Sam Lehman-Wilzig

Sam Lehman-Wilzig
Bar Ilan University | BIU · School of Communication

PhD, Government (Harvard U, 1976)
VIRTUALITY AND HUMANITY: Virtual Practice and Its Evolution from Pre-History to the 21st Century (Jan. 2022; Springer)

About

65
Publications
78,724
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
594
Citations
Introduction
Bar-ilan University: Chair, Political Studies Dep't (2004-07); Chair, School of Comm. (2014-16); Chair, Israeli Poli Sci Assoc. (1997-99). Expertise: New Media; Pol. Comm.; Science, Tech & Society; Jewish Political Tradition. Supervised 61 M.A. theses and 19 PhD dissertations. Published academically: 4 books, 42 articles & 22 chapters. Latest: VIRTUALITY AND HUMANITY: Virtual Practice and Its Evolution from Pre-History to the 21st Century. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789811665257#aboutBook
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - September 2016
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Head of School
October 2011 - present
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • From 1977 until 2011 I taught in the Dep't of Political Studies (Bar-Ilan U), chairing in 2004-2007. The Communications Program was part of that department from 1994-2011, when it became an independent School within Bar-Ilan University.
October 1977 - present
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • B.A., M.A. & PhD courses; also supervising M.A. thesis and PhD dissertation students.
Education
September 1971 - June 1976
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Government

