Sabine Sczesny

Sabine Sczesny
Universität Bern | UniBe

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94
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (94)
Preprint
It is crucial to understand why people comply with measures to contain viruses and their effects during pandemics. We provide evidence from 35 countries (Ntotal = 12,553) from six continents during the COVID-19 pandemic that the social perception of key protagonists on two basic dimensions of social perception – warmth and competence – played a cru...
Article
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This pre-registered study examined the prevalence and correlates of sexual aggression in a sample of 530 Iranians (322 women, 208 men) with a behaviorally specific questionnaire distinguishing between different coercive strategies, victim-perpetrator relationships, and sexual acts. Significantly more women (63.0%) than men (51.0%) experienced at le...
Article
This research examines how the method of selecting women leaders affects other women’s leadership interest. Results of three experiments (N=1,015) indicated that only when women leaders were selected due to merit, not quota-based policies, did they boost female participants’ interest in a leadership position. These reactions were mediated by percep...
Article
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Men are widely underrepresented in early childhood education and care worldwide. Professional childcare is often believed to require communal qualities typically associated with the female gender role, like being sensitive to others' needs. Men's underrepresentation in childcare work likely occurs as a result of the perceived incongruity between co...
Article
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The use of social networking sites like LinkedIn in recruitment is ubiquitous. This practice may hold risks for older job seekers. Not having grown up using the Internet and having learned how to use social media only in middle adulthood may render them less versed in online self-presentation than younger job seekers. Results of this research show...
Article
Three studies demonstrated the expression of gender stereotypes in linguistic behavior. In Study 1, participants composed sentences describing a person by freely choosing from female- or male-dominated occupations, female or male pronouns, and communal or agentic traits. In Study 2a, participants chose traits to describe a person identified by a fe...
Article
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Due to the significance of the “refugee crisis” for European residents, the present research examined the link between residents’ support for newly arriving migrants and different types of intergroup contact with migrants. We compared the associations between support for migrants, and both positive and negative direct and mass mediated contact. In...
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This meta-analysis integrated 16 nationally representative U.S. public opinion polls on gender stereotypes (N = 30,093 adults), extending from 1946 to 2018, a span of seven decades that brought considerable change in gender relations, especially in women's roles. In polls inquiring about communion (e.g., affectionate, emotional), agency (e.g., ambi...
Article
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Psycholinguistic investigations of the way readers and speakers perceive gender have shown several biases associated with how gender is linguistically realized in language. Although such variations across languages offer interesting grounds for legitimate cross-linguistic comparisons, pertinent characteristics of grammatical systems – especially in...
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Combating prejudice against social minorities is a challenging task in current multicultural societies. Mass media can decisively shape prejudice, because it often represents the main source of information about social minorities. In 3 studies in the Czech Republic (N = 445) and Switzerland (N = 362; N = 220), we investigated how prejudice against...
Chapter
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This chapter shows that agency and communion are essential to understanding the psychology of gender. Gender stereotypes, in their descriptive and prescriptive forms, follow from a societal division of labor whereby women tend to be concentrated in communally demanding roles and men in agentically demanding roles. People’s inferences of communal an...
Article
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Four studies developed and validated two dictionaries to capture agentic and communal expressions in natural language. Their development followed the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) approach (Study 1) and we tested their validity with frequency‐based analyses and semantic similarity measures. The newly developed Agency and Communion dictio...
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Entrepreneurship programs often aim at increasing women's lower entrepreneurial activities. We investigate how advertisements for entrepreneurship programs can be designed to increase women's application intentions. Results of an experiment with 156 women showed that women indicate (1) lower self-ascribed fit to and interest in the program after vi...
Article
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Gender norms can lead men to shy away from traditionally female roles and occupations in communal HEED domains (Healthcare, Early Education, Domestic sphere) that do not fit within the social construct of masculinity. But to what extent do men underestimate the degree to which other men are accepting of men in these domains? Building on research re...
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Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism. In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this d...
Article
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This research examined the impact of facial age appearance on hiring, and impressions of fitness as the underlying mechanism. In two experimental hiring simulations, one with lay persons and one with Human Resource professionals, participants evaluated a chronologically older or younger candidate (as indicated by date of birth and age label) with e...
Article
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People represent social groups by their trajectories through time, producing dynamic stereotypes. To the extent that these stereotypes derive from observations of group members’ behaviors in their typical roles, change in the roles of women and men over time should fuel beliefs that the sexes adopt traits associated with their new roles. Thus, earl...
Article
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Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4–5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male le...
Data
Raw data obtained from the responses of leader evaluations by other team members (spreadsheet 1) and from the self-evaluation survey of the leaders (spreadsheet 2). Spreadsheet 3 contains the dictionary of the data. (XLS)
Poster
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Gender inequality is an ongoing problem in social life and remains a crucial issue for many societies (e.g., the United Nations’ HeForShe Programme, 2016, www.heforshe.org/en). One mechanism that may contribute to the persistence of gender inequality is gender stereotyping, that is, the specific beliefs people hold about the characteristics that wo...
