Sally Rogers

Sally Rogers
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine

About

343
Publications
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Publications

Publications (343)
Article
Full-text available
Background This implementation feasibility study was conducted to determine whether an evidence-based parent-implemented distance-learning intervention model for young children at high likelihood of having ASD could be implemented at fidelity by Part C community providers and by parents in low-resource communities. Methods The study used a communi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Intellectual disability affects approximately one third of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (autism). Yet, a major unresolved neurobiological question is what differentiates autistic individuals with and without intellectual disability. Intelligence quotients (IQs) are highly variable during childhood. We previously identified t...
Article
Many children on the autism spectrum are capable of learning large amounts of material in specific areas - yet, they often show learning delays across multiple domains. Additionally, they typically show the ability and motivation to learn from practice and from the outcomes of their own actions while having difficulties learning from novel situatio...
Article
Altered amygdala development is implicated in the neurobiology of autism, but little is known about the coordinated development of the brain regions directly connected with the amygdala. Here we investigated the volumetric development of an amygdala-connected network, defined as the set of brain regions with monosynaptic connections with the amygda...
Article
The structure of large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks is atypical in adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autism). However, the degree to which alterations occur in younger children, and whether these differences vary by sex, is unknown. We utilized structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a sex- and age-...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has starkly increased, instigating research into risk factors for ASD. This research has identified immune risk factors for ASD, along with evidence of immune dysfunction and excess inflammation frequently experienced by autistic individuals. Increased innate inflammatory cytokines, including interle...
Article
Full-text available
Background The amygdala is widely implicated in both anxiety and autism spectrum disorder. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between co-occurring anxiety and longitudinal amygdala development in autism. Here, the authors characterize amygdala development across childhood in autistic children with and without traditional DSM for...
Article
An individual's autism symptom severity level can change across childhood. The prevalence and direction of change, however, are still not well understood. Nor are the characteristics of children that experience change. Symptom severity trajectories were evaluated from early to middle childhood (approximately ages 3-11) for 182 autistic children. Sy...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and stereotypical behaviors. Immune dysfunction is a common co-morbidity seen in ASD, with innate immune activation seen both in the brain and periphery. We previously identified significant differences in peripheral m...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized feasibility trial of a parent coaching (PC) intervention was conducted across 16 community agencies in a Canadian province. Parents of toddlers with suspected autism were assigned to either a PC group (n = 24) or an enhanced community treatment (ECT) group (n = 25). PC participants received 24 weeks of coaching support from community s...
Article
Full-text available
As the rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increase and early screening efforts intensify, more toddlers with high likelihood of ASD are entering the United States' (US') publicly funded early intervention system. Early intervention service delivery for toddlers with ASD varies greatly based on state resources and regulations. Research recommen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Intellectual disability affects approximately one third of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (autism), yet a major unresolved question remains concerning the neurobiology that differentiates autistic individuals with and without intellectual disability. IQ is highly variable during childhood. We previously identified subgroups o...
Article
Lay abstract: Many families seeking early evaluations for autism spectrum disorder face long waitlists, must often travel to centers with appropriate expertise, and are frequently told by providers to "wait and see." This results in significant stress for families and delayed supports to infants and their caregivers who could benefit. This study e...
Article
We examined the relationship between the Early start Denver model (ESDM) intervention and mu rhythm attenuation, an EEG paradigm reflecting neural processes associated with action perception and social information processing. Children were assigned to either receive comprehensive ESDM intervention for two years, or were encouraged to pursue resourc...
Article
Lay abstract: This is a study of the secondary effects of interventions for young children with autism on their parents. Specifically, we were interested in the impact on parent's sense of efficacy, or how confident and competent a parent feels about themselves as a parent. We tested three ideas: (1) that the style of the intervention, whether it...
Article
The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) was designed to measure expressive communication progress in young children. We evaluated using the 6-min ECI procedure for a new purpose-a sampling context for stable measures of vocal development of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We evaluated how many ECI sessions were required to adequ...
Chapter
The most effective treatments for child and adolescent psychopathology are often family-based, emphasising the active involvement of family members beyond the referred individual. This book details the clinical skills, knowledge, and attitudes that form the core competencies for the delivery of evidence-based family interventions for a range of men...
Article
Full-text available
Autism symptom severity change was evaluated during early childhood in 125 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children were assessed at approximately 3 and 6 years of age for autism symptom severity, IQ and adaptive functioning. Each child was assigned a change score, representing the difference between ADOS Calibrated Severity...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: This implementation feasibility study was conducted to determine whether an evidence-based parent -implemented distance-learning intervention model for young children at high likelihood of having ASD could be implemented at fidelity by Part C community providers and by parents in low resource communities. Methods: The study used a commu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cerebral overgrowth is frequently reported in children but not adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This suggests that early cerebral over-growth is followed by normalization of cerebral volumes. However, this notion is predicated upon cross-sectional research that is vulnerable to sampling bias. For example, autistic individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep problems are prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities and are associated with the expression of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). Children (n = 57) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 38) or developmental delay (DD, n = 19) participated in multiple assessments of intellectual ability, ASD symptoms, and RRBs (3...
