Salman Nazir

Salman Nazir
University of South-Eastern Norway | USN · Department of Maritime Operations

BSc, MS, PhD

About

120
Publications
40,174
Reads
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1,282
Citations
Citations since 2016
79 Research Items
1082 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
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Introduction
Salman Nazir is an Associate Professor and Researcher at Norway’s second largest higher education institution: University of South-Eastern Norway (USN), where he works as the Head of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG) within the Department of Maritime operations. He holds a Master degree in Chemical Engineering from Hanyang University, South Korea and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering (major in System Engineering and Human Factors) from Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI), Italy, where he was awarded with the Cum Laude honor upon receiving his title Doctor of Philosophy in 2014. Salman has won several national and international grants from research-leading agencies.
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - present
University of South-Eastern Norway
Position
  • Professor
September 2015 - November 2019
University of South-Eastern Norway
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2015 - present
Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG)
Position
  • Head
Description
  • http://targlab.com/
Education
January 2011 - March 2014
Politecnico di Milano
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
February 2007 - February 2009
Hanyang University
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
January 2002 - September 2006
Bahauddin Zakariya University
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
The education and training for the maritime industry require renewed focus in the face of technological changes and increasing digitalization. Artificial intelligence presents an avenue for further research that can positively impact efficiency and competence development. Among many applications of artificial intelligence in education, conversation...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous ships would require higher cyber-physical interaction in comparison with traditional shipping operations, thus increasing the vulnerabilities associated with cyber security. The increasing complexity surrounding the innate characteristics of the shipping industry makes it challenging to build a resilient framework for ensuring cyber secu...
Article
Full-text available
Safety-critical industries have long been subjected to extensive research and development to enhance operator performance to improve their efficiency. From a human factors perspective, much of the work in process industries is related to either enhancing technical training of operators or related to improving the physical ergonomics of hazardous wo...
Chapter
Adequacy of Organisation (AOO) is a critical contributor in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). In this paper, the human, organisational and technological Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) and sub-PIFs affecting AOO are identified. A novel hierarchical process is developed, in which PIFs and sub-PIFs are categorised horizontally according to the...
Conference Paper
Virtual Reality (VR) refers to a visual experience that creates a fully immersive sensation surrounded by three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images of a virtually artificial or pre-recorded environment. Differing new aspects of VR usage in different domains (e.g., aviation, healthcare, military, education etc.) have sprung up in the past few decad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Having empathy and being able to empathize refer to the ability to understand, view or feel the experiences and perspectives of others. In a work context, the ability of different actors to empathize with others can have positive effects in the design, organization and operations of complex systems. This article explores the value of empathy within...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, virtual reality (VR) has re-emerged as a popular technology trend. This is mainly due to the recent investments from technology companies that are improving VR systems while increasing consumer access and interest. Amongst many applications of VR, one area that is particularly promising is for pedagogy. The immersive, experien...
Article
Full-text available
Developing countries, despite being the major suppliers of maritime manpower, lag in their future-proof competence development. This study explores whether the current maritime education and training (MET) practices for marine engineering education in a developing nation are perceived as sufficient by the early-stage marine engineers. The current c...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime Education and Training (MET) is an integral part of the global maritime industry, playing an essential role in ensuring that the sector is supplied continuously with a skilled workforce. The successful outcomes of the educational content delivery in MET institutes depend, to a certain extent, on the maritime instructor’s ability to create...
Chapter
Due to steady advancement and implementation of digitalization and automation technology, autonomous operations are slowly pervading all transportation sectors. In maritime sector, the industry and regulatory bodies are in active debate regarding the implementation mechanism, the operational, regulatory and safety aspects of such changes. The intro...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to the maritime supply chain and called for accelerated adoption of digital technologies in various aspects of maritime operations, including the area of Maritime Education and Training (MET). This paper aims to discuss the current maritime simulator-based training and educational practices...
Chapter
This paper presents a comparative study of training of non-technical skills in the maritime and lignite power domains. Non-technical skills (NTS) are the cognitive, social and personal resource skills that complement technical skills in operations within high-risk domains. Training NTS is essential to maintain safety in operational contexts, such a...
