Salazar Moreno Raquel

Salazar Moreno Raquel
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo · Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica Agrícola/Posgrado IAUIA

PhD

About

87
Publications
24,226
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469
Citations
Citations since 2016
31 Research Items
282 Citations
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Introduction
Raquel Salazar Moreno is a professor at Chapingo University at the Department of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering & Graduate Program In Agricultural Engineering (IAUIA). Currently she is doing research related to water and energy use efficiency , urban agriculture, systems modelling, artificial neural networks.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
Simulation models are used to estimate, forecast, optimize and identify limiting factors and analyze changes in crop production. In order to obtain a functional and reliable mathematical model, it is necessary to know the source of uncertainty and identify the most influential parameters. This study aimed to carry out an uncertainty analysis (UA) a...
Article
Full-text available
El estado de Zacatecas ocupa el primer lugar en la producción de frijol de temporal en México. Debido a las repercusiones económicas y de seguridad alimentaria, es importante la predicción de los rendimientos, producción y superficie cosechada, igualmente, conocer las variables climatológicas que mayor efecto tienen en el cultivo de frijol. Los obj...
Article
Full-text available
Modeling the impact of temperature on each life stage of a beetle population represents a continuing challenge. This study evaluates the effects of five temperature treatments (20, 23, 26, 29 and 32 °C) on population abundance and timing of a colony of ambrosia beetles Xyleborus affinis reared under laboratory conditions and use this data to develo...
Article
Full-text available
El cambio climático (CC) afecta las condiciones meteorológicas actuales y repercute negativamente en el rendimiento de maíz, particularmente de temporal. Para estimar los efectos del CC en la productividad, se han utilizado modelos de simulación de crecimiento bajo diferentes escenarios de cambio climático. En este artículo se hace una revisión sob...
Article
Recently it has been reported that models of greenhouse climate have mostly used ordinary differential equations. Those dynamic models have mostly been founded on the first law of thermodynamics, namely energy/enthalpy and matter conservation analysis. However, although almost all the models developed for greenhouse climate have been calibrated and...
Article
Mexico City is among the largest and most polluted megacities in the world, and there is a general concern among residents to look for a healthier and more sustainable space. However, growing food in urban gardens relies on available space that usually is located alongside main roads or nearby industrial areas. So there is a risk that contaminants...
Article
Full-text available
One of the advantages of controlled agriculture is the notable increase in crop yields. However, at high-tech levels, water use productivity has increased, while energy use productivity has decreased. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate water, energy and labor use productivity in tomato cultivation, for a low-tech greenhouse. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to light conditions, cultivation of lettuce on the south side of the buildings is preferable. With regard to heavy metals, our study did not reveal any health risk due to consumption of lettuce produced under urban conditions with different air pollution levels. Nevertheless, the accumulation of heavy metals increased in unwashed and washed sam...
Article
The research was focused on the identification of interactions between hypochlorite used as a disinfectant for a recirculating tomato production system and the spread of microorganisms, plant characteristics and fruit quality. Potassium hypochlorite (1% KCLO) supplemented once a week for 90 min into different nutrient solution ranks until a free ch...
Article
Full-text available
Control of the environmental conditions inside a greenhouse is fundamental to obtain high yields and product quality. One of the tools to improve this control is the mathematical modeling of the system in question. Therefore, in this work a dynamic energy balance model was developed with the objective of predicting the air temperature inside a gree...
Poster
Full-text available
Varying conditions of cultivation of vegetables inside a city’s boundaries were analyzed. As such, in the city of Berlin flower boxes with lettuce were installed at 20 spots at different heights, with different light conditions and air pollution levels. In order to exclude heavy metal uptake due to soil contamination, lettuce was seeded in a standa...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large ci...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes the main developments achieved up to now on dynamical models of the greenhouse climate, regarding their structure, analysis, parameter estimation and model performance. The systems state-space approach is followed in order to describe main models’ structure features. The physical processes included in the dynamic equations of...
Article
High-tech greenhouse crop-production systems usually require elevated energy inputs, mainly to the heating or cooling systems, to achieve the production levels required to be profitable. This, in turn, results in a high carbon footprint, which nowadays is a big concern worldwide. In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels, a solar heating system...
