# Saddam Husain DhobiInnovative Ghar Nepal · Research Department

Saddam Husain Dhobi

Master of Science (Physics)

Fuel Cell, Scattering and Superconductivity (Theory and Experiment) Major Focus and Multidisciplinary Physics

## About

76

Publications

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57

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Introduction

A Senior Research at Innovative Ghar Nepal Laboratory currently and compled a Master's degree in Physics at Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
Work Experience: Involved in a project of battery funded by Gurkha Motor Pvt. Ltd, Work as an academic researcher at BOSC Foundation Pvt. Ltd, Published more than 70+ of research papers on light and energy (Experimental and Theoretical ): In National and International Scientific Journal, and attend national and international conferences, till now.

Education

January 2017 - January 2018

## Publications

Publications (76)

We developed multiple equations to observe the two and three flavors of neutrino oscillation with the mixing angle based on L/E=0.1 to 0.9 in this study. In different settings, the nature of the neutrino oscillation probability was discovered to be varied in different equations. The observation indicates increasing likelihood in one equation and de...

The mathematical model is developed to investigate the relationship between the Hamiltonian of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the output of the PEMFC. At constant response time, the Hamiltonian is directly proportional to current density and cell voltage, according to the established model (Nano-second). At activation overpotent...

The objective of this work is to study the differential cross- section in the presence of a weak laser field (visible and UV) in the case of inelastic scattering. When the target absorbs the energy, the differential cross section increases, according to the theoretically constructed model. The differential cross-section initially decreases to a min...

SPAST foundation along with Indian Institute of Technology Patna and Indira Gandhi National Tribal University is taking forward the mission of empowering sustainable development goals. Institutions of human learning are important posts for driving the SDGs further.
During ICTSGS it was felt by us that a dedicated meeting for encouraging SDGs in ac...

The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was produced between two brass circular electrodes of diameter of 5.0 cm using ac source of voltage (0-20 kV) at the frequency of 20 kHz at atmospheric pressure. Both electrical and optical characterizations of the DBD plasma were carried out and hence electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te)...

In this work, atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was generated, characterized, and applied for biomedical applications. The characteristics of DBD plasma such as electrical properties, electron temperature, and electron density were determined using voltage-current characterization and optical emission spectr...

The different methods are used to calculate the energy eigenvalue of the Dirac equation and limit the energy between 0<E<1 for the relativistic case. The Authors use the Nikiforov-Uvarove method to calculate energy eigenvalue for central potential with the Dirac equation for relativistic, which is a new technique and never used before. The Nikiforo...

The observation of temperature above Lalitpur was studied using the maximum air temperature at 12 PM and minimum air temperature at 3 AM. The data are taken from the Department of Hydrology and Metrology from 2011 to 2020. The observation, plot, and analysis for this work are based on an Excel plot. In addition, observation shows that the maximum a...

The objective of this work is to study the expectation value of quasiparticle
and pair correlation function for quasiparticles for non-equilibrium. The
expectation value for creation is found greater than annihilation at zero and
non-zero temperature with quasiparticle excitation. For s-wave, d-wave and
g-wave the expectation of quasiparticle for c...

The purpose optical properties (transmittance, absorbance, and reflectance) of solidified cubes of water, soybean oil, and saltwater, single and layer wise studies experimentally for water, soybean oil and saltwater. The transmittance properties decrease with an increase in wavelength however the absorbance and reflectance values increase with the...

The objective of this work is to calculate and compare the energy eigen value of Hulthen Potential using the NU method and AIM method. Using these two methods the energy eigenvalue calculated from the NU method is less than 2/δ AIM method. Moreover, the energy eigenvalue calculated from both methods is charge independent and only depends upon the q...

The goal of this work is to combine nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium above three valleys in Nepal: Dang, Pokhara, and Kathmandu. The observation is made above these valleys due to their high population density and knowledge of gas condensation. One can compare and identify the status of gases, as well as predict the effect of gases that are out...

The purpose of this work is to investigate the transmittance and absorbance of drinking
water, organic honey solution, sunflower oil, mustard oil, and a mixture of all of these.
This investigate is necessary because all considered experimental sample is eidable (used
in daily life of human population) with huge amount and no such type of research i...

The goal of this work is to investigate the total cross section of electrons, atoms, and molecules in iron oxides. On the basis of this total cross section, one can choose the best radiation shielding material of iron oxides in a radiation field ranging from 0MeV to 10MeV. At low energy, the total cross section of electrons, atoms, and molecules is...