Chapter
In this study, a unique approach has been presented for performing correlation between the signals of two neuroimaging modalities for motor imagery data. By correlating the signals, we investigate the time sequence relationship between the haemodynamic response and electrophysiological activity during the performance of mental arithmetic vs resting...
Book
This book addresses the importance of human factors in optimizing the learning and training process. It reports on the latest research and best practices relating to the application of behavioral and cognitive science, and new technologies in the design of instructional and training content. It proposes innovative strategies for improving the learn...
Book
This book analyzes new theories and practical approaches for promoting excellence in human resource management and leadership. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development and social renewal. In particular, it presents novel methods and tools for tackling the complexit...
Article
Virtual Reality Head Mounted Displays (VR HMDs) offer highly immersive experiences that may alter users’ awareness and perception of the “real-world”. This paper investigates users’ perception of short duration (<5 minutes) time periods during simulated scenarios between two different simulation mediums. Fifty participants (Age: M=29.2 years; SD=10...
Chapter
The use of complex simulators is an essential part of Maritime Education and Training. Increasing digitalization provides new opportunities for developing simulator-based teaching. As future maritime operations require increasingly specialized and broad competencies, the maritime education community must adapt and provide effective, efficient educa...
Chapter
Managing modern merchant vessels is quite challenging task for shipboard personnel, as well as for shore-based managers in shipping companies. The risks are more so accentuated in terms of vessels that carry dangerous and volatile cargoes, such as tanker vessels. Modern industrial disasters have demonstrated that organizations have a considerable r...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive workload is one of the widely invoked human factors in the areas of human–machine interaction (HMI) and neuroergonomics. The precise assessment of cognitive and mental workload (MWL) is vital and requires accurate neuroimaging to monitor and evaluate the cognitive states of the brain. In this study, we have decoded four classes of MWL usi...
Chapter
The main concerns of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes include creating, managing, retaining and transferring knowledge within organization. Firms are often organized on global basis and more often involved in joint ventures, increased frequency of acquisitions, mergers and strategic alliances. The demographics continue to change...
Chapter
Electrocardiogram (ECG) estimates the electric signals activity of the human heart and is extensively used for sensing heart aberrations due to ease of use and non-invasive application on human body. Human heart is a one of the vital organs of human body. In an industrial environment, heart impairments and abnormalities are attributed to the differ...
Chapter
Organizational learning and knowledge management are well studied areas and have roots back in 18th century. In order to take advantage of differences in expertise and globalization of large enterprises, there must be a proper mechanism for managing, transferring and creating knowledge. It has examined that knowledge creation is a source of worldwi...
Article
Full-text available
The subject bias in the assessment of maritime simulator training in education is unnerving. Researchers repeatedly point to the need for enunciated assessment criteria for human assessors to achieve more reliable performance evaluations. Moreover, the integration of inter-subjective opinions on how assessment tools are both developed and weighted...
Book
This book addresses the importance of human factors in optimizing the learning and training process. It reports on the latest research and best practices, and discusses key principles of behavioral and cognitive science, which are extremely relevant to the design of instructional content and new technologies to support mobile and multimedia learnin...
Book
This book analyzes new theories and practical approaches for promoting excellence in human resource management and leadership. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development and social renewal. In particular, it presents novel methods and tools for tackling the complexit...
Chapter
The increasing levels of automation have redefined the nature of human-machine interactions in the process industry. The changing nature of work demands that Control-Room Operators and Field Operators are competent with the use of new and emerging methods and technologies in order to perform their tasks safely and effectively. A critical aspect of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maritime subsea operations have increased significantly in size and complexity during the last decades as a result of the advances in the offshore oil industry. Despite the fact that subsea operations can involve hundreds of personnel, working together with complex technology, limited research can be found regarding the operations in the available...
Article
Full-text available
The use of simulators in maritime education and training is an essential component for developing seafarer competencies. Emerging immersive technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) have created new and differing possibilities for maritime simulations and simulators. The increasing advancements and te...
Article
Working at sea places individuals in an inherently dangerous environment for extended periods, exposing them to unique risks not found in land-based industries. Safety-critical socio-technical systems demand an inherent organizational safety culture for reliable and safe operations. Safety climate acts as a mediating factor between the broader orga...