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Media events theory, developed by Katz and Dayan in the 1990s, has become one of the most well-known and cited theories in communications research, well-aligned with television’s central role in social life at the time. However, three decades since, in which events have spilled over to other media spaces thereby reshaping the theory’s underlying co...
Chapter
The cultural origins of political speech are usually analyzed over decades or a few centuries. This chapter—through examples of Zionist/Israeli political speech—illustrates how the cradle of a nation’s culture source, the Hebrew Bible (Torah), can still be highly influential after thousands of years, i.e., Deep Culture. The two main elements consti...
Chapter
This chapter starts by introducing the five historical eras of economic activity (from hunting/gathering to the information age), each analyzed for their degree of (non)virtuality. Then several major economic elements are dealt with individually from the standpoint of virtuality: history of money (gradual virtualization of economic exchange, leadin...
Book
This is a pioneering study of virtuality through human history: ancient-to-modern evolution and recent expansion; expression in many fields (chapters on Religion; Philosophy, Math, Physics; Literature and the Arts; Economics; Nationhood, Government and War; Communication); psychological and social reasons for its universality; inter-relationship wi...
Chapter
This chapter starts with a short etymological history of how the meaning of the root “vir” changed throughout the past 2500 years i.e., what it meant to speak of the “virtual” over time. It then discusses the problematic aspects of defining virtuality in its modern, overly narrow usage (digitality, computers etc.). This is followed by a comprehensi...
Chapter
This chapter starts by briefly mapping the modes and media of communication, each with its specific type and degree of virtuality (mode is the way in which we “express” contents: orally, textually, symbolically, linguistically etc.; media are the technological tools and objects through which we transmit messages). Then the history of human communic...
Chapter
This chapter concludes Part II, viewing the past two centuries from a “holistic” perspective: the huge expansion of media technologies (telegraph through the computer) and how their virtuality modes led to a simultaneous, increase of virtuality in many other fields—each influencing (or being influenced by) the other. In addition, analyses are offer...
Chapter
This chapter surveys four related fields of human intellectual endeavor that have increasingly progressed from a material base to the virtual. Earlier applied math (and geometry; statistics) evolved into abstract and theoretical math (e.g., imaginary numbers), seemingly completely virtual without any real-world applications. Regarding philosophy, t...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the fluid boundary between “virtuality” and “reality” i.e., “virtu(re)ality”—how they have become increasingly difficult to distinguish one from the other, and how we easily move back and forth between them. Several examples of such a nexus are provided: no duality of mind (virtual consciousness) and brain (material organ); m...
Chapter
This chapter starts by describing the origins and functions (existential, social/utilitarian, etc.) of supernatural beliefs and then religion, showing how and why they were and (to a large extent) still are universal—a mostly virtual experience, albeit to a different degree for each type of religion (polytheism, pantheism, monotheism, dualism etc.)...
Chapter
After an initial, brief recap of the neuropsychology of human virtualization, this chapter explores at length six “functional” reasons for human virtualizing i.e., the benefits of this multifaceted, human phenomenon: 1—escape from boredom; 2—efficiency; 3—curiosity; 4—theory of mind (social intelligence); 5—future projection/planning; 6—resolving e...
Chapter
This chapter starts by discussing the increased proclivity in the modern age of future prediction (virtual potentiality) on the part of the “Establishment” (e.g., RAND, Congressional Office of Technology Assessment), along with the development of systematic prediction methodologies: Delphi Technique, simulation, decision tree, social physics and so...
Chapter
This chapter concludes the book by asking several deep questions. First, moving toward the future, should we place limits on virtuality? No definitive answer is offered, but rather food for thought in light of the mutability of values and lifeworld adaptability. Thereafter, several subsidiary questions are raised and elucidated: should a person’s i...
Chapter
This chapter starts with the possible origins of virtual artistic endeavor in the animal kingdom: mimicry, camouflage, etc.—as well as “exaptations” of more functional humanoid developments (toolmaking) through human evolution, roughly paralleling Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Each major art form is analyzed separately regarding its degree and type...
Chapter
This chapter delves into the gradual virtualization of political society (from the pre-historic, extended family to Anderson’s modern “imagined community,” the nation-state), showing how they are based on various virtual “isms” i.e., artificial ideologies (“unity ideas”): ethnos, religion, race, nation, citizenship—in addition to such modern politi...
Chapter
This chapter surveys the multifaceted phenomenon of the brain’s “virtualizing”: why and how this occurs in response to external stimuli (objective, neurological perception) and internal mentalizing (subjective cognition—stimulated as when reading, and sui generis, such as dreaming), and how they interact. Special emphasis is placed on how the brain...
Article
Full-text available
en Theoretical research on political communication between Members of Parliament (MPs) and the public has focused on the role, activities, and perceptions of the MPs themselves without noting the existence of an intermediate layer: Parliamentary Assistants (PAs). This study examines the presence of PAs in the process of MPs' interactions with the p...
Article
Full-text available
Social networks are generally regarded as channels through which parliamentarians establish direct contact with the public. However, do they engage in these activities personally or rather delegate them to their parliamentary assistants? This study examines the intermediary relationship between parliamentarians and the public (henceforth PAs)—seeki...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical research on political communication between MPs and the public has focused on the role, activities, and perceptions of the MPs themselves without noting the existence of an intermediate layer: parliamentary assistants (PAs). This study attempts to investigate how the public perceives, practically and ethically, the (non)involvement of M...
Chapter
Full-text available
At present, there is mainly one intermediate group between parliamentarians and the public on social networks: Parliamentary Assistants (PAs). However, there is a new "intermediary" evolving on social media: chatbots. Through Israeli Knesset PA questionnaires and a public opinion survey we examine the use of chatbots in this parliamentary context –...
Article
In an attempt to demonstrate how historical changes in public opinion concerning women in politics might be reflected in the media, this article offers an examination of Golda Meir’s 1969 election campaign coverage in the Israeli press compared to Tzipi Livni’s in 2009. Through a gender-focused content analysis of 878 news items, we show how, despi...
Book
Full-text available
The underlying question of this collection of essays focuses on the very core of our democratic culture. It asks how one can actively take part in its political, legal, educational, informational, social, cultural and economic mechanisms. Advanced technologies have given rise to a vast array of tools enabling a culture of participation. New forms o...
Article
Full-text available
This is the first interdisciplinary study to empirically test a theoretical model described in 2013 by Bendisch, Larsen, and Trueman, regarding the CEO branding process—by comparing three founder CEO brands in Israel. The findings validate the model and display strongly perceived “authenticity” in each case study, strengthening the reliability of t...
Article
Full-text available
Research on political communication between MPs and the public has focused on the role, activities and perceptions of the members of parliament (MPs) themselves. However, the authors’ prior research demonstrated that in fact social media necessitate a new prism through which to study such communication. The contribution of the present study is to l...
Article
Full-text available
