Sabrina Palmano

Sabrina Palmano
Italian National Research Council | CNR

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74
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Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Full-text available
Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is the natural vector of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma, a quarantine pest of grapevine with severe impact on European viticulture. RNA interference (RNAi) machinery components are present in S. titanus transcriptome and injection of ATP synthase β dsRNAs into adults caused gene silencing, starting three...
Article
Full-text available
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a destructive phytoplasma disease of European grapevines. Spontaneous and cultivar-dependent recovery (REC) may occur in the field in FD-infected vines starting the year following the first symptoms. However, the biological underpinnings of this process are still largely unexplored. In this study, transcriptome sequencing...
Article
Full-text available
The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CYp) and a laboratory vector of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp). Previous studies indicated a crucial role for insect ATP synthase α and β subunits during phytoplasma infection of the vector species. Gene silencing of ATP synthase β was obtai...
Preprint
Full-text available
The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CYp) and a laboratory vector of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp). Previous studies indicated a crucial role for insect ATP synthase α and β subunits during phytoplasma infection of the vector species. Gene silencing of ATP synthase β was obtai...
Article
Full-text available
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine grapevine disease caused by a phytoplasma transmitted by the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball. FD management relies on compulsory insecticide treatments, roguing of infected plants, and substitution with certified material. Some grapevine cultivars show a spontaneous remission of symptoms (recovery). To det...
Article
Virus-based biocontrol technologies represent sustainable alternatives to pesticides and insecticides. Phytoplasmas are prokaryotic plant pathogens causing severe losses to crops worldwide. Novel approaches are needed since insecticides against their insect vectors and rogueing of infected plants are the only available strategies to counteract phyt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Virus-based biocontrol technologies are gaining attention as sustainable alternatives to pesticides and insecticides. Phytoplasmas are prokaryotic plant pathogens causing severe losses to crops worldwide. Novel approaches are needed since insecticide treatments against their insect vectors and rogueing of infected plants are the only available stra...
Chapter
Transcriptomic analyses addressed to study phytoplasma gene expression may present few difficulties due to the uncultivable nature of these intracellular, obligate pathogens. While RNA extraction from insect vectors does not imply any particular adaptation of the protocols used in most commercial kits, RNA isolation from phytoplasma-infected plants...
Article
The biological bases of recovery of two grapevine cultivars, Nebbiolo and Barbera, showing different susceptibility and recovery ability to “flavescence dorée” (FD) phytoplasma infection were investigated. The expression over one vegetative season, in FD-recovered and healthy grapevines, of 18 genes involved in defence, hydrogen peroxide and hormon...
Article
Full-text available
Micro(mi)RNAs play crucial roles in plant developmental processes and in defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last years, many works on small RNAs in grapevine (Vitis spp.) were published, and several conserved and putative novel grapevine-specific miRNAs were identified. In order to reorganize the high quantity of available dat...
Article
Full-text available
Plant virus infections are often difficult to characterize as they result from a complex molecular and physiological interplay between a pathogen and its host. In this study, the impact of the phloem‐limited grapevine virus B (GVB) on the Vitis vinifera L. wine‐red cultivar Albarossa was analyzed under field conditions. Trials were carried out over...
Article
Full-text available
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic mold that represents a serious threat for human and animal health due to its ability to synthesize and release, on food and feed commodities, different toxic secondary metabolites. Among them, aflatoxin B1 is one of the most dangerous since it is provided with a strong cancerogenic and mutagenic activity. Cont...
Article
We attempted to transfect six recently characterized virus species to protoplasts of Penicillium janczewskii and Chryphonectria parasitica. None of the recovered P. janczewskii colonies was positive for the transfected viruses, but Penicillium aurantiogriseum partiti-like virus 1 (PaPLV1) was detected in three distinct regenerated C. parasitica col...
Article
Molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma interactions with host plants are largely unknown. In this study attempts were made to identify effectors of three phytoplasma strains related to ‘Ca. P. aurantifolia’, crotalaria phyllody (CrP), faba bean phyllody (FBP), and witches’ broom disease of lime (WBDL), using information from draft genome of pe...
Article
Analyses of space-time statistical features of a flavescence dorée (FD) epidemic in Vitis vinifera plants are presented. FD spread was surveyed from 2011 to 2015 in a vineyard of 17,500 m² surface area in the Piemonte region, Italy; count and position of symptomatic plants were used to test the hypothesis of epidemic Complete Spatial Randomness and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Phytoplasmas are phytopathogenic bacteria that induce several specific symptoms in the infected plant possibly, through secretion of effector proteins that induce changes in the architecture and defense response of the infected plant. Witches’s-broom disease (WBDL) is an important disease of lime in Southern Iran. The disease is caused by ‘Candidat...
