Samantha Sabo

Samantha Sabo
Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona · Health Promotion Sciences

DrPH, MPH

About

63
Publications
8,265
Reads
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711
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2004 - December 2016
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Background Multisectoral and public–private partnerships are critical in building the necessary infrastructure, policy, and political will to ameliorate health inequity. A focus on health equity by researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers prioritizes action to address the systematic, avoidable, and unjust differences in health status across...
Article
Full-text available
The state of Arizona has experienced one of the highest novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positivity test rates in the United States with disproportionally higher case rates and deaths among African-American/Black (AA/B), American Indian/Alaska Native (Native), and Hispanic/Latinx (HLX) individuals. To reduce disparities and promote health...
Article
Purpose: Homeless opioid treatment clients who transition into housing generally demonstrate better outcomes, but housing environments vary widely and may not benefit racial/ethnic minority populations equally. We sought to identify how race/ethnicity moderates the association between positive opioid treatment response and moving into dependent or...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of this study was to culturally enhance a diabetes education program for Diné (Navajo) community members with Type 2 diabetes. Though the recommendation to culturally adapt health education curricula was meant to improve health education for American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIANs), it has inadvertently created a “one size...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Multisectoral and public-private partnerships are critical in building the necessary infrastructure, policy, and political will to ameliorate health inequity. By focusing on health equity, researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers make explicit the systematic, avoidable, unfair, and unjust differences in health status across popula...
Preprint
Background: Multisectoral and public-private partnerships are critical in building the necessary infrastructure, policy, and political will to ameliorate health inequity. By focusing on health equity, researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers make explicit the systematic, avoidable, unfair, and unjust differences in health status across popul...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, the Community Health Representative (CHR) workforce celebrated their 50th year and serve as the oldest and only federally funded Community Health Worker (CHW) workforce in the United States. CHRs are a highly trained, well-established standardized workforce serving the medical and social needs of American Indian communities. Nationally, th...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding and building organizational capacity for system change and the integration of the Community Health Worker (CHW) workforce within the health scare sector requires a supportive organizational culture among sector leaders and providers. The aim of this mixed-methods study was to assess organizational readiness for CHW workforce integrati...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To test if participation in the Health Start Programme, an Arizona statewide Community Health Worker (CHW) maternal and child health (MCH) home visiting programme, reduced rates of low birth weight (LBW), very LBW (VLBW), extremely LBW (ELBW) and preterm birth (PTB). Design Quasi-experimental retrospective study using propensity score ma...
Chapter
The role of advocating for individuals and communities not only includes advocating for the basic needs and resources of communities and entails conducting policy advocacy. This chapter provides two accounts of how CHWs provide advocacy and advocate for their profession. CHWs in Arizona advocated for their communities and their workforce on the sta...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Over the last decade, public health research and practice sectors have shifted their focus away from identifying health disparities and towards addressing the social, environmental, and economic determinants of health equity. Given the complex and interrelated nature of these determinants, developing policies that will advance health equ...
Article
Background Over the past decade, public health research and practice sectors have shifted their focus away from identifying health disparities and toward addressing the social, environmental, and economic determinants of health equity. Given the complex and interrelated nature of these determinants, developing policies that will advance health equi...
Article
Full-text available
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been documented as an effective approach to research with underserved communities, particularly with racial and ethnic minority groups. However, much of the literature promoting the use of CBPR with underserved communities is written from the perspective of the researchers and not from the perspecti...
Article
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Background: Community health workers (CHWs) are widely recognized as essential to addressing disparities in health care delivery and outcomes in US vulnerable populations. In the state of Arizona, the sustainability of the workforce is threatened by low wages, poor job security, and limited opportunities for training and advancement within the pro...
Article
Purpose We examined how socioenvironmental risk factors unique to the United States-Mexico border, defined as border community and immigration stress, normalization of drug trafficking, and perceived disordered neighborhood stress, contribute to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among adolescents residing there. Design Cross-sectional design. S...
Poster
Analysis results of Key Informant and Focus Group interviews that will guide the creation of a culturally relevant, trauma informed smoking cessation intervention for American Indian (urban) women who have experienced or experiencing intimate partner violence.
Presentation
Full-text available
How our analysis of Focus Group and Key Informant interviews have guided the development of a culturally, trauma informed smoking cessation intervention among American Indian women who have experienced intimate partner violence.
Article
