Sajal Gupta

Sajal Gupta
Cleveland Clinic · Institute of Urology and Kidneys (Glickman)

About

246
Publications
53,094
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,990
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
4317 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (246)
Article
The ART laboratory is a complex system designed to sustain the fertilization, survival, and culture of the preimplantation embryo to the blastocyst stage. ART outcomes depend on numerous factors, among which are the equipment, supplies and culture media used. The number and type of incubators also may affect ART results. While large incubators may...
Article
Oocyte retrieval, oocyte denudation, and embryo transfer are crucial processes during assisted reproduction (ART). Air quality in the ART laboratory, temperature, pH of the media used and the time interval between oocyte retrieval and insemination are all critical factors. Anesthesia is required for oocyte retrieval, however evidence regarding the...
Article
With the advance of assisted reproduction techniques, and the trend towards blastocyst culture and single embryo transfer, gamete and embryo assessment have gained greater importance in ART treatment. Embryo quality depends mainly on gamete quality and culture conditions. Oocyte maturity identification is necessary in order to plan fertilization ti...
Article
Purpose: Azoospermia is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the pellet of a centrifuged semen sample. In fact, when a basic semen analysis fails to detect sperm in the ejaculate, there is still the possibility of detecting rare sperm after centrifugation of the sample and examination of the pellet. In this study, we assessed the role of Cytos...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The success of vasectomy is determined by the outcome of a post-vasectomy semen analysis (PVSA). This article describes a step-by-step procedure to perform PVSA accurately, report data from patients who underwent post vasectomy semen analysis between 2015 and 2021 experience, along with results from an international online survey on clinic...
Article
Full-text available
Antisperm antibodies (ASA), as a cause of male infertility, have been detected in infertile males as early as 1954. Multiple causes of ASA production have been identified, and they are due to an abnormal exposure of mature germ cells to the immune system. ASA testing (with mixed anti-globulin reaction, and immunobead binding test) was described in...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm vitality testing is a basic semen examination that has been described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen from its primary edition, 40 years ago. Several methods can be used to test sperm vitality, such as the eosin-nigrosin (E-N) stain or the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) te...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM) transitioned its annual training in assisted reproductive technology (ART) from a hands-on, laboratory-based training course to a fully online training endorsed by the American College of Embryology. Here we describe our experience and assess the qu...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Sara, Coordinator certificate for ARCM training program
Article
Full-text available
Semen analysis is the first, and frequently, the only step in the evaluation of male fertility. Although the laboratory procedures are conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, semen analysis and especially sperm morphology assessment is very difficult to standardize and obtain reproducible results. This is mainly due t...
Article
Full-text available
The current WHO 2010 manual for human semen analysis defines leukocytospermia as the presence of peroxidase-positive leukocytes at a concentration >1×106/mL of semen. Granular leukocytes when activated are capable of generating high levels of reactive oxygen species in semen resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been correlated with p...
Article
Full-text available
Retrograde ejaculation (RE) is a condition defined as the backward flow of the semen during ejaculation, and when present can result in male infertility. RE may be partial or complete, resulting in either low seminal volume or complete absence of the ejaculate (dry ejaculate). RE can result from anatomic, neurological or pharmacological conditions....
Article
Full-text available
Semen analysis is a basic test for evaluating male fertility potential, as it plays an essential role in driving the future management and treatment of infertility in couples. Manual semen analysis includes the evaluation of both macroscopic and microscopic parameters, whereas automated semen analysis is conducted through a computer-aided sperm ana...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about the role of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Objective To compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of the gut, semen, and urine microbiomes of infertile and fertile men. Design, setting, and participants We prospectively enrolled 25 men with primary id...
Article
In 2020, the COVID‐19 pandemic led to the suspension of the annual Summer Internship at the American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM). To transit it into an online format, an inaugural 6‐week 2020 ACRM Online Mentorship Program was developed focusing on five core pillars of andrology research: scientific writing, scientific methodology, plag...
Article
Although the lack of information on the costs and pricing of healthcare services prevails throughout the medical industry, empiric observations have demonstrated that pricing information is even more obscured in the sperm cryopreservation market. Thus, the objectives of our study are to assess and compare online price transparency and the price of...
Article
Oxidative stress is pre‐empted by an adequate level of antioxidants, which scavenge oxidants when they are produced in excess by different sources, including leukocytes and immature spermatozoa. Enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and several non‐enzymatic antioxidants (proteins, vitamins and m...
Article
Lack of standardized, reproducible protocols and reference values is among the challenges faced when using new or upgraded versions of instruments in reproductive laboratories and flow cytometry. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay combined with flow cytometry routinely used for diagnostic measurement of sperm...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Aberrant expression of seminal plasma proteins are associated with altered homeostasis that may affect the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. However, the precise roles of seminal exosomes on sperm function remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with varicocele-...
Article
Objective: To test the ability of the smartphone-based YO Home Sperm Test to accurately and precisely measure motile sperm concentration (MSC) versus the SQA-Vision, an automated laboratory semen analyzer. Design: MSC compared for the YO device on Galaxy and iPhone smartphones versus the SQA-Vision in a double-blind manner. Setting: Academic medica...