Article
Mexico City and its metropolitan area is one of the main megacities in the world; by 2016 had a population of 21.2 million people and covered an area of 4,979 km2. This tremendous rate of substitution of natural landscape into urban elements from 1960 till 2016 have gradually altered the local rainfall and temperature patterns of the basin. The inc...
Article
Full-text available
La caída del precio del café en las diferentes bolsas de valores del mundo, hace que esta actividad sea cada vez menos rentable, por los elevados costos de producción. La mano de obra y la fertilización son los factores más importantes en la producción. Por lo anterior, con el presente estudio se busca minimizar los costos por el uso de fertilizant...
Article
Full-text available
La caída del precio del café en las diferentes bolsas de valores del mundo, hace que esta actividad sea cada vez menos rentable, por los elevados costos de producción. La mano de obra y la fertilización son los factores más importantes en la producción. Por lo anterior, con el presente estudio se busca minimizar los costos por el uso de fertilizant...
Poster
Full-text available
Over time the human population has become increasingly urban. The proportion of city dwellers increased from 30% in 1950 to 66% in 2015. Due to this concentration of people in densely-built areas, a rethinking of agricultural and horticultural production is needed urgently. While the demand for fresh vegetables and other natural resources such as w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Climate variability means climate variations, due to natural or anthropogenic causes; its effects have negative impacts on rainfed crops like maize (Zea mays L.). Adaptation and mitigation strategies are used to reduce the negative effects of climate change on agriculture. Climatological data (1979-2013) and maize yield (1993-2013) were analyzed fr...
Article
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The search for new drying systems taking advantage of alternative energy such as solar and wind energy involves constructing and testing new devices in order to understand, to control and to obtain the maximum benefits. This work is based on increasing the local demand of dryers for vegetables on either mild or tropical conditions where sometimes t...
Article
Full-text available
Growing environmental and sustainability concerns have driven continual modernization of horticultural practices, especially for urban farming. Controlled environment and soilless production methods are increasing in popularity because of their efficient resource use and intensive cropping capabilities. However, some popular substrates used for hyd...
Chapter
A model for the planification of agricultural production is proposed in the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District (ARLID) located in the state of Guanajuato in Mexico. The ARLID have a limited water supply from ground and surface sources, as well as area restrictions. In addition, producer faces the problem of high price uncertainty, which affect seri...
Article
A dynamic artificial neural network was developed to predict tomato yield in two high-technology greenhouses located at Humboldt University of Berlin. One is a reference greenhouse, the other is a semi-closed greenhouse, called a solar collector. Both greenhouses have a surface area of 307 m2, and they are equipped with a phytomonitoring system for...
Article
Full-text available
Semi-closed greenhouses are more efficient in water and energy use than conventional ones. However, one of the challenges is the humidity control. This paper is based on experimental data generated during the 2012 tomato production cycle in a semi-closed greenhouse located at the Humboldt University of Berlin. The aim was to generate two models for...
Article
Tomato yields often vary from week to week, so the ability to accurately predict them would give producers a competitive advantage. As a result there has been interest from growers and researchers about tomato yield prediction. The purpose of this study is to predict tomato yield in a semi-closed and reference experimental greenhouses, located at H...
Article
This study evaluated if an Artificial Intelligence climate forecasting model can be considered as a useful tool for saving energy in semi-closed greenhouses. Preliminary results are presented on the 5-Minutes prediction of the internal air temperature and humidity modeled with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Since the final goal of the simulation...
Article
This study evaluated if an Artificial Intelligence climate forecasting model can be considered as a useful tool for saving energy in semi-closed greenhouses. Preliminary results are presented on the 5-Minutes prediction of the internal air temperature and humidity modeled with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Since the final goal of the simulation...
Article
The complexity of the greenhouse crop production together with the environmental variables interaction, have encouraged the development of various models to predict and simulate variables in order to manage the greenhouse in an efficient way, one of the models that has been used successfully in prediction is the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Th...
Article
Dado que el tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) es relevante para la horticultura mexicana pues ocupa el cuarto lugar de la superficie cultivada de hortalizas, se aplicó el modelo SUCROS (a Simple and Universal Crop Growth Simulator) para simular crecimiento potencial de cultivos, en la ejecución de un análisis de sensibilidad y una calibra...
