Sadie Jane Ryan

Sadie Jane Ryan
University of Florida | UF · Department of Geography

PhD

About

326
Publications
79,199
Reads
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6,732
Citations
Introduction
Associate professor of Medical Geography at the University of Florida, with a joint appointment in Geography and the Emerging Pathogens Institute (EPI). PI of the Quantitative Disease Ecology and Conservation (QDEC) Lab. Projects focus on vector-borne diseases, conservation biology, wildlife, and disease ecology, through a lens of landscape ecology and climate impacts.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2017 - present
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Position
  • Fellow
August 2014 - August 2017
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
January 2009 - August 2011
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS)
Field of study
  • Ecology
September 2006 - January 2009
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Anthropological Science
September 2006 - January 2009
McGill University
Field of study
  • Anthropological Science

Publications

Publications (326)
Article
Full-text available
Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both "naturally" occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of...
Article
Full-text available
We mapped current and future temperature suitability for malaria transmission in Africa using a published model that incorporates nonlinear physiological responses to temperature of the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We found that a larger area of Africa currently experiences the ideal temperature...
Article
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In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported. © 2017, Centers for Diseas...
Article
Full-text available
Forecasting the impacts of climate change on Aedes-borne viruses-especially dengue, chikungunya, and Zika-is a key component of public health preparedness. We apply an empirically parameterized model of viral transmission by the vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as a function of temperature, to predict cumulative monthly global transmission...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, the Caribbean region has been challenged by compound climate and health hazards, including tropical storms, extreme heat and droughts and overlapping epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Early warning systems (EWS) are a key climate change adaptation strategy for the health sector. An E...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: West Nile virus (WNV), primarily vectored from Culex genus mosquitoes, is the most important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America, infecting thousands of humans and countless wildlife since its arrival in 1999. In locations with dedicated mosquito control programs, surveillance methods often rely on frequent testing of mosquitoes co...
Article
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects humans and horses, with a high case fatality rate in both species. The virus can be transmitted by several mosquito species and maintained in multiple reservoir hosts, making EEEV dynamics difficult to anticipate. In this study, we identified spatial and temporal factor...
Preprint
A growing body of information on vector-borne diseases has arisen as increasing research focus has been directed towards the need for anticipating risk, optimizing surveillance, and understanding the fundamental biology of vector-borne diseases to direct efforts to control and mitigation. The scope and scale of this information, in the form of data...
Article
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Background Simultaneous dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in Florida, USA, in 2020 resulted in 71 dengue virus serotype 1 and 86 WNV human cases. We hypothesized that we would find a number of DENV-1 positive mosquito pools, and that the distribution of these arbovirus-positive mosquito pools would be associated with those nei...
Preprint
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A growing body of evidence links zoonotic disease risk, including pandemic threats, to biodiversity loss and other upstream anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health. However, there is little current research assessing viral diversity in endangered species. Here, combining IUCN Red List data on 5,876 mammal species with data on host-virus associati...
Article
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Extrinsic environmental factors influence the spatio‐temporal dynamics of many organisms, including insects that transmit the pathogens responsible for vector‐borne diseases (VBDs). Temperature is an especially important constraint on the fitness of a wide variety of ectothermic insects. A mechanistic understanding of how temperature impacts traits...
Preprint
The growing threat of vector-borne diseases, highlighted by recent epidemics, has prompted increased focus on the fundamental biology of vector-virus interactions. To this end, experiments are often the most reliable way to measure vector competence (the potential for arthropod vectors to transmit certain pathogens). Data from these experiments are...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic has led to increased concern over transmission of pathogens from humans to animals, and its potential to threaten conservation and public health. To assess this threat, we reviewed published evidence of human‐to‐wildlife transmission events, with a focus on how such events could threaten animal and human health. We identifie...