The extended conventional Sine-Gordon equation (perturbed and unperturbed) and its solution for superconductor with thickness greater than London penetration depth is the main objective of this work. The extended Sine-Gordon equation contain mixed penetration depth (London and Josephson penetration depth) while conventional has only Josephson penet...

The objective of this work is to select the best chemo-material based on the attenuation coefficient. WinXcom software is used to study the attenuation coefficient of tissue, bone, gold, copper oxygen, water, and mixture. The mixture contains 0.5 fractional weight of gold, 0.3 fractional weight of copper, and 0.2 fractional weight of oxygen. The at...

The advancement of laser technology is causing the research field of optics to become more active, and with the help of advancementof technology, more detailed information can be obtained. The primary goal of this work is to calculate differential cross section by using a mathematical model in presence of coulomb potential and elliptically polarize...

This work aims to study the XRD of 5 Boron oxides crystal with different X-ray sources using Quantum Expresso. When XRD was done with angle vs. intensity, a pretty exciting observation was observed: the single high-intensity peak was observed for each source. The high intensity with large Bragg’s angle is observed with Fe-sources among the consider...

The effective potential in this work is the sum of zero, first and second order potential obtained by using Poisson bracket. The effective Potential was developed for a system in which electron, muon and tau orbiting around the nucleus of helium and helium like atoms. Kryukov and Oks (2021) developed effective potential for muon only for low order...

The optical properties of two water supply samples Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) and Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Improvement Project (KVWSIP) in the Kupondole Area, Lalitpur, Nepal show that the transmittance of light is higher for KVWSIP sample water than for KUKL. A large amount of work has been done to test the purities of KUKL a...

The mass density and energy density of visible photon is calculated as and , respectively. Moreover it is also observed that mass density and energy density of photon depend upon photons mass, wavelength, volume and energy. This is clear from figure 1, figure 2 and literatures. Therefore the mass density and energy density of photon varies with mas...

The mass density and energy density of visible photon is calculated as 10-8 Kgm-3 and 109jm3 respectively. Moreover it is also observed that mass density and energy density of photon depend upon photons mass, wavelength, volume and energy. This is clear from figure 1, figure 2 and literatures. Therefore the mass density and energy density of photon...

Study of uncorrected and corrected Yukawa Potential show that at both Yukawa potential have same nature but strength is different. The strength of uncorrected Yukawa potential is identical at short range while corrected Yukawa potential strength is not identical at short range. Moreover, the strength of uncorrected and corrected Yukawa potential ha...

The objective of this work is to study and observed the Compton shift of elementary particles masses lies in between 10 ⁻³¹ kg to 10 ⁻²⁷ kg within the angle between 0 radians to 3 radians. The observation shows Compton shifting ranges from 10 ⁻¹¹ m to 0.5 x 10 ⁻¹⁸ m . This nature of shifting is the same for all the considered masses for the same an...

To study the variation of temperature with the collision of the air molecules, with aircraft the authors consider the random velocities of the air molecules or aerosol and aircraft. After this, the authors start to develop and extend the old relation of gases, collision, velocities, and temperature. On combining, the authors derived a new equation...

The strength of linear combined short-range potential (Yukawa plus Hulthen) is calculated using two different centrifugal term approximation (equation 2 and equation 3). The calculation shows that the strength of potential calculated using an approximation of equation (3) is greater than equation (2), but the difference between them is negligible....

The objective of this work is to show the presence of D medium and the presence of this medium to control the temperature of an electron inside or outside the atom. For this, some mathematical model developed in [1], work for temperature with velocity was developed and presence of D-Medium inside atom described [2]. On interconnecting temperature a...

The objective of this work is to show the presence of D medium and the presence of this medium to control the temperature of an electron inside or outside the atom. For this, some mathematical model developed in [1], work for temperature with velocity was developed and presence of D-Medium inside atom described [2]. On interconnecting temperature a...

Sundarijal River supply drinking water in Kathmandu city, Nepal and to study the nitrate concentration, 10 different sample from different locations of the Sundarijal River was taken. The method for the removal of presence nitrate in River was tested using hydroxylamine hydrochloride dose at 25±2 0 C with 35 minutes contact time. Samples was tested...

The objective of this work is to calculate the temperature of the entire electron present in an atom with and without external energy. This is a theoretical model for the calculation of the temperature of the electron. For this work, the temperature of electrons for hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms (Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium) are calculated. T...

