Sabine Glock

Sabine Glock
Bergische Universität Wuppertal | Uni-Wuppertal, BUW · School of Education

PhD

About

92
Publications
25,918
Reads
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1,683
Citations
Introduction
Sabine Glock currently works at the School of Education, Bergische Universität Wuppertal. Sabine does research in Cognitive Science, Cognitive Psychology and Neuropsychology.
Additional affiliations
May 2009 - April 2014
University of Luxembourg
Position
  • Senior Researcher
October 2007 - April 2009
Universität des Saarlandes
Position
  • research assistent

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Background: Although alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major illnesses, warning labels are still not being used. Alcohol consumption is related to positive and negative outcome expectancies, which both play a crucial role. This study compared the effectiveness of warning labels that contradicted positive outcome expectancies with he...
Article
Objectives Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of smoking, which may impact CHBs. Research so far has...
Article
Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we desi...
Article
During the last decade, the body of research investigating teachers’ implicit attitudes toward different student groups, particularly toward ethnic minority groups, has been consistently increasing. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the main test that is used for this research purpose. However, what has been neglected so far is the investigati...
Article
Full-text available
In many educational systems, ethnic minority students score lower in their academic achievement, and consequently, teachers develop low expectations regarding this student group. Relatedly, teachers’ implicit attitudes, explicit expectations, and causal attributions also differ between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students—all in a disadvant...
Article
Full-text available
A student’s weight is a particularly important characteristic in physical education. Research has shown that physical education teachers and people working in this area are particularly likely to hold strong negative implicit biases toward overweight students and that these students tend to earn lower grades in physical education. Stereotypes of ov...
Article
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Previous research has provided evidence that teachers implicitly hold more negative attitudes toward ethnic minority students than toward ethnic majority students. Furthermore, they attribute the lower educational success of ethnic minority students predominantly to internal causes. So far, it is not known how implicit attitudes and causal attribut...
Article
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Teacher judgments and the disciplinary sanctioning of pupils can be understood as a function of the ethnic match, which means whether or not teachers and pupils have the same ethnic background. According to social identity theory, teachers should be motivated to protect positive self-esteem and therefore favour pupils of their ethnic in-group over...
Article
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Background. All over the word, classrooms are getting more and more diverse and teachers are required to effectively manage these classes even when students have special education needs (SEN). Aims. The study aimed to investigate classroom management strategies and interpersonal teacher behaviour in relation to students internalizing and externaliz...
Article
Two experimental studies investigated the disadvantages faced by female ethnic minority students when they are judged by pre- and inservice teachers. The results suggest that (preservice) teachers’ judgments were affected by the judgment dimension. Study 1 revealed that teachers apply gender stereotypes in their judgments on mathematical ability: T...
Article
In many educational systems, students from families with low socioeconomic status (SES) often score lower in academic achievement than their high SES peers. Even though this effect is well-documented and research on teachers' stereotypical beliefs and attitudes is steadily increasing, the studies so far did not specifically focus on students' SES....
Article
Research has shown that teachers are able to adapt their processing strategy of student information to situational demands, whereby they flexibly use either an automatic and category-based strategy or a controlled and information-integrating strategy. However, the effect of teachers’ accountability for task and the consistency of student informatio...
Article
Full-text available
The ethnic match between teachers and students is widely believed to be beneficial for the achievement of ethnic minority students, who often lag behind their ethnic majority peers. In a quasi-experimental vignette study, we investigated whether preservice teachers who shared the same ethnic background as the student in the vignette had different j...
Article
In 2 studies conducted in Germany, we investigated preservice teachers’ stereotypical judgement biases regarding Turkish female students and the application of shifting standards in stereotyping. Study 1 (N = 148) showed that Turkish students’ German language proficiency received lower judgements, but other – particularly social – dimensions receiv...
Chapter
In Studien werden Vornamen oft stellvertretend für soziale Gruppen verwendet. Dabei gefundene Gruppenunterschiede lassen sich jedoch – auch bei Konstanthaltung aller zusätzlichen Informationen – nicht unweigerlich nur auf die untersuchten Gruppen zurückführen. Mit den verwendeten Vornamen assoziierte Stereotype können für differenzielle Befunde mit...
Chapter
In diesem Artikel wird ein Forschungsüberblick über Einstellungen sowohl gegenüber Schüler*innen ethnischer Minoritäten als auch gegenüber Schüler*innen mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf sowie gegenüber Inklusion gegeben. Lehrkrafteinstellungen gelten als wichtiger Faktor einerseits bezüglich einer erfolgreichen Inklusion von Schüler*innen mit s...