Article
Full-text available
Given that the husk tomato crop (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.), is relevant for Mexican horticulture, since is fourth in vegetables acreage, the SUCROS (a Simple and Universal Crop Growth Simulator) model for simulation of potential growth was used to implement a sensitivity analysis and model calibration. A crop growth experiment was carried out in ord...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the last years new technologies for greenhouse production have been development to improve efficiency in water and energy as well as fruit quality. One of these technologies is the closed and semiclosed greenhouses, it is an innovative concept in sustainable energy management. In principle, it is designed to maximize the utilization of solar ene...
Article
Full-text available
Given that the husk tomato crop (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.), is relevant for Mexican horticulture, since is fourth in vegetables acreage, the SUCROS (a Simple and Universal Crop Growth Simulator) model for simulation of potential growth was used to implement a sensitivity analysis and model calibration. A crop growth experiment was carried out in ord...
Article
An advanced prototype of a phytomonitor was developed at Humboldt University in the frame of the national ZINEG project for low energy greenhouses (www.zineg.de). Ten leaf cuvettes were allocated to different tomato leaves in the canopy to get a representative average of the gas exchange of younger and older leaves under shaded and non-shaded condi...
Article
The main objective of this paper is to fit temperature and humidity as a natural system of ordinary differential equations for different scenarios with asymmetrical histograms, as well as satisfying somehow sensitivity and robustness by using their derivatives and integrals. First, the scenario with lower humidity corresponding to dry conditions is...
Article
Full-text available
The limited supply of fossil fuels has increased the potential for using closed greenhouses or solar collector greenhouses, where the heat accumulation gives an opportunity to recover and store thermal energy. This study focuses on a Venlo-type semiclosed greenhouse (307 m2) equipped with cooling, heating, and CO2 enrichment. Also, there are additi...
Article
Muchas regiones del mundo han alcanzado el límite de aprovechamiento del agua, lo que las ha llevado a sobreexplotar los recursos hidráulicos superficiales y subterráneos, creando un impacto negativo en el ambiente. En los países en los que se depende del agua subterránea para el riego, como es el caso de México, el exceso de extracción está provoc...
Article
Many regions in the world have reached water usage limits, resulting in surface and groundwater overexploitation and its negative environmental impacts. In countries that depend on groundwater for irrigation, such as Mexico, excess water extraction has depleted the water table to an alarming level. Also, 77% of available water in Mexico is used in...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen La caída del precio del café en las diferentes bolsas de valores del mundo, hace que esta actividad sea cada vez menos rentable, por los elevados costos de producción. La mano de obra y la fertilización son los factores más importantes en la producción. Por lo anterior, con el presente estudio se busca minimizar los costos por el uso de fer...
Chapter
Currently, experimental data gathered with high frequency and good quality allows us to feed more complex mathematical models by using high speed and large memory computational devices with numerical technique like finite element method. Simple models had been enriched including details of internal flow patterns and temperature profiles. Recent pro...
Article
Full-text available
A water distribution problem in the Mexican Valley is modeled first as a three-person noncooperative game. Each player has a five-dimensional strategy vector, the strategy sets are defined by 15 linear constraints, and the three payoff functions are also linear. A nonlinear optimization problem is first formulated to obtain the Nash equilibrium bas...
Article
La producción bajo invernaderos es una de las ramas de la agricultura que más energía consume, el costo por concepto de consumo de energía en invernaderos varía entre 20-40% del costo total dependiendo del tipo de producción. En México existen diferentes niveles de tecnología distribuidos a lo largo del país, que van desde producción a campo abiert...
Article
Sensitivity analysis is an important step in developing mathematical modelling of agricultural systems. However, usually for greenhouse crop models, local approaches based on the calculation of derivatives are applied. Unfortunately, the main drawback of local approaches is that derivatives provide information only at the base point where they are...
Article
Water and energy are critical resources that are essential and interdependent. Satisfying consumers' water needs requires energy for supply, purification, distribution, and treatment of water and wastewater. This energy consumption to provide water is linked with negative environmental externalities. This paper provides an overview of the energy an...
Article
Closed and semiclosed greenhouses are used to collect thermal solar energy and for cooling technology. Other than the problem of long-term energy storage in closed greenhouses, the assembly and capacity of cooling and heating systems and the operational control of the microclimate and energy management system are the focus of research and developme...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model is relevant, since it determines how the uncertainty of the model outputs can be assigned to its variables of input. So far local methods are applied based on the calculation of partial derivatives for models of greenhouse crops. However, the main drawback of the local sensitivity analysis is that it pro...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity analysis is part of the study of mathematical model behaviour. For greenhouse crop models, mostly local approaches based on the calculation of partial derivatives are applied. However, the main drawback of local approaches is that derivatives provide only information at the base point where they are computed and do not take into account...
