Salvatore Musumeci

Salvatore Musumeci
University of Catania | UNICT · Department of Chemical Sciences

Professor

About

384
Publications
25,715
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5,698
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November 1997 - October 2008
Università degli Studi di Sassari
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (384)
Chapter
YKL-40 association with human disease has been the object of many years of investigation. Increased YKL-40 protein expression is noted in patients with alcoholic liver disease and concurrent chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, posthepatitic cirrhosis, and non-cirrhotic fibrosis had significantly higher serum YKL-...
Chapter
YKL-40 association with human disease has been the object of many years of investigation. Increased YKL-40 protein expression is noted in patients with alcoholic liver disease and concurrent chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, posthepatitic cirrhosis, and non-cirrhotic fibrosis had significantly higher serum YKL-...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Colostrum has been proposed to treat severe dryness and problematic eye lesions showing a beneficial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 2-fucosyl-lactose, a natural sugar present in the human colostrum, in an experimental dry eye. Methods: Dry eye was induced in adult male New Zealand albino rabbits by topical ad...
Article
Switching devices such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET present significant performance improvement in high frequency switching power converter applications. This paper presents a gate charge profile investigation of a Silicon Carbide MOSFET and gate driver circuit solutions to optimize both switching speed, power losses and EMI requirements. Main t...
Article
We assessed whether polymers of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) have any pathogenetic role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). First, by using specific dyes, we found deposits of polymers of GlcNAc in sporadic but not in familial AD. We found that neurons and microglia exposed to GlcNAc and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc are able to form GlcNAc polymers, w...
Article
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Background: YKL-40 association with human disease has been the object of many years of investigation. β-thalassemia patients are affected by hepatic siderosis, which determines a fibrotic process and tissue remodelling. Chitotriosidase has been found to be increased in thalassemic patients returning to normal in patients submitted to bone marrow t...
Conference Paper
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Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 19 September 2014
Article
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Background. Sulfhydryl groups (SH) are considered a key factor in redox sensitive reaction of plasma, and their modification could be considered an expression of abnormal generation of oxygen free radicals. Methods. Fifty consecutive patients with acute brain stroke were enclosed in this study. The plasma concentrations of SH groups were correlate...
Article
Osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass associated with bone micro-architectural deterioration. Often, it is most considered a bone disorder of postmenopausal women. However, younger women can also be affected. There are a lot of genetic and non-genetic risk factors, contributing to the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to...
Article
The separation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease into low- and high-risk subgroups by means of noninvasive testing is highly relevant in the selection of patients who require further diagnostic or therapeutic investigation. We evaluated whether exercise electrocardiographic variables during exercise testing might be a mean...
Article
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Chitinases have an important role in the defense of organisms against chitin-containing parasites. An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been detected in epithelial cells in lung tissue samples taken from patients with asthma as well as in conjunctival epithelium of patients with inflammatory ocular diseases. Particularly, elevated AMCase acti...
Article
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The objective of this work was to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasma colonization in 251 HIV-positive compared to 200 HIV-negative women at the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) service of Saint Camille Medical Center Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). After revealing the cervix with a speculum, we collected swabs of va...
Article
Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is not expressed in mammalian systems, but is found in the structural coatings of fungi, the exoskeleton of many arthropods and parasitic nematodes. The host defense against chitin-containing pathogens includes the production of chitinases. An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is produced...
Chapter
This study was aimed at measuring the degree distribution of the network of sexual contacts in Burkina Faso, in order to gain a better understanding of the sexual risk behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. It was found that the number of different sexual partners reported by males is distributed as a power law, with an exponen...
Article
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The coinfection of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their vertical transmission constitute a public health problem in sub-Saharan countries of Africa. The objectives of this research are: i) identify the pregnant women that are coinfected by HIV and HBV at Saint Camille Medical Centre; ii) use three antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, nevirapine a...
Article
Full-text available
The coinfection of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their vertical transmission constitute a public health problem in sub-Saharan countries of Africa. The objectives of this research are: i) identify the pregnant women that are coinfected by HIV and HBV at Saint Camille Medical Centre; ii) use three antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, nevirapine a...
Article
Background: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of homocysteine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia, frequently associated with cardiovascular disease, congenital defects, pregnancy complications, and cancer, can derive from MTHFR impaired activity, depending on some common mutations such as C677T and A1298C. In this study...
Article
An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) seems to be implicated in allergic asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of AMCase during Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) dry eye diseases. Six patients with MGD dry eye (20-58 years, median 40) and six patients with dry eye assoc...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of known gene polymorphisms associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal normal women from Burkina Faso and Sicily, compared to postmenopausal Sicilian women with osteoporosis, and to establish the weight of environmental factors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Bone mass density (BMD) was me...
Article
In this study, we analysed the expression of chitotriosidase (CHIT1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) genes in human gastric mucosa biopsies to establish the function of the corresponding enzymes in patients with gastritis associated or not with Helicobacter pylori infection. All 27 patients who took part in this study suffered from dyspepti...