Article
Full-text available
The world is rapidly urbanizing, inviting mounting concern that urban environments will experience increased zoonotic disease risk. Urban animals could have more frequent contact with humans, therefore transmitting more zoonotic parasites; however, this relationship is complicated by sampling bias and phenotypic confounders. Here we test whether ur...
Preprint
Arboviruses receive heightened research attention during major outbreaks, or when they cause unusual or severe clinical disease, but are otherwise under-characterized. Global change is also accelerating the emergence and spread of arboviral diseases, leading to time sensitive questions about potential interactions between viruses and novel vectors....
Article
Full-text available
Solar geoengineering is often framed as a stopgap measure to decrease the magnitude, impacts, and injustice of climate change. However, the benefits or costs of geoengineering for human health are largely unknown. We project how geoengineering could impact malaria risk by comparing current transmission suitability and populations-at-risk under mode...
Article
Full-text available
Data that catalogue viral diversity on Earth have been fragmented across sources, disciplines, formats, and various degrees of open sharing, posing challenges for research on macroecology, evolution, and public health. Here, we solve this problem by establishing a dynamically maintained database of vertebrate-virus associations, called The Global V...
Chapter
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Chapter 12 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Central and South America.
Article
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Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) contain more tropical high-biodiversity forest than the remaining areas of the planet combined, yet experienced more than a third of global deforestation during the first decade of the 21st century. While drivers of forest change occur at multiple scales, we examined forest change at the municipal and national...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Climate-informed infectious disease models have the potential to become powerful tools to support public health decision making. This project aimed to identify existing software tools at the intersection of climate and infectious diseases, and to identify opportunities for the development of tools.
Article
Full-text available
Host-virus association data underpin research into the distribution and eco-evolutionary correlates of viral diversity and zoonotic risk across host species. However, current knowledge of the wildlife virome is inherently constrained by historical discovery effort, and there are concerns that the reliability of ecological inference from host-virus...
Article
Full-text available
Better methods to predict and prevent the emergence of zoonotic viruses could support future efforts to reduce the risk of epidemics. We propose a network science framework for understanding and predicting human and animal susceptibility to viral infections. Related approaches have so far helped to identify basic biological rules that govern cross-...
Preprint
The potential for a pathogen to infect a host is mediated by traits of both the host and pathogen, as well as the complex interactions between them. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) require an intermediate vector, introducing an additional compatibility layer. Existing predictive models of host-virus networks rarely incorporate the unique aspe...
Article
Full-text available
Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti (e.g., dengue, chikungunya, Zika) are of major public health concern on the arid coastal border of Ecuador and Peru. This high transit border is a critical disease surveillance site due to human movement-associated risk of transmission. Local level studies are thus integral to capturing the dynamics and dist...
Preprint
NCBITaxonomy.jl is a package designed to facilitate the reconciliation and cleaning of taxonomic names, using a local copy of the NCBI taxonomic backbone (Federhen 2012, Schoch et al. 2020); The basic search functions are coupled with quality-of-life functions including case-insensitive search and custom fuzzy string matching to facilitate the amou...
Preprint
Curated databases of species interactions are instrumental to exploring and understanding the spatial distribution of species and their biotic interactions. In the process of conducting such projects, data development and curation efforts may give rise to a data product with utility beyond the scope of the original work, but which becomes inaccessi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Simultaneous dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in Florida, USA, in 2020 resulted in 71 dengue virus serotype 1 and 86 WNV human cases. Our outbreak response leveraged a molecular diagnostic screen of mosquito populations for DENV and WNV in Miami-Dade County to quickly employ targeted mosquito abatement efforts. We detected DE...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Nepal is attempting to eliminate malaria by 2026. Despite decreased malaria burden in Nepal between 2004 and 2018, studies have shown that some malaria indicators are increasing in certain parts of the country and that malaria has shifted to previously non-endemic areas. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatio-temporal patte...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven r...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes albopictus is a cosmopolitan mosquito species capable of transmitting arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. To control this and similar species, public and private entities often rely on pyrethroid insecticides. In this study, we screened Ae. albopictus collected from June to August 2017 in Mecklenburg County, a rapidly growing u...