Book
Das Buch liefert neue, in Deutschland noch relativ unbekannte Forschung zum Einfluss von Stereotypen in der Schule und einen hervorragenden theoretischen und empirischen Überblick zu dem Themenkomplex. Beschrieben und analysiert werden vor allem Stereotype im Kontext unterschiedlicher Merkmale von Schüler*innen wie Geschlecht, sonderpädagogischem F...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers' attitudes toward their students have been associated with differential teachers' expectations and, in turn, with students' educational pathways. Theories of social cognition can explain the link between attitudes and behavior. In this regard, the distinction between implicit and explicit attitudes is worth to be considered, whereby implic...
Article
In this preliminary study, we explored preservice and in‐service teachers’ sense of teaching self‐efficacy with a well‐established questionnaire and a newly adapted implicit measure of the self‐concept Single‐Target Implicit Association Test. Teaching self‐efficacy is an important construct when it comes to the handling of culturally heterogeneous...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of educational systems face the challenges of dealing with students from different ethnic minorities and providing equal opportunities for them. In Germany, Turkish students belong to the largest ethnic minority group and display the lowest levels of academic achievement in comparison with most other ethnic minority or German student...
Article
The aims of the current paper were (a) to investigate preservice teachers’ own ethnic background as a factor that affects attitudes and (b) to investigate the influence of an activation of teacher efficacy on attitudes toward students from ethnic minority groups. In a quasi-experimental design, implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed before t...
Article
We investigated the effects of stereotypical expectations regarding cultural diversity on teachers’ feelings of burnout, stress, and self-efficacy beliefs. With an experimental design, we confronted teachers with fictitious schools that were either high or low in cultural diversity and assessed the teachers’ feelings of burnout and self-efficacy be...
Conference Paper
Background In several countries, school tracking is used to group students with similar academic potential to optimize instruction. Teachers often have a more or less deciding vote, which school track would suit different students based on academic achievement and potential (Ansalone and Biafora, 2004). Given the differential qualifications associa...
Article
Gelungene Klassenführung trägt zu erfolgreichem Unterricht bei. Die Entwicklung von Expertise im Bereich der Klassenführung erweist sich dabei als komplexer Prozess, bei dem es auf die Verzahnung zwischen Theorie und Praxis ankommt. Deshalb bieten sich in der Lehrerausbildung insbesondere längere Praxisphasen wie das Praxissemester zur Vermittlung...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on implicit attitudes toward smoking and provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. Implicit attitudes are suggested to guide automatic behavior, thereby playing a pivotal role for automatic processes inherent in addictive behaviors. This chapter further explores the extent to which implicit attitudes are...
Article
Male students with immigrant backgrounds are disproportionally referred for special educational support outside regular classrooms or schools, which may reflect differential teachers' expectations concerning the academic achievement of students based on sociodemographic characteristics. Although research has indicated differential teachers' expecta...
Conference Paper
Objective: The study aimed to investigate the possible double vulnerability of male students with special educational needs (SEN) in terms of teacher expectations and judgments of academic achievement Background: Male students with immigrant backgrounds are disproportionally referred for special educational support outside regular classrooms/school...
Article
The current research investigated German preservice and experienced teachers' implicit stereotypes, attitudes, and explicit cognitions with respect to male ethnic minority students. Using the Implicit Association Test, Study 1 revealed negative implicit stereotypes as preservice and experienced teachers more strongly associated ethnic minority stud...
Article
Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde die prognostische Validität der Sekundarschulempfehlung im dritten Jahr der Sekundarstufe anhand einer repräsentativen Stichprobe luxemburgischer Schülerinnen und Schüler einer Schuljahrgangskohorte untersucht. Dazu wurden die Verbleibsquoten der Schülerinnen und Schüler auf dem jeweils empfohlenen Schulzweig ermit...
Article
Background Research exploring mechanisms driving inequalities in school systems has found that biased teacher judgements contribute to observed disadvantages for ethnic minority students. Teacher judgements may be driven by explicit and implicit attitudes. Aims The current research explored the effect of cultural diversity at schools (actual or im...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers’ stereotypes may be one factor that contributes to the disadvantages ethnic minority students experience in school. According to dual-process theories, teachers have two strategies that they can apply to derive judgments of students. Teachers’ judgments are based on stereotypes when the information they have about students is consistent wi...
Article
Full-text available
Educational inequalities may be derived from differential teacher expectations toward students from different backgrounds. Such expectations may be associated with stereotypical beliefs and attitudes, which guide behavior and judgments. Although ample research is available concerning differential teacher attitudes based on student ethnicity, few st...
Article
Implicit and explicit attitudes play crucial roles in teachers’ judgments and behavior and might be part of the reason for the varying school performances of ethnic minority compared with ethnic majority students but also of female compared with male students. In this study, we investigated 80 female and 80 male German secondary school teachers’ im...