Article
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The present study investigates whether and how the use of gender-fair language is related to linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic differences between countries with grammatical gender languages. To answer this question, we analyzed job titles in online job advertisements from four European countries differing in achieved gender equality and egal...
Article
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Building on theories of impression formation based on faces, this research investigates the impact of job candidates’ facial age appearance on hiring as well as the underlying mechanism. In an experiment, participants decided whether to hire a fictitious candidate aged 50 years, 30 years or without age information. The candidate’s age was signaled...
Article
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This research investigates how affirmative action policies in job advertisements for leadership positions affect women’s and men’s inclination to apply. Management students (N=389) received advertisements which differed in the strictness of announced gender policies: No statement, women explicitly invited to apply, preferential treatment of equally...
Article
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The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the...
Article
Linguistic forms which refer to individuals impact mental representations of these individuals: When masculine generics are used, women tend to be cognitively underrepresented, whereas feminine–masculine word pairs are associated with a higher cognitive inclusion of women. The present research investigates whether linguistic forms affect women’s pe...
Article
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In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, ‘teachers, masc.’) have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, ‘teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.’) are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of em...
Article
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Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (po...
Article
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Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers’ support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Au...
Research
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accepted for publication in the European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology; doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2015.1067611
Article
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Gender-fair language, that is, referring to men and women with symmetrical linguistic forms, has been found to promote gender equality, but it is largely unknown which factors help make gender-fair forms more common in everyday life. Two studies examined whether speakers of German used more gender-fair forms after reading a text with gender-fair wo...
Article
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When people use generic masculine language instead of more gender-inclusive forms, they communicate gender stereotypes and sometimes exclusion of women from certain social roles. Past research related gender-inclusive language use to sexist beliefs and attitudes. Given that this aspect of language use may be transparent to users, it is unclear whet...
Article
Gender-stereotypical portrayals of communal women and agentic men are highly common in advertising. But past research indicates that advertising effectiveness is higher when endorsers are portrayed as communal - irrespective of their gender. The aim of the current research is to explore this communion-over-agency effect on advertising effectiveness...
Article
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Although women are thought to possess sexual power, they risk social and economic penalties (i.e., backlash; Rudman, 1998) when they self-sexualize (i.e., assert their power; Cahoon & Edmonds, 1989; Glick, Larsen, Johnson, & Branstiter, 2005). Why? Drawing on the status incongruity hypothesis (SIH), which predicts backlash against powerful women be...
Article
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We collected norms on the gender stereotypicality of an extensive list of role nouns in Czech, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, and Slovak, to be used as a basis for the selection of stimulus materials in future studies. We present a Web-based tool (available at https://www.unifr.ch/lcg/ ) that we developed to collect these norms and th...
Article
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The struggle to achieve gender equality is accompanied by efforts to introduce gender-fair language. In languages with grammatical gender this implies the use of gender-appropriate forms (feminine for women and masculine for males). In the present research, results of a mixed method approach—a corpus analysis, a survey, and an experiment—provide co...
Article
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The present research investigates whether arguments encourage speakers to use and to approve of gender-fair language. We collected and pretested arguments regarding gender-fair language and masculine generics and created four messages which supported either gender-fair usage or masculine generics (strong and weak arguments) as well as two control t...
Article
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Objectives. The present research examined motivational differences across adulthood that might contribute to age-related differences in the willingness to engage in collective action. Two experiments addressed the role of gain and loss orientation for age-related differences in the willingness to engage in collective action across adulthood. Metho...
Article
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This research investigates differences in the stereotype content of immigrant groups between linguistic regions. We expected that immigrant groups who speak the local language of a specific linguistic region would be perceived as more competitive within this region than in another linguistic region. Further, we expected these differences would unde...
Article
Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the communal and agentic attributes of an average man or...
Article
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This research examines stereotypes associated with immigrant groups in Switzerland. In line with the stereotype content model, we expected immigrant groups to be perceived differentially on the dimensions of warmth and competence as a function of their national origin. Second, we expected the stereotype content to be predominantly mixed, that is, g...
Article
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Past research has shown that the gender typicality of applicants' faces affects leadership selection irrespective of a candidate's gender: A masculine facial appearance is congruent with masculine-typed leadership roles, thus masculine-looking applicants are hired more certainly than feminine-looking ones. In the present study, we extended this lin...
Article
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In many languages, feminization has been used as a strategy to make language more gender-fair, because masculine terms, even in a generic function, exhibit a male bias. Up to date, little is known about possible side effects of this language use, for example, in personnel selection. In three studies, conducted in Polish, we analyzed how a female ap...
Article
Portrayals of women in advertisements have a significant impact on the maintenance of gender stereotypes in society. Therefore, the present research investigates the effectiveness of communal and agentic female characters in advertisements as well as the question how evaluations of such characters are influenced by perceivers' sexist attitudes towa...
Article
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Consistent with social role theory's assumption that the role behavior of men and women shapes gender stereotypes, earlier experiments have found that men's and women's occupancy of the same role eliminated gender-stereotypical judgments of greater agency and lower communion in men than women. The shifting standards model raises the question of whe...