Article
Modern virtual reality technologies increase the immersive experience for users. Increased immersivity may affect how users perceive, internalize, and thus, recall information about the virtual environment and experience compared to traditional mediums, such as desktop simulations. One critical aspect of recalling information is incidental memory,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increased automation and digitalization in maritime industry has gradually changed the operational environment of ships and the competences required for seafarers. In the era of autonomy, these developments may dramatically restructure the work processes and require new competences to be acquired by the personnel involved in ship operations. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As simulation and computing technologies advance, new pedagogic opportunities are enabled which can add value to student learning outcomes. This study examines simulator training in maritime education comparing the emerging state-of-the-art technology of Immersive Head Mounted Display (HMD) Virtual Reality (VR) and Non-immersive 3D Desktop Virtual...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime education and training (MET) has a long tradition of using simulator training to develop competent seafarers and relevant seafaring skills. In a safety critical domain like maritime industry, simulators provide opportunities to acquire technical, procedural and operational skills without the risks and expense associated with on‐the‐job tra...
Article
Full-text available
Given the factors such as safety, profitability, and environmental concerns at stake, operator training is an everlasting and vital process in the process industry. An inevitable need for skilled operators in the chemical industry leads to search for novel and effective training methodologies. Consequently, dynamic simulation techniques have been c...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the human element within complex socio-technical systems is continually being transformed and redefined by technological advancement. Autonomous operations across varying transport domains are in differing stages of realization and practical implementation, and specifically within maritime operations, is still in its infancy. This study...
Article
Maritime shipping transports about 90% of the international trade and is considered a high-risk industry. Among all daily operations carried out by merchant ships, navigation is deemed the most critical. With the ever-increasing dimensions of ocean-going ships and the threat possessed by dangerous cargoes in the event of an accident to individual l...
Article
Hazards associated with chemical processes can lead to accidents and require therefore proper management. An inherent safety strategy is a proactive approach to serve this purpose, one capable of minimizing hazards whilst offering sustainable process design. Current inherent safety techniques are limited to comparing process routes and selecting sa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
e-Learning is an increasingly popular solution for disseminating professional education and training in order to maintain and develop employee competencies. This paper investigates areas for improvement in an offshore oil and gas company’s current e-Learning platform. An online questionnaire addressing five dimensions of users’ e-Learning experienc...
Article
Modelling the interdependencies among the factors influencing human error (e.g. the common performance conditions (CPCs) in Cognitive Reliability Error Analysis Method (CREAM)) stimulates the use of Bayesian Networks (BNs) in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). However, subjective probability elicitation for a BN is often a daunting and complex task....
Chapter
Maritime domain is one of the most high-risk industry and it predominantly employs simulator training as a means to train the prospective operators. Maritime instructors need to train students who will become future sharp end operators and interact in highly safety critical environment. One of the goals of maritime education is therefore to create...
Book
https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319938813 This book focuses on the importance of human factors in optimizing the learning and training process. It reports on the latest research and best practices and discusses key principles of behavioral and cognitive science, which are extremely relevant to the design of instructional content and new techno...
Chapter
As the sophistication and feasibility of implementing highly automated and autonomous technologies increases, the way in which the human element interacts and contributes to achieve a system’s goals continues to transform. The role of the human, including their required training, competencies and work tasks within complex socio-technical systems is...
Chapter
The use of computer-generated simulations have been standard practice in a wide range of tertiary and vocational education and training applications for decades. The growing ubiquity, relative affordability, increasing computing power and functionality of Virtual Reality headsets are creating new opportunities for personalized, immersive simulation...
Book
This book presents practical approaches for facilitating the achievement of excellence in the management and leadership of organizational resources. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development, and social renewal. In particular, it presents novel methods and tools for...
Conference Paper
Increasingly, Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) and Virtual Worlds are being utilized for development of key competencies and 21 st century skills in education. This paper is aimed at proposing a conceptual framework for the virtual world known as Second Life for potential application in Maritime Education & Training (MET). The need for devel...
