Sally Haw

Sally Haw
University of Stirling · School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health

About

131
Publications
14,657
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4,983
Citations
Citations since 2017
30 Research Items
2178 Citations
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Introduction
Sally Haw is Professor of Public & Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences & Sport, University of Stirling. Her research interests cover a range of public health issues, research design and novel methods to evaluate health policies and complex interventions. Current projects include two inter-disciplinary studies Right to Health in Prison in Brazil and Reducing Traffic-related Trauma in Malawi; a study of Young people’s perceptions of standardised tobacco packaging and e-cigarettes; and Social and Emotional Education and Development (SEED) in primary schools, a cluster RCT. Just completed is a 5-year evaluation of legislation to prohibit tobacco promotions at point-of-sale (The DISPLAY Study) and a study of longitudinal trends in smoking and e-cigarette use in the EU.

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
Purpose: Prisoners have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population. Knowledge and risk perception of CVD can influence engagement in preventative behaviours that lower an individual's CVD risk. This paper aims to explore prisoners' knowledge of CVD, and prisoners and staff's perceptions of prisoners' CVD r...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programmes in prisons play a significant role in preventing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite its proven effectiveness, both the availability and coverage of prison OAT programmes remain low. This Indonesian study explores facilitators of, and barriers to, the delivery of methadone programmes in...
Article
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Background Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) programmes are regarded as a gold standard treatment for people living with Opioid Use Disorders (OUDs). However, OAT programmes are often unavailable or poorly implemented in prisons, in spite of the large numbers of people living with OUDs and the high risk of HIV transmission in prison settings. Unusuall...
Article
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Purpose In spite of the effectiveness of opioid antagonist treatment (OAT) in reducing injecting drug use and needle sharing, programmes in prison continue to be largely stigmatised. This affects programme participation and the quality of programmes delivered. This study aims to explore how Indonesian prison staff and prisoners perceived and experi...
Article
Background and aims: Standardised tobacco packaging was introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in May 2016, together with larger graphic warnings. This study explored young Scottish people's awareness of and perceptions about standardised tobacco packaging in the UK DESIGN: Qualitative study using 16 focus groups conducted February-March 2017. Set...
Article
Background Tobacco displays at point of sale have been shown to increase young people’s pro-smoking attitudes, susceptibility to smoking and smoking initiation. In Scotland, legislation that prohibited tobacco point-of-sale displays was implemented in large stores (i.e. those > 280 m ² ) in April 2013 and in small retailers in April 2015. Objectiv...
Article
Background This study investigated the cross-national and longitudinal associations between national tobacco control policies and current smoking in 28 European Union (EU) member states between 2009 and 2017. It also examined the interaction between tobacco control policies and occupational status. Methods We used data from four waves of Eurobarom...
Article
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Background Scotland implemented a ban on open display of tobacco products in supermarkets in April 2013, and small shops in April 2015. This study aimed to quantify changes in perceived tobacco accessibility, smoking norms and smoking attitudes among adolescents in Scotland, following the implementation of partial and comprehensive point-of-sale (P...
Article
Background Reducing the local availability of tobacco is identified as the ‘next frontier’ in tobacco control. This paper examines the roles of tobacco retail outlet density and tobacco visibility in changing exposure to tobacco retailing before and after the introduction of point-of-sale (POS) legislation in Scotland. Methods National tobacco ret...
Conference Paper
Background The Social and Emotional Education and Development programme (SEED) aims to improve the social and emotional wellbeing (SEW) of primary school pupils. It is based on a cycle of collecting school specific data on pupil and staff SEW, providing benchmarked feedback and facilitating the adoption of evidence-based initiatives to address need...
Conference Paper
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Background Smoking prevention programmes that aim to reach adolescents before they start to experiment with tobacco may contribute to reducing tobacco use. ASSIST (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial) is a peer- led, school and social network based, smoking prevention programme that encourages the dissemination of non-smoking messages among 12–13 year...
Article
Objectives: In this paper, we describe a point-of-sale (POS) tobacco visibility tool and examine its utility for assessing changes in visibility following legislation banning tobacco displays. Methods: An observational tool was developed as part of DISPLAY, a multimodal, longitudinal study evaluating the impact of the tobacco POS display ban in Sco...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of scho...
Article
Background Previous research has found that small shops are frequently visited by young people and product exposures in this environment influence their health-related behaviours. Evidence from cross-sectional research suggests that recall of seeing e-cigarettes in small shops is associated with adolescent experimentation with e-cigarettes. This st...