Article
Background Cross-sectional diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that young autistic children have alterations in white matter structure that differ from older autistic individuals. However, it is unclear whether these differences result from atypical neurodevelopment or sampling differences between young and older cohorts....
Article
Full-text available
This study tested whether the effect of treatment intensity or treatment style on children's frequency and maturity of spontaneous communication varied by initial severity of disability. Eighty‐seven toddlers with autism spectrum disorders were randomly assigned to either (a) 15 hrs per week of discrete trial teaching (DTT), (b) 25 hrs per week of...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: About one-third of children with autism spectrum disorder never develop the language that they need in different day-to-day situations. Identifying potential factors that can predict later language development is crucial to understanding why some children with autism spectrum disorder successfully develop language while others do not...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological and animal research shows that maternal immune activation increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal immune conditions may play a role in the phenotypic expression of neurodevelopmental difficulties in children with ASD and this may be moderated by offspring sex. This...
Article
Full-text available
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We evaluated the frequency and severity of GI symptoms in preschool‐aged children with ASD compared to participants with typical development (TD). Our goal was to ascertain whether GI symptoms are associated with differences in sex or development...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This randomized, multisite, intent-to-treat study tested the effects of two levels of treatment intensity (number of hours) and two treatment styles on progress of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We predicted that initial severity of developmental delay or autism symptoms would moderate the effects of intensity and sty...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examined the effects of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for young children with autism on developmental outcome measures. The 12 included studies reported results from 640 children with autism across 44 unique effect sizes. The aggregated effect size, calculated using a robust variance estimation meta-analysis, was 0.357 (p =...
Article
Purpose This study was designed to test the incremental validity of more expensive vocal development variables relative to less expensive variables for predicting later expressive language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We devote particular attention to the added value of coding the quality of vocalizations over the quantity of vo...
Article
Longitudinal growth modeling was utilized to examine adaptive behavior over eight years across the three time points (i.e., ages 2−10). Seventy-six parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales interviews of adaptive behavior. Child participants completed standardized developmental testing and an executive function task in toddlerhood and...
Article
Objective: 1) To identify a subset of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring symptoms of psychopathology. 2) To evaluate associations between this subgroup and biological sex and amygdala volume. Method: Participants included 420 children (ASD: 91 girls, 209 boys; typically developing controls: 57 girls, 63 boys). Latent p...
Article
Full-text available
To identify valid measures of vocal development in young children with autism spectrum disorder in the early stages of language learning, we evaluated the convergent validity, divergent validity, and sensitivity to change (across 12 months) of two measures of vocal communication and two measures of vocal complexity through conventional coding of co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are widely theorized to result from altered brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has been a versatile method for investigating underlying microstructural properties of white matter (WM) in ASD. Despite phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity, DWI st...
Article
Families with early concerns about infant symptoms of ASD have limited access to experienced professionals for screening and guidance. Telehealth has been used to reduce access disparities in other pediatric populations and has shown promise in parent-implemented interventions for ASD. We investigated the feasibility of a novel level-2 telehealth a...
Article
Objective: This single-blind, randomized, multisite, intent-to-treat study was designed to replicate and extend Dawson et al.'s (Pediatrics. 2010;125: e17-e23) randomized controlled trial testing the effects of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), an intensive play- and routines-based intervention delivered in natural settings. Method: A randomi...
Article
Background: Multifactorial liability models predict greater dissimilarity in the neural phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in female individuals than in male individuals, while gender incoherence and extreme male brain models predict attenuated sex differences in ASD. The amygdala is an informative target to explore these models because i...
Article
Objective: We examined growth trajectories of hippocampal volume (HV) in early childhood in a longitudinal cohort of male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical development (TD), and investigated HV in those with large brains. Relations between factors potentially associated with hippocampal size and growth were in...
Conference Paper
This study examined the extent to which receptive language level measured at the mid-point of a 12-month longitudinal design partly explained (i.e., mediated) the association from early social motivation to expressive language level at the end-point of the study. Seventy children with ASD between 15 and 30 months from a larger longitudinal randomiz...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by impairments in social communication and repetitive behaviors, often includes altered responses to sensory inputs as part of its phenotype. The neurobiological basis for altered sensory processing is not well understood. The UC Davis Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute Auti...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term low intensity parent implemented intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have found it difficult to demonstrate significantly improved developmental scores or autism severity compared to community treatment. We conducted a randomized comparative intent-to-treat study of a parent implemented intervention to (...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a measurement approach to assess the learning opportunities provided by parents to their young children with autism spectrum disorder during a free play task and to examine the relationship between learning opportunities and child performance on measures of cognition, autism spectrum disorder symptoms, and langu...