The density of the electron or distribution of sub-electronic particles inside it is calculated as 10 14 in 1 3 , which also helps to find the individual cluster distribution inside it. The 10 14 order mass distribution is for all individual clusters like bosons, fermions, and D-particles which is derived in the equation below (8) and (9). This val...

The prior paper [18] calculated the cross section area of the photons, 400nm, 620nm, 650nm, and 700nm with experimental data. This data assists to derive a notable relation among the cross section areas, velocities, energies, and wavelength of the photons. On the other hand, the interrelation among the velocities of the photons, cross section areas...

On studying the Electronic and Atomic Cross sectional area for low atomic masses (Carbon, Aluminum, Iron and Zinc) using Klien-Nishina differential equation. The atomic cross section among these elements for same energy of incidence photon the atomic cross section area found on order of Carbon Aluminum Iron Zinc. This show with increasing atomic nu...

Treating the raw fruit and vegetable with UV to visible energy photon before eating, kill external bacteria and virus attached on the surface of fruit and vegetable. This technology help to make eatable goods free from bacteria, virus, and germs without any side effect on fruits and the person who consume them. Numbers of pesticide, germicide, inse...

UVI (Ultraviolent Index) levels of considering area from three Valleys: Dang, Pokhara, and
Kathmandu for the protection and awareness of the general population, the observed data
has been obtained from our research. For our study, we only try to study the UVI numerical
value and compare these values to Standard Value categories of UVI provided by o...

In this work, the concentration of nitrogen, oxygen, and air density at 1km altitude above Nepal is studied with the help of data, from the CCMC center for the year 2019. The observation and study give quite an interesting result that is the variation of concentration of nitrogen and air density is similar while oxygen is different.

Study the selection of cross sectional areas of radionuclide and its implementation in the medical field like nuclear therapy is the main objective of this work. For the selection of radionuclide cross section, two nuclear reactions (p, n) and (d, 2n) of Rh and Pd were taken. The observation shows the cross sectional area of (d, 2n) is higher than...

The formation of the masses from the energy of photons after photon enters the atom due to velocity reduction. These formed masses are not ordinary masses that is it doesn't have a nucleus, proton, and electron. The masses formed during this phenomenon are composed of Fermion or Boson or D-Particles and these particles are separated from each other...

The density of the electron or distribution of sub-electronic particles inside it is calculated as 〖10〗^14 kg in 1m^3, which also helps to find the individual cluster distribution inside it. The 〖10〗^14 kg order mass distribution is for all individual clusters like bosons, fermions, and D-particles which is derived in the equation below (8) and (9)...

The observed data from the experimental setup, the calculated the cross-section area of 400nm, 620nm, 650nm, and 700nm spectrum of monochromatic wavelength as 0.11322309 × 10 −22 2 , 1.70286251 × 10 −22 2 , 2.50506666 × 10 −22 2 , and 3.26918919 × 10 −22 2 , respectively. This measurement helps to understand and measure the interaction of matter-sp...

In this work, we are trying to compare the air quality of west terai of Nepal for this we consider five different place air stations. They are Lumbini, Dang, Chitwan, Nepalgunj, and Shurkhate air pollution center or station located in the western Terai of Nepal, etc. They consider data are taken from https://aqicn.org/forecast/, and the monthly ave...

Radius of an electron is estimated about, 2 × 10 −10 , this radius is assumed to be rest radius of electron but when electron absorbed the energy from external sources (photon) the radius of electron goes to increases by + while emitting the energy the radius of an electron goes to decreases −. This increasing and decreasing take place because elec...

In pair production, particle and antiparticle are generated when energy form mass and mass form dipole and then separation take place in stronger nuclear filed. After the formation of mass, it goes on oscillation and oscillation causes the dipole creation on mass which further goes on separation from each other as and moreover the forces F 32 >>F 3...

s: When photon incidence on the electron, electron absorbed the energy of incidence photon, to absorb such energy electron take certain time. The absorption time for the energy for difference incidence photon is difference, for same electron. In cases of low energy photon, time taken to absorb the energy of photon is high while for high energy phot...

s: This analytical work help to understand the relation of incidence energy photon, nucleus of an atom and particles formation in pair production phenomena. Theses all are dependent to each other directly that means high energy photon and high atomic mass nucleus produce high massive elementary particle and antiparticle and some other photon having...