Conference Paper
Phytoplasmas are phytopathogenic bacteria that induce several specific symptoms in the infected plant possibly, through secretion of effector proteins that induce changes in the architecture and defense response of the infected plant. Witches’s-broom disease (WBDL) is an important disease of lime in Southern Iran. The disease is caused by ‘Candidat...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplasma infections are regularly reported worldwide, and concerns about their threats on agricultural production, especially in relation to global climate change, are increasing. Sensitive and reliable detection methods are important to ensure that propagation material is free of phytoplasma infection and for epidemiological studies that may pr...
Article
Full-text available
To highlight different transcriptional behaviors of the phytoplasma in the plant and animal host, expression of 14 genes of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris', chrysanthemum yellows strain, was investigated at different times following the infection of a plant host (Arabidopsis thaliana) and two insect vector species (Macrosteles quadripunctulatus an...
Article
Full-text available
The phytoplasma-borne disease flavescence doree is still a threat to European viticulture, despite mandatory control measures and prophylaxis against the leafhopper vector. Given the economic importance of grapevine, it is essential to find alternative strategies to contain the spread, in order to possibly reduce the current use of harmful insectic...
Article
A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot has been designed, produced and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested de...
Conference Paper
The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) disease caused by Bois Noir (BN) phytoplasma, a plant phloem-limited pathogens belonging to the class Mollicutes, is an important concern to European vinery economy. Phytoplasmas have a broad range of plant hosts among monocots and dicots and diseases of many important crops have already been associated with these pat...
Article
Full-text available
Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) infections seriously affect production and survival of grapevine. We analysed the changes in the flavonoid pathway occurring in two red cultivars, the highly susceptible Barbera and the less susceptible Nebbiolo, following FDp infection. A combination of metabolic and transcript analyses was used to quantify flav...
Article
Full-text available
Flavescence dorée (FD) is considered one of the most severe phytoplasma diseases affecting grapevine. The spontaneous, complete and stable remission of the symptoms of FD (recovery) is a phenomenon that may occur in infected grapevines. The molecular bases of this phenomenon are still unclear, although some works suggest that recovery could be link...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Translational and post-translational protein modifications play a key role in the response of plants to pathogen infection. Among the latter, phosphorylation is critical in modulating protein structure, localization and interaction with other partners. In this work, we used a multiplex staining approach with 2D gels to study quantitati...
Data
Detailed list of the differentially expressed proteins. The following parameters are reported for each spot: sequence of the matched peptides, normalized volume values (PPM) and coefficient of variation, statistical significance. Sheet 1: healthy/infected Sypro® Ruby staining (total proteins); sheet 2: healthy/recovered Sypro® Ruby staining; sheet...
Data
GO classification and KEGG map assignments of the identified V. vinifera proteins. GOslim term assignment was performed by Blast2GO. GO classification is expressed by GO Names (third column) preceded by “P” for “biological process”, “C” for cellular component and “F” for “molecular function”. The forth column of the table reports the names of the K...
Data
List of the over-represented GO categories in infected and recovered plants following Singular Enrichment Analysis. Proteins are grouped according to the GO categories to which they belong. Only the statistically significant (False discovery rate: FDR ≤0.05) GO terms are shown. “Category” indicates the main GO categories: “B”, biological process; “...
Article
Phytoplasmas are routinely detected by nucleic acid-based techniques. These approaches rely on enriched phytoplasma DNA extracts of good quality, following labor intensive and time-consuming purification protocols. Here we describe a very rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for flavescence dorée phytoplasma detection, based on real-time...
Article
By applying a coverage based read selection and filtration through a healthy plant dataset, and a post-assembly contig selection based on homology and linkage, genome sequence drafts were obtained for four phytoplasma strains belonging to the 16SrIII group (X disease clade), namely the Vaccinium Witches' Broom phytoplasma (647,754 nts in 272 contig...
Article
'Flavescence dorée' is a serious phytoplasma disease affecting grapevine in several European countries. We are currently studying the interaction of 'flavescence dorée' phytoplasma with its natural plant host, by monitoring the effects of infection on the protein expression profile. The red-berried V. vinifera cv. Nebbiolo and Barbera were the sour...
Data
Supplementary Table 1. Designation, related species, disease caused, origin and 16Sr group affiliation of phytoplasmas screened for EcDNAs by Southern blot.
Data
Supplementary Table 2. Geminivirus, phytoplasmal and bacterial sequences reported in figures 1-5.
Data
Supplementary Table 3. Oligonucleotide primers used for EcDNA NJAY detection and sequencing.