Background: A growing body of research points to the efficacy of participatory methods in decreasing rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and other risky behaviors among youth. However, to date, no systematic review of the literature has been conducted on Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) for youth substance use prevention. This r...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to use Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) methods and Photovoice to identify the perceived environmental factors that influence substance use among adolescents living at the U.S.-Mexico border. Methods: One academic and a local youth health coalition engaged in Youth Participatory Action Researc...
Article
Many American Indian (AI) healers are faced with a dilemma of how to maintain the ceremonial uses of traditional tobacco meant to encourage the restoration and balance of mind, body, and spirit, while discouraging commercial tobacco use and protecting against secondhand smoke exposure in ceremonial settings. To explore this dilemma and offer cultur...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. Methods and analysis The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD)...
Article
Full-text available
Community health workers (CHW) have historically served to link structurally vulnerable populations to broad support systems. Emerging evidence suggests that CHWs engage in various forms of advocacy to promote policy and systems change. We assessed the impact of CHW community advocacy on community change, defined as civic engagement, organizational...
Article
Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a growing profession in the United States. Studying this dynamic labor force is challenging, in part because its members have more than 100 different job titles. The demand for timely, accurate information about CHWs is increasing as the profession gains recognition for its ability to improve health ou...
Article
Objectives: To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). Methods: We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outc...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the...
Poster
Full-text available
Consideration of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease trends in the state of Sonora in Mexico from 2005-2012
Article
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Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws are effective at protecting non-smokers and reducing tobacco use, yet they are not widely adopted by tribal governments. Methods A series of smoke-free policy initiatives on the Navajo Nation, beginning in 2008, were reviewed to identify key issues, successes and setbacks. Results It has been essential tha...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Indigenous worldviews and research approaches are fundamental to make meaning of complex health issues and increase the likelihood of identifying existing cultural protective factors that have contributed to the resilience and survival of Indigenous people worldwide. Objective We describe the process for applying the Diné (Navajo) par...
Article
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Background: Living conditions and health of migrant farmworkers could benefit from a health promotion model based on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Objective: To understand how Mexican agribusiness owners and general managers view and practice CSR. Methods: We interviewed 8 agribusiness owners/managers and 233 farmworkers using open-en...
Article
This mixed-methods study explores community health worker (CHW) engagement in professional advocacy. Data from the National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey (n = 1661) assessed the relationship between CHW professional advocacy and CHW demographics, and work characteristics. Qualitative data articulated the quality of professional advocacy e...
Article
Organizational environments may encourage community health workers (CHWs) to engage community members in improving their communities. We conducted open-ended interviews and focus groups to explore how participation in the Acción intervention, which trained CHWs in community advocacy, affected organizational capacity to support their CHWs. Superviso...
Article
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Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention f...
Article
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The militarization of the US-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of "Othering" Latino immigrants - as "illegal aliens." The internalization of "illegality" can manifest as a sense of "undeservingness" of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. We explore the impacts of "illegality" among a populat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public health advocacy is by necessity responsive to shifting sociopolitical climates, and thus a challenge of advocacy research is that the intervention must by definition be adaptive. Moving beyond the classification of advocacy efforts to measurable indicators and outcomes of policy, therefore, requires a dynamic research approach....
Article
Full-text available
Service learning (SL) is a form of community-centered experiential education that places emerging health professionals in community-generated service projects and provides structured opportunities for reflection on the broader social, economic, and political contexts of health. We describe the elements and impact of five distinct week-long intensiv...
Conference Paper
Smoking rates among American Indian/Alaska Native populations are the highest of any ethnic group in the United States, and few tribes have established indoor smoke-free policies to protect against secondhand smoke. The NCI-funded “Networks Among Tribal Organizations for Clean Air Policies (NATO CAP)” aims to inform smoke-free policy on the Navajo...
Conference Paper
The community health worker (CHW) movement has deep roots in Arizona, beginning in the 1960s with Community Health Representatives in tribal communities and the Promotora movement beginning in the 1980s. In 1998, the University of Arizona conducted the first national study of CHWs and provided a national description of the workforce including core...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smoking rates among American Indian populations are the highest of any ethnic group in the United States, and few tribes have established indoor smoke-free policies to protect against secondhand smoke. The NCI-funded “Networks Among Tribal Organizations for Clean Air Policies” aims to inform smoke-free policy on the Navajo Nation through a communit...
Article
Full-text available
Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health...
Conference Paper