Article
In a quasi-experimental study, we investigated whether preservice and inservice teachers differed in their responses to minor student misbehavior. The participants’ task was to estimate how likely they would be to apply various predefined intervention strategies, while we simultaneously assessed response latencies. Results indicated that preservice...
Article
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Overweight children in schools can become victims of stereotyping and discrimination from both peers and teachers. Research on stereotypical expectations and impression and judgment formation has suggested that teachers might rely on their negative stereotypical expectations when judging students. In the present study, we experimentally investigate...
Article
We investigated teachers' implicit personality theories in two studies. A gender IAT showed that 98 preservice teachers implicitly associated male students with negative and female students with positive student behaviors. These associations were related to interventions for male students' misbehaviors. A vignette study administered to 30 experienc...
Article
In two studies, we investigated the extent to which research using case vignettes of fictitious students is able to yield research results that are ecologically valid representations of teachers' assessments of students' educational achievement in their real classrooms. The type of assessment was teachers' tracking decisions from primary to seconda...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education. Although these transition decisions should be based on academic achievement, research has shown non-academic variables to influence decisions, leading to disadvantages...
Article
Teachers’ attitudes toward ethnic minority students might differ by students’ gender and the type of school teachers are working in because of different motivations for teaching and different school practices. Hence, the aim of the current research was to investigate elementary (n = 82) and secondary school (n = 82) teachers’ implicit and explicit...
Chapter
Teachers’ tracking decisions strongly influence students’ future academic and professional careers, and are assumed to contribute to social inequalities in the German school system. Drawing on dual process models, we focused on the cognitive processes underlying teachers’ tracking decisions and developed a two-component model of teachers’ adaptive...
Article
The results of two experiments demonstrate that preservice teachers made biased school-placement recommendations depending on student's ethnicity, which on average penalized students from an ethnic minority. Moreover, additional information that was supposed to disconfirm ethnic stereotypes (religious affiliation in Experiment 1, number of missed s...
Article
This study experimentally investigated preservice teachers' responses to student misbehavior according to the ethnic background of the student. Preservice teachers were presented with a verbal description of either an ethnic minority or an ethnic majority student. Afterwards, they were asked to estimate how likely they would be to apply each of 12...
Chapter
Social cognition research has demonstrated that processes of memory and judgment formation are not only affected by information type but also the sequence in which this information is received. These sequence (i.e., primacy and recency) effects are of special interest if the first or last information activates a social category, as this may increas...
Article
Full-text available
Ethnic minority students face many disadvantages in school, which might be due in part to teachers’ stereotypical expectations and attitudes. Dual process theories of impression and judgment formation specify person information that confirms or disconfirms stereotypical expectations as determinants of how judgments are formed. While expectation-con...
Article
Study 1 identified destruction, aggression, and talking out of turn as student misbehaviors that 101 German preservice teachers consistently perceived as disruptive and needing intervention. In Study 2, 140 German preservice teachers were presented with a description of a student who talked out of turn. The gender and ethnicity (ethnic majority vs....
Article
Full-text available
Obese children experience disadvantages in school and discrimination from their teachers. Teachers’ implicit and explicit attitudes have been identified as contributing to these disadvantages. Drawing on dual process models, we investigated the nature of pre-service teachers’ implicit and explicit attitudes, their motivation to respond without prej...
Chapter
Background: Stereotypical expectations of students from families with high socioeconomic status (SES) have been suggested to contribute to the advantages that such students experience in educational systems. Stereotypical expectations are linked to attitudes, which guide behavior and judgments. Research on attitudes makes a distinction between impl...
Article
Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers’ implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers’ explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and questionnaires...
Conference Paper
In several European countries entry into secondary schools is based on a selection process whereby teachers together with other professionals and parents decide which track would be most suitable for the student. Irrespective of the rights and wrongs of a tracking system, the extent to which teachers are able to correctly identify students for orie...
Article
Full-text available
The disharmony hypothesis (DH) states that high intelligence comes at a cost to the gifted, resulting in adjustment problems. We investigated whether there is a gifted stereotype that falls in line with the DH and affects attitudes toward gifted students. Preservice teachers (N = 182) worked on single-target association tests and affective priming...
Article
Objectives: Rigorous tests are not usually applied to determine whether mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are useful or not, that is, whether they lead to responsible drinking or not. In two experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign running in Germany since 2009. This campaign used posters emphasiz...
Article
Implicit attitudes can be activated by the mere presence of the attitude object. They are assumed to guide behavior in demanding situations, including the educational context. Implicit attitudes toward racial minority students could be important in contributing to the disadvantages those students experience in school. This study employed three diff...
