Samantha J Brooks

Samantha J Brooks
Liverpool John Moores University | LJMU · School of Natural Sciences and Psychology

Ph.D. , C.Psychol

About

121
Publications
25,815
Reads
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4,519
Citations
Citations since 2016
57 Research Items
3308 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction
Examining the neural bases of cognitive restraint of appetite in health and psychiatric diseases (e.g. eating disorders, obesity, addiction).
Additional affiliations
December 2012 - present
University of Cape Town
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2010 - December 2012
Uppsala University
Education
January 2005 - June 2010
King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Field of study
  • Psychological Medicine
October 2002 - June 2004
King's College London
Field of study
  • Neuroscience

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Cognitive restraint has potentiating and deleterious effects on working memory (WM) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Conflicting evidence may be due to heterogeneity of tasks examining different WM components (e.g., verbal/auditory versus visuospatial), and differences in adolescent versus adult AN. Additionally, differential cognitive profiles of...
Preprint
Background and Aims Substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with cognitive deficits that are not always addressed in current treatments, and this hampers recovery. Cognitive training and remediation interventions are well suited to fill the gap for managing cognitive deficits in SUD. We aimed to reach consensus on recommendations for developin...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research suggests that conscious face processing occurs preferentially in right hemisphere occipito-parietal regions. However, less is known about brain regions associated with non-conscious processing of faces, and whether a right-hemispheric dominance persists in line with specific affective responses. We aim to review the neural responses...
Article
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Physical conditions in children and adolescents are often under reported during mainstream school years and may underlie mental health disorders. Additionally, comparisons between younger and older schoolchildren may shed light on developmental differences regarding the way in which physical conditions translate into conduct problems. The aim of th...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in the psychiatric properties of the dissociative anaesthetic ketamine, as single doses have been shown to have fast‐acting mood‐enhancing and anxiolytic effects, which persist for up to a week after the main psychoactive symptoms have diminished. Therefore, ketamine poses potential beneficial effects in patients with re...
Article
Background The pattern of structural brain abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) is still not well understood. While several studies report substantial deficits in grey matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight patients, others find no differences, or even increases in patients compared with healthy controls. Recent weight regain...
Preprint
There is a growing interest in the psychiatric properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine, as single doses have been shown to have fast-acting mood-enhancing and anxiolytic effects, which persist for up to a week after the main psychoactive symptoms have diminished. Therefore, ketamine poses potential beneficial effects in patients with ref...
Article
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Comorbidities are frequent and there is substantial overlap with other disorders. The lack of understanding of the molecular and neuroanatomical causes has made it difficult to develop effective treatments and it is often difficult to treat in clinical practice. Recent adv...
Chapter
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides neuroscientific research with a multimodal framework for measuring various mental health disorders. Further elucidation of the etiology of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa can be aided by comparing these two disorders within the RDoC framew...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study uses international respondents to a COVID-lockdown related questionnaire (n = 1,688) to assess the determinants of adherence and poor coping in response to lockdown measures. A regression analysis was used to compare the relative importance of clusters derived from a K-means cluster analysis as well as various demographics (age, gender,...
Article
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Underweight or overweight in adolescence is linked to several adverse health outcomes. Less evidence exists about the association between weight status and school-related psychosocial characteristics in high income countries. We sought to investigate the relationship between weight status and psychosomatic and school-related complaints with a focus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Conduct disorders may be linked to common physical conditions in childhood and adolescence, and are often under reported during mainstream school years, which may lead to more serious mental health concerns in adulthood. The aim of the study was to examine the link between specific psychosomatic complaints and adolescent conduct problem...
Article
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies consistently demonstrate altered neural activation in youth experiencing anxiety and depression in a way that is distinct from adult-onset disorders. However, there is a paucity of research systematically reviewing this, and no meta-analyses have been conducted using Activation Likelihood Estimat...
Article
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Trichotillomania (TTM) is a disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Key processes affected in TTM comprise affective, cognitive, and motor functions. Emerging evidence suggests that brain matter aberrations in fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic brain networks and the cerebellum may characterize the pathophysiology o...
Article
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Background: Smartphone technology has enabled the creation of many working memory training (WMT) Apps, with those peer-reviewed described in a recent review. WMT claims to improve working memory, attention deficits, hyperactivity and fluid intelligence, in line with plasticity brain changes. Critics argue that WMT is unable to achieve "far-transfe...
Article
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The problem of poor reproducibility of scientific findings has received much attention over recent years, in a variety of fields including psychology and neuroscience. The problem has been partly attributed to publication bias and unwanted practices such as p‐hacking. Low statistical power in individual studies is also understood to be an important...
Article
Full-text available
Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) usually occurs during adolescence. Patients are often in the normal-weight range at diagnosis; however, they often present with signs of medical complications and severe restraint over eating, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem. We investigated functional circuitry underlying the hedonic response in 28 female a...
Article
While imaging studies have demonstrated volumetric differences in subcortical structures associated with dependence on various abused substances, findings to date have not been wholly consistent. Moreover, most studies have not compared brain morphology across those dependent on different substances of abuse to identify substance-specific and subst...
Article
There is evidence of HIV affecting cognitive functioning across age groups, with adult studies showing related deficits in frontostriatal and hippocampal regional activity. Additionally, delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in HIV-infected youth. Little is known, however, of the neu...
Article