Article
The number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is on the rise. Evidence-based early intervention is one of the keys to improve outcomes. This article briefly presents the history of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI) and uses the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) as an exemplary NDBI to illustrate the cur...
Article
In typical development, gestures precede and predict language development. This study examines the developmental sequence of expressive communication and relations between specific gestural and language milestones in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who demonstrate marked difficulty with gesture production and language. Communication s...
Article
A major topic of debate is whether children with autism spectrum disorder should be educated in inclusive or specialized settings. We examined the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of delivering the Group-Early Start Denver Model to children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive versus specialized classrooms. We randomly assigned 44 pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We previously showed, in two separate cohorts, that high-risk infants who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder had abnormally high extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume from age 6-24 months. The presence of increased extra-axial CSF volume preceded the onset of behavioural symptoms of autism and was predictive of a...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding another’s actions, including what they are doing and why they are doing it, can be difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This understanding is supported by the action observation (AON) and mentalizing (MZN) networks, as well as the superior temporal sulcus. We examined these areas in children with ASD and typi...
Article
Lay summary: The development of early screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China has highlighted the importance of early intervention for young children with ASD. Our current study demonstrated that parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) via coaching from professionals improved developmental outcomes, especial...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about outcomes of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder reared in bilingual homes. There are concerns that social communication deficits among children with autism spectrum disorder may reduce the developmental benefits of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder raised in bilingual envir...
Chapter
In this chapter, we will address some of the questions that, based on our experience, are likely to be relevant to many readers. These include, among others, the characteristics of children who are more likely to benefit from the G-ESDM, the appropriateness of G-ESDM for children with diagnoses other than autism, the scientific evidence supporting...
Chapter
While teaching in G-ESDM takes place in a group context, learning objectives are individualized. This chapter describes specific procedures to develop treatment goals based on each child’s individual profile of strengths and weakness and ongoing monitoring of treatment response. The intervention plan and curriculum for each young child with autism...
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide guidelines on how to readjust the program when children do not show the expected progresses in one or more developmental areas. This involves the use of decision-making trees specifically designed for addressing the areas where gains are slow and procedures to involve specialists from different disciplines to overcome di...
Chapter
The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an evidence-based intervention approach that incorporates knowledge from developmental science, behavior analysis, and social-affective neuroscience to support learning and development in young children with autism. This chapter describes an approach for delivering ESDM in a group day care setting—the Group-ba...
Chapter
In this chapter we examine the treatment strategies used in the G-ESDM to facilitate learning. These encompass evidence-based techniques based on applied behavioral analysis and developmentally-based strategies to support the child’s ability and motivation to learn during group routines and play activities. The G-ESDM fidelity tool can be used to f...
Chapter
Typically developing children are well equipped to learn from their social environment from infancy. Early learning is supported by attentional preferences for novel events, others’ goal directed actions and communication cues, as well as early maturing abilities to share attention with their social partners, imitating them, understanding their act...
Article
Lay summary: We examined how the IQs of children with autism spectrum disorder change between ages 2 and 8, and identified four patterns. Two groups exhibited persistently lower IQs. One group showed IQ increases of greater than 30 points with improved communicate abilities and declining disruptive behaviors. The final group had IQs in the average...
Chapter
The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a comprehensive approach for young children with autism spectrum disorder 12–60 months of age that focuses particular attention on social communication and social learning in everyday routines as the primary learning vehicle for young children. ESDM principles and practices were derived from decades of researc...
Article
Objective To determine the effect of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for treatment of young children with autism on healthcare service use and costs. Method We use data from a randomized trial that tested the efficacy of the ESDM, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and...
Article
Full-text available
Linguistic and cognitive abilities manifest huge heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some children present with commensurate language and cognitive abilities, while others show more variable patterns of development. Using spontaneous language samples, we investigate the presence and extent of grammatical language impairme...
Article
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The bo...
Article
A consensus has emerged that despite common core features, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has multiple etiologies and various genetic and biological characteristics. The fact that there are likely to be subtypes of ASD has complicated attempts to develop effective therapies. The UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project is a longitudinal, mult...
Chapter
In this chapter we will discuss the role of peers in the G-ESDM, with a focus on the educational opportunities provided by interactions with typical children and the principles, strategies and procedures used in the G-ESDM to facilitate social participation and social learning in inclusive settings. Successful implementation of the G-ESDM in inclus...