Mexican-descent persons living at the border have high rates of diabetes. Health consequences are further exacerbated by SES and health care access disparities, and within Arizona, an intense socio-political environment associated with immigration enforcement. This work examines context-relevant stressors as well as a more general stress and mental...
Conference Paper
Public health advocacy is by necessity responsive to shifting political climates and thus a challenge of advocacy research is that the intervention must by definition be flexible. Moving beyond the classification of advocacy efforts to measurable indicators of policy change and outcomes therefore requires a dynamic research approach. In this presen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public health scholars have called for research into the impact of state level immigration policies on the public's health and have recognized these policies may exacerbate existing racial and ethnic disparities among immigrant populations and their co-ethnics. Objective: The purpose of this study was to apply the theory of everyday violence to exp...
Conference Paper
By definition, community health workers (CHWs) advocate not only for individuals, but also for the health of their communities. While individual advocacy is a widely recognized CHW role, recognition and promotion of CHW community advocacy efforts have lagged behind. Given the persistent health disparities in underserved communities, increased train...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Using a mixed-method, participatory research approach, we investigated factors related to community health worker (CHW) community advocacy that affect social determinants of health. Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data for 371 CHWs to assess demographics, training, work environment, and leadership qualities on civic, politica...
Conference Paper
Community Health Workers (CHWs) are in the unique position of recognizing environmental and structural barriers facing marginalized populations. Their sense of identity with the communities they serve both compels and positions CHWs to take action in the face of these challenges. Objective: The National Community Health Workers Advocacy Study (NCHW...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the border community and immigration stress scale. The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Sout...
Conference Paper
The Community-Campus Partnerships for Health evaluation instruments for faculty, students and community partners have been adapted to measure past and present perceptions of service learning, attitudes related to community involvement, influence of service learning on professional work and reflections on personal service learning experience. Sessio...
Article
Full-text available
Community Health Workers (CHWs) have gained national recognition for their role in addressing health disparities and are increasingly integrated into the health care delivery system. There is a lack of consensus, however, regarding empirical evidence on the impact of CHW interventions on health outcomes. In this paper, we present results from the 2...
Conference Paper
The Arizona Community Health Outreach Workers Network (AzCHOW) is a statewide organization designed to create unity while preserving cultural diversity among community health workers. Since 2003, AzCHOW has provided a forum to inform and unite community health workers of all disciplines to strengthen the professional development of the field throug...
Article
Full-text available
The Community Health Worker model is recognized nationally as a means to address glaring inequities in the burden of adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups in the United States. This study explored Arizona CHW involvement in advocacy beyond the individual patient level into the realm of advocating for community level...
Conference Paper
Of the four million migrant farmworkers in Mexico, an estimated 80 thousand are contracted by one of 300 agri-businesses located in 4 specific regions of Sonora, Mexico. The majority of farmworkers come via contractor from as far away as Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Veracuz and Puebla. In 2006, a Sonora-Arizona, binational, interdisciplinary working...
Conference Paper
This study examines data on stress, health status and barriers within a community-wide survey (TESS; N = 200) of Southern Tucson AZ. The data is from a collaborative study initiated in April 2006 by the Binational Migration Institute (BMI) of the MASRC and the Center for Health Equality (CHE) housed within the College of Public Health. The locale o...
Conference Paper
This presentation will discuss the use of socio-ecological frameworks to explore, assess and inventory the necessary elements of promising community and workplace-based promotora outreach programs on the US Mexico border and internally in the US and Mexico successful in cross-border health promotion and chronic disease prevention. The research stra...
Conference Paper
The Community Health Worker model is recognized nationally as a means to address glaring inequities in the burden of adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups in the United States. This study explored Arizona CHWs involvement in advocacy beyond the individual patient level and into the realm of advocating for community l...
Conference Paper
Asthma is a major concern for US-Mexico border residents with 16% of adults and 17% of youth currently diagnosed with the disease. Socio economic and environmental health disparities in household quality and density, massive motorized border crossings, unpaved roads and erosion from increased rural development contribute to this burden of disease....
Conference Paper
The state of Sonora is one of the largest agricultural producers in Mexico, with over $442 million in annual exports. Under NAFTA and current regulations in Mexico, growers have few obligations or incentivives to protect the health and safety of their workers. However, the worldwide movement of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and certificatio...
Conference Paper
Recognition of the extent to which child health related behavior is shaped by social and cultural norms and by the physical environment of the home, school and community has brought increasing attention to systems and environmental factors that contribute to health related behaviors. To impact childhood overweight on the US-Mexico border a Communit...
Conference Paper
Community health workers' (CHW) intimate knowledge of the needs of their community places them in a unique position to advocate for large-scale change that could increase social capital and ultimately have a sustainable, community-wide effect on health. Although there is ample evidence of the effectiveness of the CHW model for improving individual...

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