The objective of this work is to kill coronavirus's presence in the atmosphere because they can survive in the atmosphere
form a few hours to a few days. Moreover, the medium of transmission of these viruses is the atmosphere. This type of killing is
suitable in those areas or atmosphere where the density of coronavirus is higher and control spread...

This framework developed a mathematical model, to calculate refractive index of shadow region and bright or direct light region, using the parameters such as energy, wavelength, frequency and temperature. After developing the model it help to finding refractive index of the both region, we have compare these refractive index and found that the refr...

The objective of this work is to show photon is a composition, for this we are using numerical value of area of photon and electron, and develop some theoretical model. In numerical value we calculate the cross-section area of electron and photon, and found that the surface area of a single electron is very very small than that of photon which is i...

The framework of this work is to show, the phenomena of formation of particle and antiparticle in pair production when energy of suitable photon incidence or reach to positive nucleus field of an atom. In this phenomena before the formation of antiparticle and particle the energy of photon is converted into mass and due to charge of nucleus this fo...

The objectives of this research work is to study the both minute and major factor which play an important role to increase or decrease the work functions of an atom, and effect of these factor on time delay to kick out the electron. The factors may be pressure exerted on atom either pulling or pushing of an atom from external environment, electron-...

In this paper we compare the cross-section area of electron and red photon and and found that the cross-section area of red photon is greater than that of electron. The value is cross-section area of red photon is found to be ≈ 6.5× 10 − 19 cm 2 and electron is found to be , A e s = 99.882144× 10 − 26 cm 2 approximately. Moreover found that the cro...

To calculate the size of photon and energy distribution an experimental and analytical method is used. In the experimental method voltage with corresponding photons is measure with the help of a photodiode. The incidence of 400nm, 620nm, 650nm, and 700nm photons with intensity 0.722Wm^-2 generate 8.0125mV, 5.3275mV, 3.6023mV, and 2.7375mV
respectiv...

The objective of these work is to compare the effect of sun or sunlight on rain drop or rain drop cluster in presence and absence of sun. By comparing of these two condition, we can aware the people for the precaution and safety. Because the effect of rain drop cluster is different in presence and absence of sun. Here, We have develop a mathematica...

The objective of this research work is to develop a theoretical model for the existence of the D-medium inside an atom. D-medium is more effective in between the shell and sub-shell of an atom. This medium disturbed the speed of the electron, when electron goes from one shell to another or one sub-shell to another sub-shell of an atom. When electro...

The objective of this work is to find the error in kinetic energy of particle-antiparticle and law of conservation of energy in Pair-production Phenomena, theoretically. When photon of suitable energy incidence or enter on nucleus field of heavy nucleus, whose energy are suitable or sufficient for pair production phenomena. The energy of incidence...

The objective of this paper is to show the existence of numbers of forbidden energy level in forbidden gap or between valance and conduction band by theoretical approximation. This mode work for those system, which have conduction and valance band and can be seen clearly when low energy photon incidence on materials surface, having energy is less t...

Cross-Sectional Area of Single Red photon 6.465066886×10^-23m^2
.

Refraction occurs due to attraction of photons with nucleus of an atom. When photon is incident with certain angle of incidence, it is attracted towards the nucleus of atom.This attraction of photon causes bending of photon towards or away from the nucleus of the atom depending upon the angle of incidence and nature of the medium. When incident ang...

The main objective of this research work is to identify the problem faced by classical electrical vehicles in Kathmandu. In this paper we identify some important problem related to classical electric vehicles like batteries, geographical structure of route through which EVs run, maximum number of passengers carry and so on. To solve such problem EV...

The main objective of this research work is to decrease work function of any given element or compound or material. To decrease the work function of the given material we have to decrease the bandwidth between conduct band and valance band. Because according to definition of work function, the amount of energy that required the remove the electron...

Global warming is one of the most influencing factors for climate change of our planet. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) report that 2016 is year is hottest year and the ice at the pole is rapidly melting never seen before and increasing going ahead. The main Sources of the Global Warming gases are different Factories, fuels Vehicles, which...

The main objective of this paper is to clean the environment by converting the global warming gas into oxygen with CBGT device. This device intake global warming gas with various gases present in atmosphere and convert only global warming gas into oxygen and Bioproduct and it is more sensitive in such a place where the global warming gas concentrat...

The main objective of this paper is to clean the environment by converting the global warming gas into oxygen with CBGT device. This device intake global warming gas with various gases present in atmosphere and convert only global warming gas into oxygen and Bioproduct and it is more sensitive in such a place where the global warming gas concentrat...