Article
Educational research has provided evidence that racial and ethnic minority students are disadvantaged in today’s educational systems. Teachers’ stereotypical expectations are believed to contribute to these disadvantages because teachers make decisions about grades, special education, tracking, and school placement. Research so far has shown that t...
Article
Alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major diseases, particularly among young adults who increasingly engage in binge drinking. Since positive outcome expectancies play a pivotal role in alcohol consumption, we designed alcohol warning labels tailored toward young adults’ outcome expectancies. The warnings were formulated as questions o...
Article
Teachers develop stereotypical expectations about students, but this categorical knowledge can influence their judgments about students. Although teachers’ stereotypical expectations about students have been investigated in the educational domain, this research has mostly measured only the teachers’ judgments. However, the judgment is only the outc...
Book
Full-text available
The cognition activities of humans are an integration of conscious and unconscious processes. The existence, universality and effectiveness of implicit cognition indicate that the cognitive process can be classified into explicit cognition and implicit cognition systems. They comprise two types of information processing systems with different natur...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the extent to which changing school forms in secondary school is dependent not only on a student’s school grades, but also on the migration status and educational aspirations of their parents. Based on a cohort (N = 4219) of school students from one school year in Luxemburg, we were able to show that throughout the lo...
Chapter
Pit-ten Cate, Krolak-Schwerdt, Glock, and Markova focus on the change of cognitive processes in order to overcome expectation biases and to improve teachers’ judgment accuracy. Frequently, the use of stereotypical knowledge about students is discussed as a potential source of judgment biases. However, the use of stereotypical knowledge in judgments...
Article
Full-text available
Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on implicit attitudes toward smoking and provides the first systematic review of research in this domain. Implicit attitudes are suggested to guide automatic behavior, thereby playing a pivotal role for automatic processes inherent in addictive behaviors. This chapter further explores the extent to which implicit attitudes are...
Article
Teachers’ and preservice teachers’ attitudes toward students are mental states that may contribute to teachers’ judgments and students’ achievement. However, in the past, educational research has mainly focused on explicit attitudes and has hardly considered the pivotal role of implicit attitudes in predicting behavior. Drawing on the MODE model of...
Article
Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to tracking, we investigated whether teachers’ tracking judgments are biased by the immigrant backgrounds of the students and how teachers’ tracking judgmen...
Conference Paper
In Luxembourg entry into secondary schools is based on an orientation process whereby a committee, in which the teacher has a key role, decides which track would be most suitable for the student. The orientation should be based on academic achievement but research has shown non-performance related variables affect orientation decisions, whereby stu...
Article
Full-text available
Mit dieser Studie wurde anhand einer Stichprobe von 2925 Schülern aus luxemburgischen Grundschulen geprüft, inwieweit die Leistungen von Schülern luxemburgischer Grundschulen und Merkmale ihres sozialen Hintergrundes Eingang finden in die Sekundarschulempfehlungen, die am Ende ihrer Grundschulzeit ausgesprochen wurden. Zur Analyse des Gewichts unte...
Article
Objective: The present study investigates the effects of graphic cigarette warnings compared to text-only cigarette warnings on smokers' explicit (i.e. ratings of the packages, cognitions about smoking, perceived health risk, quit intentions) and implicit attitudes. In addition, participants' visual attention towards the graphic warnings was recor...
Article
The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smoke...
Article
Full-text available
Warning labels on cigarette packages rely on the negative health aspects of smoking. For smokers, however, smoking is related to positive as well as to negative outcomes. Positive smoking outcomes are shown to be crucial in activating smoking behaviour. Thus, this study compared current health warnings with warning labels contradicting positive out...
Article
Full-text available
Violent digital game play has repeatedly been discussed to be strongly related to aggression and emotional instability. Thus, digital game players have to defend against these prejudices through emphasizing positive game-related concepts such as achievement, social interaction, and immersion. We experimentally investigated which positive- and negat...
Article
Full-text available
Censorship of violent digital games, especially first-person shooter (FPS) games, is broadly discussed between generations. While older people are concerned about possible negative influences of these games, not only players but also nonplayers of the younger net-generation seem to deny any association with real aggressive behavior. Our study aimed...
Article
Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic w...
Article
In Germany, Turkish students are overrepresented on lowest school tracks. Research has provided evidence that stereotypical expectations can color judgments. We experimentally investigated whether student information that strongly confirmed or disconfirmed Turkish stereotypical expectations led to student teachers’ judgments that were biased agains...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies explored whether cognitive dissonance in smokers is reduced immediately or remains constant due to the perceived health risk. Because dissonance-reducing strategies might occur very quickly and previous research has focused only on ratings concerning health risk, we additionally analyzed response latencies and psychophysiological arou...