Poster
Varicocele is the most common treatable cause of male infertility. Molecular changes associated with defective spermatozoa are predominantly due to alterations in the expression levels of their proteins. In varicocele patients, pathophysiological state, compromised testicular function and epididymal dysfunction may change the composition of the sem...
Chapter
The functional aspects of sperm activity such as sperm chromatin integrity and ability to fertilize cannot be characterized by routine semen parameters. Men with unexplained infertility and idiopathic infertility, as well as men with normozoospermic semen profiles, show high DNA fragmentation. Molecular anomalies in the sperm can be detected by a s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nowadays, approximately 14 % of women in reproductive age have difficulties to conceive in the United States [1]. Several strategies have been utilized to overcome infertility, including assisted reproductive technology (ART). Although in vitro fertilization (IVF) is still the most commonly used technique, the number of ART cycles involving intracy...
Chapter
Infertility affects approximately 15 % of couples worldwide [1]. During normal cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated on a continuous basis, either by endogenous sources (see Chap. 1) or exogenous sources (see Chap. 5). ROS are essential for many processes in the human body, including essential intracellular signaling path...
Book
This book discusses the role of oxidative stress in the reproductive system. The book reviews endogenous sources, methods of determining its levels in body fluid/tissues, the physiological roles of ROS, as well as its negative effects on the human reproductive processes. Also discussed are multiple extrinsic factors that could induce oxidative stre...
Article
Full-text available
One of the challenges with the sperm DNA fragmentation results is the inconsistency and the large variability in the results obtained by different techniques. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay quantifies the incorporation of fluoresceinated dUTP into single- and double-strand DNA breaks by labeling the 3...
Poster
Objectives: TUNEL assay measures both single and double stranded DNA fragmentation in the spermatozoa. However standardization of TUNEL assay by flow cytometer is needed for accurate assessment of DNA fragmentation to classify men as infertile. The objective of our study was to standardize the protocol utilizing a flow cytometer and assess the repr...
Poster
Objective: During the journey through the female reproductive tract to reach the oocyte, spermatozoa exhibit a variety of motility modes and swimming patterns, including linear as well as rotational motion. Currently, only those sperm that show rotational motion are chosen for intracytoplasm sperm injection (ICSI). Whether this leads to better oocy...
Poster
Objective: Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in male infertility. Because OS is a state in which oxidant activity exceeds antioxidants protection, a measure of both would be the best indicator of OS in male infertility. ORP is a measure of the relationship between oxidants and antioxidants. Measuring ORP is a novel approach to testing infertility...
Poster
Objective: During ICSI, a small amount of PVP is unavoidably injected into the oocyte cytoplasm raising concerns about its safety and possible adverse impact on embryo development. HA-based products are a physiologic alternative to PVP as they are thought to be safer. However, the literature is not clear in regards to the validity of replacing PVP...
Article
The objectives of this study were to: (i) describe a protocol measuring the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) by MiOXSYS System as an alternative method of seminal oxidative stress (OS) testing; (ii) establish a reference value for static ORP (sORP) to distinguish between controls and male factor infertility patients; (iii) evaluate intra-observe...
Poster
Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with male infertility. The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) represents the balance of all known and unknown contributors of OS. It is not limited to a specific constituent such as reactive oxygen species, total antioxidants, or lipid peroxidation. The MiOXSYS System is a novel tool for measuring ORP. It provid...
Chapter
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common disorders of hormonal imbalance in women of reproductive age. The signs and symptoms of PCOS, premature menarche, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, and obesity, can occur as early as puberty. It is often difficult to diagnose PCOS in this patient population, however, because ther...
Chapter
Semen analysis yields useful information about the fertility status of an individual and is one of the first steps in the diagnosis of male factor infertility. This test provides an assessment of fertility potential, sperm production, functioning of accessory genital tract glands, and ejaculatory capability.
Chapter
The staining of a seminal smear allows the quantitative evaluation of normal and abnormal sperm forms in an ejaculate.
Chapter
Protocol A: Cytospin Procedure Cytocentrifugation is the process in which a benchtop centrifuge with a specially designed rotor and sample chambers deposits cells onto a clearly defined area of a glass slide. Residual fluid is absorbed by the sample chamber’s filter card, which flattens the cells onto the slide, making single sperm cells easier to...
Chapter
Therapeutic bank patients, referred to as “client depositors,” can address the risks of infertility inevitable in certain medical treatments and surgeries by taking advantage of the controlled practice of cryopreservation.
Chapter
Free oxygen radicals such as superoxide anion (O2¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorite (OHCl), and hydroxyl radical (OH) are called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Free radicals have a very short half-life and are continuously produced, mainly by white blood cells (WBC) and especially by granulocytes and abnormal sperm. Excessive amounts of ROS...
Chapter
DNA fragmentation is a process that results from the activation of endonucleases during apoptosis. These nucleases degrade the higher-order sperm chromatin structure into fragments ~30 kb in length and then subsequently into smaller DNA pieces about ~50 kb in length. This fragmented DNA can be detected by the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transf...
