Salah Er-Raki

Salah Er-Raki
Cadi Ayyad University | UCAM · Department of Physics

Professor

About

176
Publications
52,028
Reads
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4,402
Citations
Citations since 2016
89 Research Items
3034 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Salah Er-Raki currently works at the Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University. Salah does research in Irrigation and Water Management, Horticulture and Agricultural Plant Science, remote sensing,...
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2010 - present
Faculté des sciences et techniques Résultats
Position
  • Professor
January 2010 - present
University of Wyoming
Education
January 2003 - May 2007
Cadi Ayyad University
Field of study
  • physics

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
An accurate estimate of crop coefficient (Kc) values at different development stages (Kcini, Kcmid, and Kcend) is crucial for assessing crop water requirements in semi-arid regions. The objectives of this study were first to quantify the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and to calculate the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over citrus in a semi-ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Africa's agricultural growth will be complicated by climate change, which is expected to worsen already difficult conditions. In many cases, agricultural yields are becoming more volatile due to deteriorating weather conditions. Climate change is likely to exacerbate severe extreme events by increasing temperatures and further altering rainfall pat...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) at the watershed scale remains an important research challenge for managing water resources in arid and semiarid areas. In this study, daily latent heat flux (LE) maps at the kilometer scale were derived from the two-source energy budget (TSEB) model fed by the MODIS leaf area index (LAI), land sur...
Article
Quantification of actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) over large areas is a critical issue to manage water resources, particularly in semi-arid regions. In this study, four models driven by high resolution remote sensing data were intercompared and evaluated over an heterogeneous and complex traditional irrigated area located in the piedmont of th...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of growing season rainfall on agricultural production is indisputable. In Morocco, the production of crops such as barley, maize, and wheat is impacted by growing season rainfall. Due to persistent gaps in growing season rainfall and other drivers of crop yield, crops have experienced observed yields that are often below projected or...
Chapter
The agricultural sector, which is a predominant part of the economy, is facing climate change alternating with water scarcity. The impacts of climate change are presented by extreme and frequent meteorological events that threaten crops and its evolution. Several studies have shown that climate change would have a negative impact on climatic variab...
Article
Full-text available
Study region Atlas Mountains located in Morocco. Study focus Mountainous regions constitute an area of water production, while water is used in downstream plains. In Central Morocco, the Atlas Mountains represent the most important water supply in the country. The solid part of precipitation forms seasonal snowpack. Snowmelt is important for the w...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture is an important sector of the Moroccan economy, employing a huge portion of the Moroccan population and contributing about 14-20% to the country's GDP. Unfortunately, agricultural production in Morocco is impacted by climatic, non-climatic, biophysical, and non-biophysical stressors. Researchers have employed various crop models to unde...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Morocco as many semi-arid Mediterranean and north African countries is facing strong pressure on water resources exacerbated by climate change. Assessing the representation and variability of the Moroccan climate by using the climate models is of major importance to strengthen the reliability of future scenarios and anticipate the water cycle evolu...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change continues to have adverse effects on crop yields in Africa and globally. In Morocco, rising temperatures and declining precipitation are having daunting effects on the vulnerability of crops. This study examines the vulnerability of barley, maize, and wheat to variations in growing season precipitation and socio-economic proxies of a...
Article
Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is of crucial importance in water science and hydrological process understanding especially in semi-arid/arid areas since ET represents more than 85% of the total water budget. FAO-56 is one of the widely used formulations to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act) due to its operational...
Article
In arid and semi-arid regions, irrigation management is important to avoid water loss by soil evaporation and deep percolation (DP). In this context, estimating the irrigation water demand has been investigated by many studies in the Haouz plain. However, DP losses beneath irrigated areas in the plain have not been quantified. To fill the gap, this...
Article
Assessing evapotranspiration at the basin scale is of crucial need for climate studies, weather forecasts, hydrological surveys, ecological monitoring, and water resource management. However, its determination is not an easy task especially for heterogeneous surfaces. Indeed, this heterogeneity, which is associated with the type of the vegetation c...
Article