Article
Simulator-based training has witnessed considerable attention in recent years for the training of operators in the maritime domain and is employed by majority of nautical training institutes. IMO has published the model course 6.10 Train the simulator trainer and assessor which acts as a guideline and aims to promote uniformity in the simulator-bas...
Article
Maritime pilotage operations are required for many vessels in their early and final parts of their voyages. The pilotage operations are meant to increase safety and efficiency for sailing in challenging areas which local maritime pilots have expert knowledge of. Regardless, several accidents involving pilotage operations have occurred (e.g. Federal...
Article
The maritime industry is considered the backbone of the global economy, enabling efficient transport of goods with a commercial value of about $829 Billion USD through a network of over 90,000 ships, and employing approximately 1.6 million people worldwide. Maritime navigation is a complex and dynamic operational process. On a vessel, demands are p...
Conference Paper
Simulator training has seen its growth and effectiveness since last two decades across all socio-technical complex systems including maritime. The adaption of simulator training in Maritime Education and Training has been well embraced in the education programs, as they provide enhanced learning, as well as possibilities of simulating abnormalities...
Article
Full-text available
Pilotage operations require close interaction between human and machines. This complex sociotechnical system is necessary to safely and efficiently maneuver a vessel in constrained waters. A sociotechnical system consists of interdependent human- and technical variables that continuously must work together to be successful. This complexity is prone...
Article
The maritime industry is considered to be a backbone of the global economy. It is therefore imperative to ensure that maritime operations run safely and efficiently. Assessment of maritime performance is necessary for designers and engineers to be able to pinpoint the weakest links in the system and make impactful system improvements. The current a...
Article
Full-text available
As a key measure for safety and environmental protection during offshore well operations, drill rigs are equipped with Emergency Quick Disconnect (EQD) systems. However, an EQD operation is in itself considered a risky operation with a major economic impact. For this reason, it is of great importance to aid the operators in their assessment of the...
Article
Training simulators are largely deployed to provide operators working within complex systems to instil adequate skills to handle normal and abnormal situations. Improved technology and higher computation power have significantly increased the use of training simulators in the training programs. The goal of this pilot study is to determine the desig...
Book
This book reports on practical approaches for facilitating the process of achieving excellence in the management and leadership of organizational resources. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development, and social renewal. In particular, the book presents novel methods...
Conference Paper
Motigravity is a new immersive instrument developed by Mars Planet where one or more persons interact with a virtual environment using a visual and biomechanical system. The applications of this system are various; here, applications in space operations simulation and rehabilitation medicine, in particular, are presented. This paper aims to bring t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pilotage is considered as the most critical leg of navigation and a complex operation in maritime domain. In this paper, we argue that Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) is an important construct in pilotage as the information required to carry out operations is distributed between agents and artefacts. We identify the central themes from the th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the outcome of a pre-project that resulted in an initial version (prototype) of an automated assessment algorithm for a specific maritime operation. The prototype is based on identified control requirements that human operators must meet to conduct safe navigation. Current assessment methods of navigation in simulators involve s...
Chapter
A Virtual reality (VR) has many applications; the main ones are related to safety and performance, entertainment, and education. To increase safety and performance, VR may use, for example, simulation for training purposes or for improving the performance of the operator; in entertainment, it can be used to experience for fun new realities that are...
Chapter
While female participation in work places has increased over the last decades, women only make up 1–2 % of the 1.25 million seafarers worldwide. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labor Organizations are making a concerted effort to promote women into the maritime industry. Still, there are barriers in the maritime...
Book
This book reports on practical approaches for facilitating the process of achieving excellence in the management and leadership of organizational resources. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development, and social renewal. In particular, the book presents novel methods...
Research
Abstract: Simulation technology–incorporated with high-fidelity machinery and immersive environment–has been widely utilized in training programs to systematically develop, refine and enhance industrial operators ́ professional skills and knowledge. The effectiveness of simulators for skill acquisition are subject to adequate and scientific curricu...
Article
Full-text available
p>Operadores humanos responden a alarmas en condiciones normales y también en situaciones inesperadas y anormales en tiempo real. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en aumentar el conocimiento de las reacciones humanas a alarmas en el ámbito laboral. Describe como los humanos pueden contribuir a accidentes y presta atención a la seguridad del pro...