Chapter
Peroxidase positive granulocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) are identified by histochemical staining. This test is also referred to as Myeloperoxidase or Endtz test. It is performed when routine semen analysis shows that the number of round cells is ≥0.20 × 106/mL for male infertility patients. In the case of IUI or BASA samples, the cutoff for...
Chapter
Eosin-Nigrosin is a staining technique that assesses the vitality of a sperm sample when the initial motility is less than 25 %. Nigrosin increases the contrast between the background and sperm heads, making sperm easier to visualize. Eosin stains only the dead sperm, turning them a dark pink, whereas live sperm appears white. This staining techniq...
Chapter
Preparation of the sperm for IUI combines sperm washing with swim-up to remove seminal plasma and concentrate the most motile spermatozoa in a very small volume of sperm wash media (HTF).
Chapter
The primary purpose of the Andrology Center and Reproductive Tissue Bank is to provide quality sperm cryopreservation service to those patients who have been diagnosed with cancer and will undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This service is also provided to pre-vasectomy patients, patients undergoing vasectomy reversals, as well as those nee...
Chapter
Semen analysis yields useful information about the fertility status of an individual and is one of the first steps in the diagnosis of male factor infertility. This test provides an assessment of fertility potential, sperm production, functioning of accessory genital tract glands, and ejaculatory capability.
Chapter
Sperm washing is performed to remove seminal plasma and increase sperm density prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Gradient sperm washing is highly effective at isolating motile sperm from the ejaculate of most men. IUI may be indicated in cases of poor postcoital testing due to hostile or absent cervical mucus, oligospermia, or the presence...
Chapter
Therapeutic bank patients hereafter referred to as “client depositors” can address the risks of infertility with certain medical treatments and surgeries by taking advantage of semen cryopreservation procedure.
Chapter
Antisperm antibodies may be present in biological fluids such as serum, seminal plasma, and other reproductive tract secretions. Antisperm antibodies are thought to coat the sperm surface and thereby impair sperm motility or interfere with the actual fertilization process. These antibodies are found in approximately 8 % of infertile men. Antisperm...
Chapter
The peanut-agglutinin assay is used to assess the acrosomal status of sperm. This assay is an indicator of semen quality as male infertility may be caused by spermatozoa lacking intact acrosomes at ejaculation. Acrosomal status after induction of the acrosome reaction can be assessed by microscopy or flow cytometry with fluorescently labeled lectin...
Chapter
Semen analysis yields useful information about the fertility status of an individual and is one of the first steps in the diagnosis of male factor infertility. This test provides an assessment of fertility potential, sperm production, functioning of accessory genital tract glands, and ejaculatory capability.
Chapter
Fructose is present in all semen specimens except in certain cases such as azoospermic males with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens or bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction. In rare cases of retrograde ejaculation, where a small initial ejaculation occurs containing no sperm, the absence of fructose in semen is indicative of the aboveme...
Chapter
The hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test evaluates the functional integrity of the sperm’s plasma membrane and also serves as a useful indicator of its fertility potential. The functional integrity can be demonstrated by allowing sperm to react in a hypoosmotic medium. The hypoosmotic swelling test presumes that only cells with intact membranes (live ce...
Chapter
In some men, semen passes into the bladder instead of out through the urethra; this is known as retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation occurs if the nerves and muscles that control ejaculation are damaged, or removed, or if the prostate is enlarged. Increasing the pH of the urine prior to ejaculation may preserve the viability of the sperm.
Chapter
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a consequence of aerobic metabolism. Unstable free radical species attack cellular components and damage lipids, proteins, and DNA and are also implicated in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. Living organisms have developed complex antioxidant systems to counteract the effects of ROS and red...
Chapter
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic indication of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the biological system’s ability to readily neutralize the reactive intermediate species or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox (reduction–oxidation) state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of...
Poster
Abstract Study question: Are there differences in the ORP of human spermatozoa exposed to PVP and HA prior to ICSI? Summary answer: After exposure for 20 minutes and 1 hour, the lowest levels of ORP were noted in PVP-treated spermatozoa compared with the controls and HA-treated group. What is known already: PVP is used in ICSI to facilitate sperm i...
Data
Global proteomic profiling of fertile control group in triplicate - Second run
Data
Proteomic profile of run 1 of the bilateral varicocele group proteins showing peptide number and peptide coverage
Data
Proteomic profile of run 2 of the bilateral varicocele group proteins showing peptide number and peptide coverage.
Data
Proteomic profile of run 3 of the bilateral varicocele group proteins showing peptide number and peptide coverage
Data
Overall semen parameters in fertile and infertile men with bilateral varicocele and those selected for proteomic analysis
Data
Global proteomic profiling of fertile control group in triplicate – First run
Data
Global proteomic profiling of fertile control group in triplicate - Third run
Article
Many male patients diagnosed with cancer are within their reproductive years. These men are advised to freeze their spermatozoa prior to the start of cancer treatment. Very often, sperm banking facilities may not be readily available and patients may be required to travel to distant sperm bank centres. Our objective was to design and standardise a...