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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are primary candidates in tissue engineering and stem cell therapies due to their intriguing regenerative and immunomodulatory potential. Their ability to self-assemble into three-dimensional (3D) aggregates further improves some of their therapeutic properties, e.g., differentiation potential, secretion of cytokines,...
This chapter will provide an overview on scaffold-free 3D models focusing on aggregates, spheroids, and organoids. While often used synonymously, the differences are presented as well as the origin and advancement until the current date. Moreover, the advantages that scaffold-free systems offer and their limitations are discussed as well as fields...
This chapter explains the importance of 3D cell culture and highlights its potential and benefits in comparison to traditional 2D cultivation. Since 3D cell culture is supposed to mimic the in vivo situation, we will also have a close look on the complex composition of the in vivo microenvironment and why 2D cultivation does not resemble the in viv...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest for their use in cell-based therapies due to their multipotent differentiation and immunomodulatory capacities. In consequence of limited numbers following their isolation from the donor tissue, MSCs require extensive expansion performed in traditional 2D cell culture setups to reach adequate amou...