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Forty four consecutive subjects aged 29-58 years (21 males and 23 females) with a clinical diagnosis of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia period- ically treated every 30 days with LDL-apheresis for statin resistance, were enrolled in this study. A lipid profile was obtained immediately before starting LDL-apheresis, a second profile was ob...
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Atherosclerosis is a disease that is present in almost all humans, typically beginning in early adolescence. It is a human disease broadly investigated, that is amenable to quantitative analysis. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and their autoantibodies are involved in the development of atherosclerosis in animal models, but their role in h...
Article
Chitin is an insoluble N-acetyl-glucosamine polymer coating fungi cell wall and several human parasites. It is hydrolysed by chitotriosidase (Chit); however, as chitin is absent in humans, the significance of human Chit activity is unknown. The level of plasma Chit activity positively correlates with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis...
Article
Burkina Faso (West Africa) is a tropical country with a high incidence of infectious diseases. The uncontrolled use of antibiotics against bacterial pathogens has given rise to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in this country. The aims of this study were. i) to determine the prevalences of the most important pathogenic bacteria, isolated in t...
Article
Eight Sicilian patients with Hb H disease and their families have been studied. The standard haematological tests and the α/β chain synthesis ratios showed significantly different results in the patients with Hb H disease as compared with α thalassaemia carriers, except for Hb A2 values. There was no significant difference in the mean RBC, MCV, Hb...
Article
The acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is significantly increased in tears of human allergic conjunctivitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of chitinase inhibitors, allosamidin and caffeine versus dexamethasone, in rabbit endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in rabbits by a single intravitreal injection of 100ng/10...
Article
Chitin is abundant in the structural coatings of fungi, insects, and parasitic nematodes. The host defense against chitin-containing pathogens includes production of chitinases. An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is produced in human epithelial cells of lower airways through a TH2-specific, interleukin-13-dependent pathway and appears to be ass...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the S100B concentration in colostrums of 51 Burkinabe and 30 Sicilian women, still living in their countries, and in case of a difference to search for its explanations, considering also ethnic differences. The concentration of S100B, in colostrums of the first three days from the delivery, was assessed with co...
Article
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The establishment of new hygienic conditions plays a role in the appearance of autoimmunity in “westernalised” countries. Consistently, but still unconvincingly, several epidemiological and immunogenetic evidences link the disappearance of malaria with the increase of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Sardinia, insular Italy. To this purpose, we have made...
Article
Objective: Endorphins (EPs) present in human colostrum may be relevant for immediate postnatal fetal adaptation because this compound is involved in stress response and adaptation mechanisms. Endorphin levels in human colostrum are two-fold greater than corresponding maternal plasma levels; however, the high endorphin levels in human milk decrease...
Article
An extensive vaccination program to be used in highly endemic areas is the main strategy against the spreading of hepatitis B. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the immune response to the recombinant HB vaccine administered singly or at the same time as other compulsory vaccines anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus and oral anti-polio. Evide...
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Background: Malnutrition is a public health problem in the entire world, particularly in the developing countries. The effect of Spiruline supplement in the weight recovery of HIV-negative and HIV-infected undernourished children has been largely demonstrated. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Spiruline on the immune status of 46...
Article
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High levels of plasma chitotriosidase are a marker of macrophage activation in several pathologies and, in particular, in human malaria. Plasmodium falciparum, during its maturative cycle in the midgut of the Anopheles mosquito, secretes a chitinase to disrupt the peritrophic membrane, a necessary step in the migration of the parasite from the midg...
Article
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Background: The colostrum of HIV infected mothers contains a high number of HIV copies, which are considered highly infecting, as well as large numbers of macrophafge and other mononuclear cells that may incorporate virus. While prevention protocols in Western countries suggest the interruption of breast feeding, at least for the first few months o...
Article
The present research was aimed to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV; to use RT-PCR in order to detect, 6 months after birth, infected children; and to test the antiretroviral resistance of both children and mothers in order to offer them a suitable therapy. At the Saint Camille Medical Centre, 3,127 pregnant women (aged 15–44 years) accep...
Article
Full-text available
In the Anopheles midgut, Plasmodium falciparum produces a specific chitinase able to penetrate the blood meal surrounding the chitin-containing peritrophic membrane (PM). High levels of an analogous chitinase, chitotriosidase (CHIT), may be found in human blood, being the markers of macrophage activation. To verify the hypothesis that CHIT present...
Article
Several epidemiological investigations conducted in Sardinia, insular Italy, indicate that the strong selective pressure of malaria along the centuries may have concurred to the elevated genetic MS-risk in this region. To test such hypothesis in an experimental setting, we have compared the immune response to P. falciparum (the causative agent of m...
Article
Chitotriosidase (Chit), a member of the mammalian chitinase family, structurally homologous to chitinases from other species, is synthesized and secreted by specifically activated macrophages. After discovery of a striking increase of plasma Chit activity in serum from Gaucher's disease type I patients, an increasing number of inherited and acquire...