Article
Full-text available
Several phytoplasmas, wall-less phloem limited plant pathogenic bacteria, have been shown to contain extrachromosomal DNA (EcDNA) molecules encoding a replication associated protein (Rep) similar to that of geminiviruses, a major group of single stranded (ss) DNA plant viruses. On the basis of that observation and of structural similarities between...
Article
TaqMan one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays were developed for the quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) in Vitis vinifera L. Virus load in the progenies of three 'Nebbiolo' clones planted in two experimental vineyards in P...
Article
Flavescence dorée is a serious phytoplasma disease affecting grapevine in several European countries. We studied the interaction of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma with its natural plant host by monitoring the effects of infection on the protein expression profile. Among the 576 analyzed spots, 33 proteins were differentially regulated in infected gr...
Article
Phytoplasmas are unculturable, wall-less prokaryotes that cause disease in many plant species world-wide. Different phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases of potatoes, including virescence, ‘witches’ broom and the two quarantine diseases: purple top wilt and stolbur. Following classification based on RFLP analysis of the 16SrRNA gene seque...
Article
The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) gene codes for a protein involved in the glycolytic pathway and is commonly used in Real-Time RT-PCR quantification studies as housekeeping gene. In this work we cloned and sequenced the full-length gapA gene from Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp). A ∼35 kDa recombinant GapA protein was over-exp...
Article
Multiple detection of the phytoplasmas associated with Flavescence dorée (FD) and Bois noir (BN) diseases and of the viruses Grapevine leafroll associated virus -1 and -3 (Ampelovirus) and Grapevine virus A (Vitivirus) is described, using the same crude extract as template. Sap was prepared by semi-automatic maceration requiring minimal time and ef...
Article
Full-text available
A rapid protocol for extracting crude sap from grapevine samples, and successive one-tube amplification by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), was applied on symptomatic and symptomless plants to detect the presence of "flavescence dorée" phytoplasma. Results were compared with those obtained by utilizing nested-PCR on phytoplasma DNA-enriched prep...
Article
Flavescence doree (FD) is the most serious phytoplasma disease of grapevine. This report describes a novel method of detecting FD phytoplasma based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) which will greatly improve mass screening of infected grapevines. A rapid protocol for extracting sap from whol...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Four different viral species were isolated from diseased Ranunculus asiaticus plants growing in Imperia Province (Italian Riviera-Liguria Region). Infected plants exhibited mosaic symptoms and growth abnormalities. The viruses were mechanically inoculated to a range of herbaceous hosts and differentiated biologically. Long flexuous particl...
Article
Full-text available
The bacterial species Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens encompasses a group of closely related phytopathogens subdivided into pathovars that exhibit differences in host range. To date, reliable differentiation of pathovars and identification of unknown isolates to the pathovar-level can only be achieved on the basis of host testing. In this study, repr...
Article
A chromosomal DNA library of the bacterial pathogen of bean, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens NCPPB 559 was constructed in the plasmid pGEM-7Zf(+). Several clones were identified that hybridised to all Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pathovars including: C. f. betae, C. f. flaccumfaciens, C. f. oortii, C. f. poinsettiae and, in additi...
Article
Full-text available
The primer pair 16endF-Tmod, specific for the16S/23S rDNA spacer region, amplifies different length fragments when the target DNA belongs to phytoplasmas of the X-clade and AP-clade in compared with phytoplasmas of the AY-clade. The cloned 16S/23S spacer of the tagete witches’-broom phytoplasma (TWB, AY-clade) was used in a competitive PCR assay to...
Article
A cloned putative promoter region upstream of the 16S rRNA gene of the western X-disease phytoplasma was inserted behind the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of plasmid pPL603. The DNA construct was used to transform Bacillus subtilis cells. The transformants were assayed for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing th...
Article
Full-text available
A chromosomal DNA library of the bacterial pathogen of bean, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens NCPPB 559 was constructed in the plasmid pGEM-7Zf(+). Several clones were identified that hybridised to all Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pathovars including: C. f. betae, C. f. flaccumfaciens, C. f. oortii, C. f. poinsettiae and, in additi...
Article
Two techniques were developed for the analysis of non-cultivable mollicutes in insects. The first was aimed at detecting organisms belonging to undiscovered groups within the phytoplasma clade. After prescreening by polymerase chain reaction with phytoplasma-specific primers, nucleic acids from 54 positive samples were amplified using phytoplasma-s...
Article
Full-text available
Domains III and IV of the 23S rRNA gene of 25 strains of verticillate streptomycetes were sequenced. None of the sequences was identical to any other, with regions of variability being restricted to parts of helices 54 and 64. No relationships were detected between the similarities in the sequence and the assignment to phenetic clusters as defined...

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