Article
Full-text available
The fields of viral ecology and evolution are rapidly expanding, motivated in part by concerns around emerging zoonoses. One consequence is the proliferation of host–virus association data, which underpin viral macroecology and zoonotic risk prediction but remain fragmented across numerous data portals. In the present article, we propose that synth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Host-virus association data form the backbone of research into eco-evolutionary drivers of viral diversity and host-level zoonotic risk. However, knowledge of the wildlife virome is inherently constrained by historical discovery effort, and there are concerns that the reliability of ecological inference from host-virus data may be undermined by tax...
Preprint
Data cataloguing viral diversity on Earth have been fragmented across sources, disciplines, formats, and various degrees of open collation, posing challenges for research on macroecology, evolution, and public health. Here, we solve this problem by establishing a dynamically-maintained database of vertebrate-virus associations, called The Global Vi...
Article
Full-text available
The transmission of vector-borne diseases is governed by complex factors including pathogen characteristics, vector–host interactions, and environmental conditions. Temperature is a major driver for many vector-borne diseases including Bluetongue viral (BTV) disease, a midge-borne febrile disease of ruminants, notably livestock, whose etiology rang...
Article
Full-text available
HIV-related stigma remains a considerable barrier to engaging at-risk populations in HIV testing and prevention programs. We assessed the moderating role of HIV-related stigma on the relation between perceived susceptibility to HIV and HIV testing intention among college students. We hypothesized that the moderating role of HIV-related stigma would...
Chapter
Disease ecology combines methods from quantitative ecological modeling, such as those used to explore population dynamics, evolutionary processes, and systems thinking, with quantified measures of transmission and infectious processes from epidemiology, and the ecological and environmental context that gives rise to the emergence and spread of path...
Article
Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, with potential for high fatality rate, especially in herbivores. Upon host death, spores can enter the soil surrounding the carcass and be ingested by other animals feeding in the same location. Accordingly, surveillance to quickly identify and decontaminate anthrax car...
Article
Full-text available
Tick-borne diseases are a growing problem in many parts of the world, and their surveillance and control touch on challenging issues in medical entomology, agricultural health, veterinary medicine, and biosecurity. Spatial approaches can be used to synthesize the data generated by integrative One Health surveillance systems, and help stakeholders,...
Article
Full-text available
When a rare pathogen emerges to cause a pandemic, it is critical to understand its dynamics and the impact of mitigation measures. We use experimental data to parametrize a temperature-dependent model of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission dynamics and analyse the effects of temperature variability and control-related parameters on the basic reproductio...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) could help break the cycle of malaria transmission by conferring community rather than individual protection. When introducing new intervention strategies, uptake is dependent on acceptability, not just efficacy. In this exploratory study on acceptability of TBVs in Sierra Leone, it was hypot...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to increased concern over transmission of pathogens from humans to animals (“spillback”) and its potential to threaten conservation and public health. To assess this threat, we reviewed published evidence of spillback events, including instances where spillback could threaten conservation and human health. We identif...
Preprint
Full-text available
In light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programs will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. Our capacity to identify which viruses are capable of zoonotic emergence depends on the existence of a technology—a m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) contain more tropical high-biodiversity forest than the remaining areas of the planet combined, yet experienced more than a third of global deforestation during the first decade of the 21st century. While drivers of forest change occur at multiple scales, we examined forest change at the municipal and national...
Article
Full-text available
The management of mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge in southern coastal Ecuador, where dengue is hyper-endemic and co-circulates with other arboviral diseases. Prior work in the region has explored social-ecological factors, dengue case data, and entomological indices. In this study, we bring together entomological and epidemiological data to...
Article
Full-text available
Climate drives population dynamics through multiple mechanisms, which can lead to seemingly context-dependent effects of climate on natural populations. For climate-sensitive diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, climate appears to have opposing effects in different contexts. Here we show that a model, parameterized with laboratory measu...