Research on political communication between MPs and the public has focused on the role, activities and perceptions of the members of parliament (MPs) themselves. However, the authors’ prior research demonstrated that in fact social media necessitate a new prism through which to study such communication. The contribution of the present study is to l...
Article
This study argues that distinct differences between two cultures and two political campaigns, may result in different press coverage of women running for leadership positions. To demonstrate this, we undertook a content analysis of Tzipi Livni’s and Hillary Clinton's 2008-2009 campaigns in four Israeli and American, popular and elite newspapers, ex...
Article
Full-text available
הרשתות החברתיות בכלל והפייסבוק בפרט הם אפיקים חדשים ומרכזיים לקשר ישיר של חברי הכנסת עם הציבור. מחקרים רבים בחנו את התוצרים של הפעילות בדפי חברי הכנסת ברשתות החברתיות ואת התפיסות שלהם לגביהן. לעומת זאת, תהליך ייצור הנוכחות של הפוליטיקאים בפייסבוק לא קיבל תשומת לב מחקרית. מטרת מחקר זה היא למלא את החלל התיאורטי, ולהתמקד בתהליך ייצור הנוכחות של הפוליט...
Data
Full-text available
This study tests 71 PR elements and tools regarding publishing success of 373 press releases in light of PR's two major, unidirectional models: "Press Agentry" and "Public Information". 13 PR agencies and 12 subject areas were analyzed. A formula was developed to pinpoint the successful PR elements in 575 published news items emanating from these p...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests 71 PR elements and tools regarding publishing success of 373 press releases in light of PR's two major, unidirectional models: press agentry and public information. Thirteen PR agencies and 12 subject areas were analyzed. A formula was developed to pinpoint the successful PR elements in 575 published news items emanating from these...
Article
Full-text available
For at least the past three decades journalism scholars have focused on two types of news — soft and hard — without reassessing these categories or adding to them. The present article investigates whether such neglect is warranted, through a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with 32 journalists and editors from the three main Israeli dailies: Y...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates the role of the product involvement variable in advertising information processing among Young people in Israel, aged 4-15, in tandem with three other relevant variables: age group, type of argument and character attractiveness. The results indicate that ad effectiveness: is significantly and positively influenced by...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to test whether Petty and Cacioppo's Elaboration Likelihood Model is relevant to young people. An earlier central study on adults was replicated, through 330 in-depth interviews among three age groups (4-7, 8-11, 12-15). The findings: young people do not use either the central or peripheral route for changing attitudes...
Article
Full-text available
The 2006 elections were different from earlier elections in more ways than one. It was an intriguing campaign, full of events and shifts, with a genuine agenda and new heroes. 1 Throughout the campaign—which started with Amir Peretz's victory over Shimon Peres in the Labour party leadership elections—voters watched the media covering the implosion...
Article
Full-text available
Whether, and how, gender affects the news product is one of the most challenging areas in the field of gender and the media. This article analyzes the impact of specific research methodologies on findings regarding gender news influence - based on survey questionnaires and in-depth interviews of female and male editors working in Israeli public rad...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the evolution of the internet, with special emphasis on its impact on older media in their struggle to survive. The analysis is based on a 6-stage, natural life cycle model of new media evolution, comprising birth (technical invention), penetration, growth, maturity, self-defense, and adaptation, convergence or obsolescence. O...
Article
Full-text available
■ The study reported in this article is a survey of 16 female and 25 male editors in seven Israeli newspapers to examine how gender affects professional news selection. It rated the newsworthiness of 16 different general subject areas, 17 journalism selection criteria, and 24 `concrete' headlines as a simulation. Several editors were also interview...
Article
Full-text available
While reporting on Presidential health has increased of late, there has been very little discussion of the professional-ethical issues involved from the perspective of the journalist, especially when such medical information is not disclosed voluntarily and/or the public official is someone other than the President. Within the general issue of pres...
Article
Full-text available
Since the dawn of human history, language differences have served as a barrier to full intercultural and international communication. The recent advent of Synchronous, Automatic Translation Systems (SATS), incorporated into the internet, are but the first sign of a communications revolution as profound as the invention of print. This article briefl...
Article
Full-text available
Sam Lehman-Wilzig is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political Studies at Bar-Ilan University, where he has been teaching since 1977. He is the author of Stiff-Necked People, Bottle-Necked System: The Evolution and Roots of Israeli Public Protest, 1949-1986 (Indiana University Press, 1990). The present article is a synthesis of his soon-to-be-...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzes three related questions: To what extent does TV influence its audience, the newspapers, and the tactics of public pressure groups based on the existence and availability of TV in general? The study is based on a 52‐day national TV strike in Israel in late 1987, with the following aspects investigated: the change in traffic accid...
Article
Teledemocracy, the use of new communications and information technology to widen the scope of the public's political participation, is a hot topic. Over the past few years a number of wide-scale teledemocratic experiments have taken place, for example in New Zealand, the State of Washington, and Hawaii, and the idea is being increasingly discussed...
Article
Whether the answer to the question which forms the title of this article is yes or no, the techno-social phenomena and trends outlined here are inevitable. If cities are not rendered obsolete, they will certainly be different. One way or another, the city of the future will have a radically altered life dynamic - if exists at all.
Article
Full-text available
The Frankenstein myth of creature turning on creator is centuries if not millenia old. But only recently under the impact of the cybernetic revolution has this fantasy entered the realm of the possible. This paper explores the legal ramifications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with specific emphasis on “humanoid” criminality. Following a review of...
Article
Full-text available
The Frankenstein myth of creature turning on creator is centuries if not millenia old. But only recently under the impact of the cybernetic revolution has this fantasy entered the realm of the possible. This paper explores the legal ramifications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with specific emphasis on “humanoid” criminality. Following a review of...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis shows how classic sci-fi authors "predict" the future based on their personal socio-economic ideology, that is clearly manifested in their works.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
The concept of “Moral Panic” (McLuhan, 1964: xxxv) involves a “fabricated” or over-exaggerated threat to society’s moral order. Whereas the concept has received much scholarly attention over the past several decades, a converse phenomenon has been ignored – “Immoral Panic”: media coverage emphasizing society’s fear of a new technology that might have some negative consequences while underplaying/ignoring the realistic promise for far greater positive benefits, including preventing widespread harm. After a literature survey of Moral Panic elements and its evolution (including scholarly critiques) this study offers a detailed definition of Immoral Panic with accompanying complexities for the media, including determining when the phenomenon becomes “immoral”. Immoral Panic examples are offered throughout, along with suggested steps the media can take when faced with societal Immoral Panics. This study’s main purpose is to jumpstart scholarly discourse and analysis from a mass communication perspective, regarding an important, but heretofore un(der)studied phenomenon.