Article
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Previous research has shown high cross-cultural consensus in personality trait judgments based on faces. However, the information that was provided in these studies included extrafacial features, such as hairstyle or clothes. Such styling information can be intentionally chosen by target persons to express who they are. Using a well-developed and v...
Article
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The present research investigated factors that might affect gender discrimination in a hiring simulation context from the perspectives of social role theory and the shifting standards model. Specifically, the experimental study investigated whether gender biases are evident in the screening and hiring stage of the personnel selection process depend...
Article
Drawing on theories of stereotype content and role congruity, this research investigated the role of stereotypes for employment discrimination against older candidates. Study 1 investigated the content of stereotypes about older workers, focusing on warmth and competence as the two core dimensions in social judgement. As predicted, older workers we...
Article
People tend to have similar beliefs about leaders and men but dissimilar beliefs about leaders and women. A decrease in this perceived incongruity between beliefs about women and leaders might follow from perceived changes in either or both of these stereotypes. In two experiments we investigated the dynamics of this stereotype incongruity by exami...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership-relevant attributes and occupational self-efficacy in management students. It is assumed that leadership-relevant attributes are related to high self-efficacy beliefs. Design/methodology/approach – In the present study management students from three different coun...
Article
In past research, the presentation of men and women in the same social role has eliminated gender stereotypical ratings of greater agency and lesser communion in men compared with women. The social-role interpretation of such findings is challenged from the shifting-standards perspective, which suggests that the application of within-sex judgmental...
Article
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Women are assumed to show a self-ascribed lack-of-fit to leadership positions compared to men (Heilman Research in Organizational Behavior 5:269–298, 1983). The present study examined whether this gender difference would diminish when agency is accounted for and whether a stimulus person’s gender would alter women’s self-ascribed fit. German manage...
Article
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Three studies tested hypotheses derived from an integrative social exchange — attachment model suggesting that employees' trust in an organization or its authorities predicts antisocial work behaviors, which should be mediated by the extent to which employees feel attached to the organization and/or its members. Study 1 showed that perceptions of w...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. Gegen geschlechtergerechte Sprache wird haufig eingewandt, dass sie die Qualitat und die kognitive Verarbeitung von Texten beeintrachtige. Um diese Annahme zu testen, lasen 86 deutschsprachige Teilnehmende drei verschiedene Versionen einer fiktiven Packungsbeilage eines Medikaments, die hinsichtlich der Form der Personenbezeichnung...
Article
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Zusammenfassung: Die Forschung zur sozialen Rollentheorie hat durchweg gezeigt, dass die Vorgabe derselben Rolleninformation geschlechtsstereotype Personlichkeitsbeurteilungen von Mannern und Frauen reduziert. Die vorliegende Studie hinterfragt die rollentheoretische Erklarung dieser Befunde und untersucht, inwieweit die bisherigen Ergebnisse dadur...
Article
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The present article gives an overview on the perception of leadership traits by oneself and by others. Based on our own data we analyzed the relationship of person- and task-oriented leadership traits in social perception. Furthermore, we present findings on the attribution of such leadership traits to women and men by others and on the extent to w...
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The current studies investigate how social categorization may influence the perception of facial expressions. Across two experiments, we find that the speed and accuracy of facial expression categorization is modulated by the targets' social category. Specifically, we test the extent to which the Happy Face Advantage in expression categorization (t...
Article
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In two experiments, the influence of physical appearance and sex on the attribution of leadership competence was analyzed. Participants (male/female) reacted to stimulus persons from one of four groups varying in terms of sex (male/female) and physical appearance (feminine/masculine). The stimulus persons were introduced via photographs. Dependent...
Article
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This article presents a series of experiments which were conducted among native speakers of German to determine the influence of different types of German generics on the cognitive inclusion of women. Results indicate that the inclusion of women is higher with 'non-sexist' alternatives than with masculine generics, a tendency which was consistent a...
Article
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In this study, we analyzed cultural variations of managerial gender typing, that is, that managers are perceived as possessing traits that are part of the masculine stereotype. Management students of both sexes from three different countries—Australia, Germany, and India—estimated the percentage to which one of three stimulus groups, that is, execu...
Article
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Previous findings are inconsistent with regard to whether men are judged as being more or less competent leaders than women. However, masculine-relative to feminine-looking persons seem to be judged consistently as more competent leaders. Can this different impact of biological sex and physical appearance be due to the disparate availability of met...
Article
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Zusammenfassung. In der vorliegenden Studie wird ausgehend von der Annahme, dass Personen bestrebt sind, fur sich Wohlbefinden zu erzielen bzw. aufrechtzuerhalten, Fehlen als ein Mittel zu diesem Ziel hin konzeptualisiert. Es wird der Frage nachgegangen, welcher der beiden Indikatoren des subjektiven Wohlbefindens - allgemeine Gesundheitsbewertung...
Article
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Previous research has indicated that successful managers are perceived as possessing characteristics that belong to a global masculine stereotype. This study was designed to compare the gender-stereotypical perception of leadership by investigating global and leadership-specific gender stereotypes and contrasting self-perception and the perceptionb...