The objective of this study is the modelling of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM). A model was developed to simulate RZSM at 0-30 or 0-50 cm deep from various components of the surface water budget: irrigation, precipitation, capillarity, evapotranspiration, vapour diffusion and deep percolation. These water fluxes were derived from direct field m...
Article
The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) is an essential economic and ecological medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid areas, especially in Morocco, where water scarcity affects its survival and growth. Evidence suggests that subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) may enhance crops’ drought resistance. A field experiment was conducted to explo...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of the WOFOST model for estimating leaf area index (LAI), actual evapotranspiration (ETa), soil moisture content (SM), above-ground biomass levels (TAGP) and grain yield (TWSO) of winter wheat in the semi-arid region of Tensift Al Haouz, Marrakech (central Morocco). An application fo...
Article
Full-text available
Soil moisture (SM) data are required at high spatio-temporal resolution—typically the crop field scale every 3–6 days—for agricultural and hydrological purposes. To provide such high-resolution SM data, many remote sensing methods have been developed from passive microwave, active microwave and thermal data. Despite the pros and cons of each techni...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the effects of an optimized sowing calendar for wheat over a surface irrigation scheme in the semi-arid region of Haouz (Morocco) on irrigation water requirements, crop growth and development and on yield. For that, a scenario-based simulation approach based on the covariance matrix adaptation–evolution strategy (CMA-...
Article
Full-text available
La uva de mesa (Vitis vinífera) es uno de los cultivos de mayor relevancia económica y social en Sonora, México. Debido a la precipitación escasa y la demanda evaporativa elevada de la zona, es un cultivo con un requerimiento alto de agua. Por ello su producción depende de la aplicación de riego y es importante estimar con precisión y de manera ext...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring agricultural crops is of paramount importance for preserving water resources and increasing water efficiency over semi-arid areas. This can be achieved by modelling the water resources all along the growing season through the coupled water–surface energy balance. Surface albedo is a key land surface variable to constrain the surface radi...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate seasonal forecasting of cereal yields is an important decision support tool for countries, such as Morocco, that are not self-sufficient in order to predict, as early as possible, importation needs. This study aims to develop an early forecasting model of cereal yields (soft wheat, barley and durum wheat) at the scale of the agricultural p...
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of the hydrological functioning of irrigated crops using remote sensing observations is of prime importance in semi-arid areas where water resources are limited. Radar observations, available at high resolution and with a high revisit time since the launch of Sentinel-1 in 2014, have shown great potential for the monitoring o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Growing agricultural demands for the global population are unlocking the path to developing innovative solutions for efficient water management. Herein, an intelligent variable rate irrigation system (fuzzy-VRI) is proposed for rapid decision-making to achieve optimized irrigation in various delimited zones. The proposed system automatically create...
Article
Crop evapotranspiration (ET) is a fundamental component of the hydrological cycle, especially in arid/semi-arid regions. The FAO-56 offers an operational method for deriving ET from the reduction (dual crop coefficient Kc) of the atmospheric evaporative demand (ET0). The dual coefficient approach (FAO-2Kc) is intended to improve the daily estimatio...
Presentation
Full-text available
Cereals are the main crop in Morocco. Its production exhibits a high inter-annual due to uncertain rainfall and recurrent drought periods. Considering the importance of this resource to the country's economy, it is thus important for decision makers to have reliable forecasts of the annual cereal production in order to preempt importation needs. In...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to evaluate a remote sensing-based approach to allow estimation of the temporal and spatial distribution of crop evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation water requirements over irrigated areas in semi-arid regions. The method is based on the daily step FAO-56 Soil Water Balance model combined with a time series of basal crop coeffici...
Article
Full-text available
Over semi-arid agricultural areas, the surface energy balance and its components are largely dependent on the soil water availability. In such conditions, the land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from the thermal bands has been commonly used to represent the high spatial variability of the surface evaporative fraction and associated fluxes. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
A better understanding of the hydrological functioning of irrigated crops using remote sensing observations is of prime importance in the semi-arid areas where the water resources are limited. Radar observations, available at high resolution and revisit time since the launch of Sentinel-1 in 2014, have shown great potential for the monitoring of th...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this work was to evaluate the potential of the Shuttleworth–Wallace (SW) model for mapping actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) over complex surface located in the foothill of the Atlas Mountain (Morocco). This model needs many input variables to compute soil (𝑟ss) and vegetation (𝑟vs) resistances, which are often difficult to estim...