Article
Full-text available
Scavenging of carrion shapes ecological landscapes by influencing scavenger population demography, increasing inter- and intra-specific interactions, and generating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and disease moderation. Previous research found the cues promoting, or the constraints limiting, an individual’s propensity or ability to sca...
Article
Full-text available
The rising prevalence of tick-borne diseases in humans in recent decades has called attention to the need for more information on geographic risk for public health planning. Species distribution models (SDMs) are an increasingly utilized method of constructing potential geographic ranges. There are many knowledge gaps in our understanding of risk o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tick-borne diseases are a growing problem in many parts of the world, and their surveillance and control touches on challenging issues in medical entomology, agricultural health, veterinary medicine, and biosecurity. Spatial approaches can be used to synthesize the data generated by integrative One Health surveillance systems, and help stakeholders...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fields of viral ecology and evolution have rapidly expanded in the last two decades, driven by technological improvements, and motivated by efforts to discover potentially zoonotic wildlife viruses under the rubric of pandemic prevention. One consequence has been a massive proliferation of host-virus association data, which comprise the backbon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mammals that regularly inhabit urban environments may have more frequent contact with humans and therefore host more known zoonotic pathogens. Here, we test this prediction using a consolidated dataset of phenotypic traits, urban affiliate status, and pathogen diversity, across 3004 mammal species. We show that urban-adapted mammals have more docum...
Article
Full-text available
In the aftermath of the 2015 pandemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), concerns over links between climate change and emerging arboviruses have become more pressing. Given the potential that much of the world might remain at risk from the virus, we used a previously established temperature‐dependent transmission model for ZIKV to project climate change impact...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) are highly effective for the control of malaria. Yet widely distributed ITNs have been repurposed as fishing nets throughout the world. Objectives: Herein we present a synthesis of the current knowledge of ITN fishing and the toxicity of pyrethroids and discuss the potential implications of...
Chapter
Vector borne diseases (VBDs) are often seen by the highly developed nations of the world as an issue of poor tropical countries. While framing the problem this way—through the paradigm of a poverty-trap—may leverage aid and motivate political will toward disease control, it misses a wide range of socio-political contexts both driving, and driven by...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat quality regulates fitness and population density, making it a key driver of population size. Hence, increasing habitat quality is often a primary goal of species conservation. Yet, assessments of fitness and density are difficult and costly to obtain. Therefore, species conservation often uses “best available science,” extending inferences...
Article
Full-text available
The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a vector for several human disease-causing pathogens such as tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the understudied spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) infection caused by Rickettsia montanensis. It is important for public health planning and intervention to underst...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In recent years, Ecuador and other South American countries have experienced an increase in arboviral diseases. A rise in dengue infections was followed by introductions of chikungunya and Zika, two viruses never before seen in many of these areas. Furthermore, the latest socioeconomic and political instability in Venezuela and the mas...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: To describe a collection of recent work published on thermal suitability for vector-borne diseases, in which mapping approaches illustrated the geographic shifts, and spatial approaches describe the demographic impact anticipated with a changing climate. Recent findings: While climate change predictions of warming indicate an...
Article
Full-text available
Small island developing states in the Caribbean are among the most vulnerable countries on the planet to climate variability and climate change. In the last 3 decades, the Caribbean region has undergone frequent and intense heat waves, storms, floods, and droughts. This has had a detrimental impact on population health and well-being, including an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Solar geoengineering is often framed as a stopgap measure to decrease the magnitude, impacts, and injustice of climate change. However, the costs or benefits of geoengineering for human health are largely unknown. We project how geoengineering could impact malaria risk by comparing transmission suitability and populations-at-risk today against mode...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally mediated indirect pathogen transmission is linked to host movement and foraging in areas where pathogens are maintained in the environment. In the case of anthrax, spores of the causative bacterium Bacillus anthracis are released into the environment following host death and create locally infectious zones (LIZs) around carcass site...