Article
The main objective of this paper is to show the total energy inputs in controlled agriculture as a function of its components under different conditions located in Iguala, Mexico. The strong differences of heat capacity between dry air and vapor makes feasible to storage a significant amount of energy as temperature increases. Since rational knowle...
Article
The main objective of this paper is to show the marginal distributions in controlled agriculture as a function of its temperature and humidity in different conditions located in Mexico. Normal distributions generally used, are contrasted with experimental information gathered as part of the histogram. Copula theory analysis has become an important...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model is relevant, since it determines how the uncertainty of the model outputs can be assigned to its variables of input. So far local methods are applied based on the calculation of partial derivatives for models of greenhouse crops. However, the main drawback of the local sensitivity analysis is that it pro...
Poster
Full-text available
To save energy in greenhouses ore harvest energy from closed systems a lot of equipment is available for better isolation and heat extraction inside the greenhouse. Some of this equipment like multi-layer screen systems ore heat exchangers for cooling and dehumification has to be attached above the canopy in the roof zone of the greenhouse. However...
Poster
Full-text available
For the description of interactions between light and net photosynthesis, gas exchange measuring systems are available to measure CO2 gas exchange on single leafs. Most of these systems are working with hand held instruments with integrated PAR sensors to describe the light conditions while measurement. Since these measurements are selective on sin...
Article
One of the most critical sectors as long as energy and water are concerned is the intensive crop production, which requires high input of fossil energy, pesticides and nutrients in order to keep the important variables such as temperature, relative humidity and CO 2 inside of the desired levels for optimal plant production. The final purpose is to...
Article
In this study three models are developed, one for prediction of the inside temperature 5 and 10 min ahead of time, other for prediction of CO2 concentration 5 min in advance, and the results of this model are linked with a third model for photosynthesis prediction 5 min ahead. Data were collected from two compartments at the experimental greenhouse...
Article
Each region has its own environmental pattern depicted by means of temperature (T) and humidity (H); in consequence, each crop responds to this environmental pattern with maximum potential regarding to optimal environmental conditions. This paper begs the problem for matching the physical weather conditions with the biological characteristics of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Da Gewächshäuser mit ihrer strahlungsdurchlässigen Konstruktion prinzipiell thermischen Solarkollektoren ähneln, bietet sich eine bivalente Nutzung als Produktionsstätte für Pflanzen und thermischer Solarkollektor an. Das Berliner Teilprojekt im Forschungsverbund ZINEG untersucht mit einem veränderten technischen Konzept der Kühlung und Wärmespeich...
Data
Full-text available
Dado que los invernaderos semejan colectores de energía solar gracias a su estructura transparente, es factible usarlos para el doble propósito de cultivar plantas y obtener energía térmica solar. El proyecto de cooperación ZINEG tiene una estación experimental en Berlín, la cual se dedica a la investigación de un sistema técnico de enfriamiento ad...
Conference Paper
The critical environmental parameters affecting plant growth in the greenhouse are temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, nutrition, availability of water, and the growing media. From these factors, temperature is of primary importance to most growers because it is responsible for determining the reaction rates of various metabolic process...
Article
Mexican Valley is one of the Mexico’s most critical areas of water supply, the groundwater resources are overexploited at a rate of 100% or more, generating ground sinking up to 0.4cm/year in some areas. Water shortage in this area is already at an alarmingly critical level. The situation is expected to worsen due to increasing domestic, industrial...
Article
In this study, we are interested in regulating two important variables inside of the greenhouse: temperature and CO2 enrichment for two cabins in a experimental greenhouse at the Humboldt University of Berlin. Predicting the behavior of these two variables and photosynthesis will allow us to turn on and off the controls such as heating system, vent...
Article
Full-text available
A multiobjective optimization model is developed for the Mexican Valley to find optimal water distribution scenarios for three water users: agriculture, industry and domestic. Surface, ground, treated and imported water supplies are considered. The model with three objectives and 15 constraints was solved by the distance based method with distancel...