Article
Full-text available
Chitin digestion by humans has generally been questioned or denied. Only recently chitinases have been found in several human tissues and their role has been associated with defense against parasite infections and to some allergic conditions. In this pilot study we tested the gastric juices of 25 Italian subjects on the artificial substrates 4-meth...
Article
Full-text available
In Burkina Faso the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are lower and the methionine loading tests suggest a more effective Hcy metabolism. The polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) showed a relevant difference in the allele frequencies of T MTHFR-677 in young and in old subjects, while the allele frequency of C MTHFR-1298 wa...
Conference Paper
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of heart attacks, some strokes, aneurysms, and peripheral artery disease. Arteries are a well organized system: it provides the organs and tissues of the body with the blood needed to extract sufficient amounts of nutrients and oxygen. However, today, we are exposed to high levels of potentially toxic lipids and o...
Article
Activated macrophages are major effectors at all stages of lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. Here, we report that the macrophage enzyme chitotriosidase (Chit) is significantly elevated both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS as compared to healthy controls and other neurological patients (P<0.001). Furtherm...
Article
Non-B HIV subtypes have been estimated to account for 88% of HIV infections in the world. These subtypes are particularly relevant in view of the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, since subtype-specific mutations are associated with drug-resistance in developing countries. Therefore, the pol gene sequences in HIV-1 isolates were examined...
Article
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits of immigrant children who come to Italy from developing countries, and of their families. Methods. A multicentre cross-sectional study was carried out from Jan. 1st 2003 to Dec. 31st 2004. The study population comprised 1284 immigrant mothers, 629 infants, and 767 children with...
Article
Full-text available
The human genome has been subjected to selective pressures to resist to infectious agents in spite of a heavy segregational load. With this regard, thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency have been considered an efficient genetic protection against P. falciparum malaria in Sardinia, insular Italy. In this island, some multiple...
Article
Full-text available
High levels of plasma chitotriosidase (Chit) represents a marker of macrophage activation in human malaria infection. Plasmodium falciparum during its maturation cycle in the Anopheles midgut produces an analogue of Chit for the digestion of peritrophic matrix (PM). Our results confirm the hypothesis that Chit contained in blood of malaria patients...
Article
Human milk contains a large number of compounds to provide nutrition and defense for the newborn. Among these, oligosaccharides are present in concentrations up to 12 g/L, and their composition varies during lactation. Colostrum from 53 Burkinabe women were collected at the maternity department of St Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou (Burkina F...
Article
Fish-odor syndrome or trimethylaminuria (OMIM #602079), is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, involving the dysfunction of hepatic enzyme Xavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) that converts Wshy-smelling trimethylamine (TMA) into odorless trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). This confers, to the aVected indiv...
Article
Full-text available
The 1,2-fucosyl-oligosaccharides, and among these the 2'-fucosyl-lactose (2'-FL) and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP)-I, are quantitatively the most represented oligosaccharides of human milk. They are also seen to represent an important immune device to prevent nursing infants from severe infectious diarrhoea. Recent evidences show that the appearance...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colost...
Article
Two thirds of the people who have been infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world live in Sub-Saharan African countries. The results of a study measuring the degree distribution of the network of sexual contacts in Burkina Faso are described. Such a network is responsible for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and in part...
Article
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infections can cause serious complications in HIV-infected pregnant women, leading to miscarriage, stillbirth, birth defects (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, epilepsy etc.) and could favor or enhance the mother-to-child transmission of HCV, HBV, and HIV vertical transmission. From May 20, 2004 to August 3, 2005, 3...
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Biological aging implies a progressive decrease of endocrine and metabolic resources, which correspond to a reduction of working activity and caloric intake. The aim of this study was to measure DHEA-S and IGF-1 and products of methionine metabolism in 76 postmenopausal African women (50 to 100 years of age) compared to 22 adult African fertile wom...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infections can cause serious complications in HIV-infected pregnant women, leading to miscarriage, stillbirth, birth defects (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, epilepsy etc.) and could favor or enhance the mother-to-child transmission of HCV, HBV, and HIV vertical transmission. From May 20, 2004 to August 3, 2005, 3...
Article
One thousand three hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women with less than 32 weeks of amenorrhea received voluntary counseling and testing at Saint Camille Medical Center from May 1, 2002 to December 30, 2004. Following informed consent and pre-test counseling, HIV screening was performed in 1,202 women. According to the prevention protocol, HIV-po...
Article
Full-text available
Malnutrition constitutes a public health problem throughout the world and particularly in developing countries. The objective of the study is to assess the impact of an elementary integrator composed of Spiruline (Spirulina platensis) and Misola (millet, soja, peanut) produced at the Centre Medical St Camille (CMSC) of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on...
Article
Full-text available
There are differences in the allele frequency of MTHFR polymorphism between Western and African population. The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in young and old people living in different areas from Mediterranean to sub-Saharan areas. The observed vs expected genotype frequencies of 677T we...