Article
Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings an...
Article
Background In April 2015, point of sale (POS) displays of tobacco products were prohibited in small retail outlets in Scotland. Retailers had several years to prepare for the ban. As part of the DISPLAY (Determining Impact of Smoking Point-of-Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, retailers was interviewed annually for 5 years pre- and post-implement...
Article
Background Tobacco control (TC) mass media campaigns (MMCs) are an important component of tobacco control strategies and are effective in reducing smoking prevalence. However, with increasing pressure on public health budgets, there has been a shift in some countries from MMCs to much cheaper community-based initiatives. Methods Using multivariate...
Article
Background ASSIST (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial) is a peer-led, smoking prevention, social network intervention developed in the UK. ASSIST trains students (aged 11-13) to work as peer supporters to disseminate non-smoking norms in their year. To date, evaluation of ASSIST has focused on delivery within schools only. This study sought to address...
Article
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Introduction Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. Methods As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of...
Article
Background: This study examines whether young never smokers in Scotland, UK, who have tried an e-cigarette are more likely than those who have not, to try a cigarette during the following year. Methods: Prospective cohort survey conducted in four high schools in Scotland, UK during February/March 2015 (n=3807) with follow-up 1 year later. All pu...
Data
Figure S1 Impulse response function (IRF): impact of tobacco control television ratings (TVRs) on Smokeline calls (seasonally adjusted model). Figure S2 Cumulative impulse response function (CIRF): impact of tobacco control television ratings (TVRs) on Smokeline calls (seasonally adjusted model). Figure S3 Impulse response function (IRF): impact...
Article
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Background Continued smoking after cancer adversely affects quality of life and survival, but one fifth of cancer survivors still smoke. Despite its demands, cancer presents an opportunity for positive behaviour change. Smoking often occurs in social groups, therefore interventions which target families and individuals may be more successful. This...
Article
Background: Prisoners are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. However, primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in correctional settings has been widely neglected, and there is little information on interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of prisoners while incarcerated. Objective: The aim o...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Design Multivariate time–series analysis using secondary da...
Article
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Background Pilot and feasibility work is conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and acceptability of the intervention itself and the feasibility and acceptability of a trials’ protocol design. The Cardiac Rehabilitation In Bowel cancer (CRIB) study was a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care...
Article
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors are not meeting the recommended physical activity levels associated with improving their chances of survival and quality of life. Rehabilitation could address this problem. Objectives The aims of the Cardiac Rehabilitation In Bowel cancer study were to assess whether or not cardiac rehabilitation is a f...
Article
Objectives: Point of sale (POS) displays are one of the most important forms of tobacco marketing still permitted in many countries. Reliable methods for measuring exposure to such displays are needed in order to assess their potential impact, particularly on smoking attitudes and uptake among young people. In this study we use a novel method for...
Article
Full-text available
Background There has been a rapid increase in the retail availability of e-cigarettes in the UK and elsewhere. It is known that exposure to cigarette point-of-sale (POS) displays influences smoking behaviour and intentions in young people. However, there is as yet no evidence regarding the relationship between e-cigarette POS display exposure and e...
Article
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Background: From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its...
Article
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Introduction: Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Methods: Prevalence estimates for regular smoking we...
Article
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Introduction: As further restrictions have been placed on tobacco advertising and promotions, point of sale (PoS) displays of cigarettes in shops have become an increasingly important source of young people's exposure to tobacco products. This study explored the relationship between PoS displays of cigarettes and brand awareness among secondary sc...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the relationship between tobacco cigarette brand recognition, and e-cigarette use in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting High schools in Scotland. Participants Questionnaires were administered to pupils in Secondary 2 (S2 mean age: 14.0 years) and Secondary 4 (S4 mean age: 15.9 years) across 4 commu...
Article
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Objectives: Raising cancer awareness and addressing barriers to help-seeking may improve early diagnosis. The aim was to assess whether a psycho-educational intervention increased adolescents' cancer awareness and addressed help-seeking barriers. Methods: This was a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 2173 adolescents in 20 schools. Th...
Research
Full-text available
A report for the Early to Mid-Working Life Working Group of the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP). Edinburgh 2011
Article
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Objectives To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Setting Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Participants Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months ap...
Article
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Background: Initiatives to promote early diagnosis include raising public awareness of signs and symptoms of cancer and addressing barriers to seeking medical help about cancer. Awareness of signs and symptoms of cancer and emotional barriers, such as fear, worry, and embarrassment, strongly influence help seeking behaviour. Whether anxiety influe...