Article
Full-text available
In Morocco, cereal production shows high interannual variability due to uncertain rainfall and recurrent drought periods. Considering the socioeconomic importance of cereal for the country, there is a serious need to characterize the impact of drought on cereal yields. In this study, drought is assessed through (1) indices derived from remote sensi...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Shuttleworth-Wallace (SW) model to provide accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and its partitioning into plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E) of an irrigated olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard in the semi-arid region of Tensift-basin (central of Morocco). SW mod...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a simple model, based on a light-use-efficiency model, was developed in order to estimate growth and yield of the irrigated winter wheat under semi-arid conditions. The originality of the proposed method consists in (1) the modifying of the expression of the conversion coefficient (εconv) by integrating an appropriate stress threshol...
Article
The main goal of this research was to evaluate the potential of the HYDRUS-1D numerical model for estimating the soil moisture (θ) at different depths, actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and its components (crop transpiration, Ta and soil evaporation, Ea) as well as the deep percolation (DP) of irrigated winter wheat under different water managem...
Article
Currently, the AquaCrop model has been widely tested for many fruit/grain crops; root and tuber crops; leafy vegetables, or forage crops, but is restricted to annual herbaceous species, while deciduous crops have received less if no attention. In this context, this study aims to test for the first time the ability of the AquaCrop model to simulate...
Chapter
A precise estimate of the evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is fundamental for determining the crop water needs and optimizing irrigation management. The plant transpiration (T) is generally considered to be the most desirable component, increasing the flow of T within the ET could be one of the most important actions to save water in semi-arid...
Chapter
The management of water resources in agricultural areas requires a precise knowledge of the evapotranspiration (ET). For this purpose, many measurement techniques are developed to quantify this variable. The eddy covariance system (EC) is the only method that can measure directly ET with high precision. However, over heterogeneous areas where the c...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this work is to question the representation of the energy budget in soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models for the prediction of the turbulent fluxes in the case of irrigated crops with a complex structure (row) and under strong transient hydric regimes due to irrigation. To this end, the Interaction between Soil, B...
Research
Dear Colleagues, Optimizing water management in agriculture is essential over arid and semi-arid regions in order to preserve water resources, which are already scarce due to human activities and climate change. In these regions, water scarcity is one of the main factors limiting agricultural development and, thus, food security. The impact of suc...
Article
Full-text available
The resolution of current satellite surface soil moisture (SM) estimates is very low, of tens of kilometers, which proves to be insufficient for various agricultural and hydrological applications. Amongst the existing downscaling approaches of remotely sensed SM, DISPATCH (DISaggregation based on a Physical And Theoretical scale CHange) improves th...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal-based two-source energy balance modeling is essential to estimate the land evapotranspiration (ET) in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, the use of thermal-derived land surface temperature (LST) is not sufficient to simultaneously constrain both soil and vegetation flux components. Therefore, assumptions (about either soi...
Article
Full-text available
An accurate assessment of evapotranspiration (ET) is crucially needed at the basin scale for studying the hydrological processes and water balance especially from upstream to downstream. In the mountains, this term is poorly understood because of various challenges, including the vegetation complexity, plant diversity, lack of available data and be...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring irrigation is essential for an efficient management of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions. We propose to estimate the timing and the amount of irrigation throughout the agricultural season using optical and thermal Landsat-7/8 data. The approach is implemented in four steps: i) partitioning the Landsat land surface temperature...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this work was to retrieve surface soil moisture (SSM) by using scattering models and a support vector machine (SVM) technique driven by backscattering coefficients obtained from Sentinel-1 satellite images acquired over bare agricultural soil in the Tensfit basin of Morocco. Two backscattering models were selected in this stud...
Article
Full-text available
The present work aims to quantify the impact of climate change (CC) on the grain yields of irrigated cereals and their water requirements in the Tensift region of Morocco. The Med-CORDEX (MEDiterranean COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment) ensemble runs under scenarios RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) and RCP8.5 are firs...