunter sign*, survey year by country*, proximity to roads, human population density***, corru...
Data
Full-text available
Estimated conditional dependence of elephant dung density for single variable models. Results are shown for (A) hunter sign***, (B) survey year**, (C) proximity to roads*, (D) human population density***, (E) Human Influence Index***, (F) official protection*** (higher values = less protected), (presence/absence of wildlife guards is a factor covar...
Data
Full-text available
The number of survey sites per country by survey year. Results are shown for the 80 survey sites in Central Africa. (PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Details of the 80 survey sites included in the analysis. (PDF)