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Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age. Methods Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using t...
Article
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Objective Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) are often in the normal‐weight range at presentation; however, signs of starvation and medical instability are not rare. White matter (WM) microstructural correlates of atypical AN have not yet been investigated, leaving an important gap in our knowledge regarding the neural pathogenesis of thi...
Article
Full-text available
Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) has a high incidence in adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging could improve our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs), however research on adolescents with EDs is limited. To date no neuroimaging studies have been conducted to investigate brain functio...
Article
Objective:: Although lower brain volume has been routinely observed in individuals with substance dependence compared with nondependent control subjects, the brain regions exhibiting lower volume have not been consistent across studies. In addition, it is not clear whether a common set of regions are involved in substance dependence regardless of...
Article
Background: Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) is a global health concern. Previous1H-MRS studies have found that, with methamphetamine abstinence (MAA), there are changes in n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA/Cr), myo-inositol (mI/Cr), choline (Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA), and glutamate with glutamine (Glx) metabolites. Limited studies have investigated the effect of ac...
Article
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Cytokines are a class of pro-inflammatory immune responses in the peripheral and central nervous system. Elevated cytokine levels contribute to appetite and weight dysregulation, anxiety, depression and other psychiatric conditions, and may underlie eating disorder (ED). Recently, two meta-analyses of cytokine levels in people with EDs – particular...
Chapter
Background/Aims: Acute and chronic consumption of nicotine alters brain function at rest. In this chapter, we summarize the effect of nicotine exposure on default mode, executive control, and salience network (DMN, ECN, and SN, respectively) connectivity.Method: We provide a review of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of a...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, may have sustained effects on the integrity and functioning of the brain, alter neurophysiological responsivity later in life, and predispose individuals toward psychiatric conditions involving socioaffective disturbances. This meta-analysis aims to quantify associations between self-reported chi...
Article
Objective: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients....
Article
Full-text available
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using met...
Article
Muscle fatigue is a disturbed homeostatic state characterized by a temporary inability to maintain force output and has lasting effects on the brain in the period immediately after exercise, such as decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission can enhance performance...
Article
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Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The risin...
Article
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Objectives Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). Methods There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 2...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED), and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs) through...
Article
Introduction: A central fatigue theory proposes that force output during fatiguing exercise is limited to maintain homeostasis. The self-awareness of the body's homeostatic state is known as interoception. Brain regions thought to play a role in interoception, such as the insular and orbital frontal cortex, have been proposed as sites for the upst...
Article
Nomenclature for mental disorder was updated in 2013 with the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are framed as more dimensional. First, the distinction between abuse and dependence is replaced by substance use. Second, the addictions section now covers both substances...
Article
Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether chil...
Article
Background: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED. Aim: This i...
Article
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using met...
Article
Full-text available
This paper systematically reviews the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in anorexia nervosa (AN), classifying studies on the basis of different analysis approaches. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Fifteen papers were included, investigating a total of 294 participants with current or pas...
Article
Objective: Brain structure differences and adolescent alcohol dependence both show substantial heritability. However, exactly which genes are responsible for brain volume variation in adolescents with substance abuse disorders are currently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether genetic variants previously implicated in ps...
Article
Full-text available
Background Protracted methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with decreased control over drug craving and altered brain volume in the frontostriatal network. However, the nature of volumetric changes following a course of psychological intervention for MA use is not yet known. Methods 66 males (41 MA patients, 25 healthy controls, HC) between the...
Chapter
While the association of prenatal exposure to and adult consumption of alcohol on the structure and function of the brain has been discussed in previous chapters, here we summarize the link between adolescent alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alterations in brain volume. It is pertinent to consider the effects of alcohol on neural development at the a...
Article
Full-text available
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patter...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a debilitating, sometimes fatal eating disorder (ED) whereby restraint of appetite and emotion is concomitant with an inflexible, attention-to-detail perfectionist cognitive style and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Intriguingly, people with AN are less likely to engage in substance use, whereas those who suffe...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity, and eating behavior will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behavior may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk-allele for the FTO gene affect...
Article
Background Early-life adversity is a risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the impact at the neural level is less clear.AimsTo investigate the association between brain volumes and early-life adversity in individuals with a diagnosis of OCD only.Method The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) was used to assess early-life adversity i...
Article
Full-text available
Brain imaging studies over two decades have delineated the neural circuitry of anxiety and related disorders, particularly regions involved in fear processing and in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The neural circuitry of fear processing involves the amygdala, anterior cingulate and insular cortex, while cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry plays a k...
Article
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Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of...
Article
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p> List of Abstract Titles and authors: 1. Psychosis: A matter of mental effort? M Borg, Y Y van der Zee, J H Hsieh, H Temmingh, D J Stein, F M Howells 2.In search of an affordable, effective post-discharge intervention: A randomised control trial assessing the influence of a telephone-based intervention on readmissions for patients with severe...