Article
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To describe Scottish adolescents' sun-related behaviours and tanning attitudes and assess associations with skin cancer awareness. Cross-sectional study. 20 state secondary schools in one Scottish local authority (Glasgow City). 2173 adolescents (females: 50.7%, n=1102) with a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.55). Sun-related behaviour (suntan, sunbathing, s...
Article
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Background: Tobacco advertising and product promotions have been largely banned in the UK but point of sale (POS) tobacco advertising is one of the few places where tobacco products may be legitimately advertised. POS displays have been shown to increase susceptibility to smoking, experimentation and initiation into smoking. These displays may als...
Article
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Patients with colorectal cancer report ongoing physical and psychological impairments and a high proportion of these patients are overweight, insufficiently active and high-risk drinkers, putting them at risk of poor recovery and risk of recurrence and comorbidities. A challenge is implementing sustainable and effective rehabilitation as part of ro...
Article
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To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco sm...
Article
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Raising cancer awareness among adolescents has potential to increase their knowledge and confidence in identifying cancer symptoms and seeking timely medical help in adolescence and adulthood. Detecting cancer at an early stage is important because it reduces the risk of dying of some cancers and thereby contributes to improved cancer survival. Ado...
Article
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Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006. A negative binomial re...
Data
Time trends in stroke incidence (hospital admissions plus pre-hospital deaths) (equivalent to Figure 1 (confirmed stroke) and figure 1 (cerebral infarction) with the addition of a regression line and 95% confidence intervals). (EPS)
Article
Natural experimental studies are often recommended as a way of understanding the health impact of policies and other large scale interventions. Although they have certain advantages over planned experiments, and may be the only option when it is impossible to manipulate exposure to the intervention, natural experimental studies are more susceptible...
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Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental...
Article
Background Despite interest in knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in public health, few reports provide an account of knowledge brokerage organisations such as the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP). SCPHRP's role is to identify public health interventions that equitably address major health priorities, fost...
Article
Purpose The population of older people in the UK is expected to rise rapidly over the next 20 years and therefore identification of effective interventions that prevent functional decline and disablement is a public health priority. This review summarises the evidence for interventions in community settings that aim to prevent or delay disablement...
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Despite a burgeoning literature on, and widespread interest in, knowledge translation and exchange in public health, few articles provide an account of the actual experiences of knowledge brokerage organisations. The Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP) was formed in 2008 to: identify public health interventions tha...
Article
Full-text available
Natural experimental studies are often recommended as a way of understanding the health impact of policies and other large scale interventions. Although they have certain advantages over planned experiments, and may be the only option when it is impossible to manipulate exposure to the intervention, natural experimental studies are more susceptible...
Article
Full-text available
Both active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are associated with pregnancy complications. In March 2006, Scotland implemented legislation prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of this legislation on preterm delivery and small for gestational age. We c...
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The observed clustering, and shared underlying determinants, of risk behaviours in young people has led to the proposition that interventions should take a broader approach to risk behaviour prevention. In this review we synthesized the evidence on 'what works' to prevent multiple risk behaviour (focusing on tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use an...
Article
Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) requires all signatory countries to adopt measures to protect people from tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, indoor public places, public transport and other public places as appropriate. The aims of this symposium were to review progress across the world, to...
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Objectives The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study (‘earlier cohort’, surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study...
Article
To identify and assess the effectiveness of experimental studies of interventions that report on multiple risk behaviour outcomes in young people. A systematic review was performed to identify experimental studies of interventions to reduce risk behaviour in adolescents or young adults and that reported on both any substance (alcohol, tobacco and i...
Article
In this article we present "best practice" guidelines for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health status in the general population, using routinely collected data. First, we constructed a set of critical appraisal criteria to assess the utility of routinely collected outcomes for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in population health st...
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In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost...
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The close correspondence between energy intake and expenditure over prolonged time periods, coupled with an apparent protection of the level of body adiposity in the face of perturbations of energy balance, has led to the idea that body fatness is regulated via mechanisms that control intake and energy expenditure. Two models have dominated the dis...
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Substance use and sexual risk behaviour affect young people's current and future health and wellbeing in many high-income countries. Our understanding of time-trends in adolescent health-risk behaviour is largely based on routinely collected survey data in school-aged adolescents (aged 15 years or less). Less is known about changes in these behavio...