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Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser

Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz and Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Leibniz Research Institute for Archaeology · MONREPOS Archäologisches Forschungszentrum und Museum für menschliche Verhaltensevolution

Univ.-Prof. Dr.

About

138
Publications
30,079
Reads
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2,639
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2003 - present
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Position
  • Professor
October 2003 - present
Römisch Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Leibniz Forschungsinstitut für Archäologie
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the antiquity, nature, and scale of Pleistocene hunter-gatherer impact on their ecosystems, despite the importance for studies of conservation and human evolution. Such impact is likely to be limited, mainly because of low population densities, and challenging to detect and interpret in terms of cause-effect dynamics. We prese...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Schöningen 13II-4 site has produced a wealth of insight into the hunting and butchery activities of Middle Pleistocene hominins, highlighted by the famous Schöningen spears preserved with hundreds of cut-marked and broken horse bones. The bones of carnivores are rare at the site, but tooth pits, scores, and other markings that record their pres...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout (pre)history, non-flint rocks have been used to structure fireplaces, to retain heat, to boil liquids, and to cook food. Thus far, the identification of heated non-flint rocks in archaeological contexts largely depends on a visual (macroscopic) assessment using criteria thought to be diagnostic for thermal alteration. However, visual ide...
Article
The Schöningen 13II-4 site is well known for the discovery of multiple wooden spears in association with a large assemblage of Middle Pleistocene fauna. Such extraordinary organic preservation also extends to a wide array of bone surface modifications that can be used to reconstruct Middle Pleistocene hominin butchery practices. On bones with few h...
Article
The Middle Pleistocene Schöningen 13II-4 ‘Spear Horizon’ (Germany) is a key site for the study of human evolution, most notably for the discovery of Paleolithic wooden weaponry and evidence for developed hunting strategies. On the other hand, the ‘Spear Horizon’ offers an excellent opportunity to approach hominin spatial behavior, thanks to the ric...
Article
While the emergence of the Acheulean is well documented in East Africa at ~1.7 Ma, subsequent developments are less well understood and to some extent controversial. Here, we provide robust evidence regarding the time period between 1.6 Ma and 1.2 Ma, based on an interdisciplinary approach to the stratigraphic sequences exposed in the Gombore gully...
Chapter
As efforts to recognise the Anthropocene as a new epoch of geological time are mounting, the controversial debate about the time of its beginning continues. Here, we suggest the term Palaeoanthropocene for the period between the first, barely recognizable, anthropogenic environmental changes and the industrial revolution when anthropogenically indu...
Article
Full-text available
Recent zooarchaeological and isotope analyses have largely settled the debate surrounding Neanderthal hunting capacities, repeatedly demonstrating their successful acquisition of large ungulates. Nevertheless, the functional identification of individual tools as hunting weapons remains a methodological challenge. In-depth studies have focussed main...
Article
Full-text available
Mollusc biogenic carbonates are valuable records of past environmental conditions. In particular, carbonate oxygen (δ¹⁸O) and carbon (δ¹³C) stable isotopes can be used to reconstruct different physical and chemical parameters, according to the different genera used (marine, freshwater or terrestrial). The Last Interglacial (early Eemian) palaeolake...
Chapter
In the course of human evolution, we have always succeeded in adapting to a wide variety of climatic conditions and habitats. Such adjustments can be excellently researched, particularly in warm-time environments. In the northern European lowlands, sinks often occur during warm periods, leading to the formation of landscapes characterized by inland...
Chapter
Full-text available
The high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from the last interglacial (Eemian) lakeland at NeumarkNord (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) holds the rare potential to study Neanderthal subsistence ca.125,000 years ago in remarkable detail. Using the palynological record from the large lake Neumark-Nord 1 (NN1) and the adjacent small “pool” Neumark-Nord 2...
Book
Full-text available
During the course of human evolution, we have successfully adapted to various climates and habitats. Interglacial environments, in particular, offer an excellent opportunity to study these adaptations. On the north European plain, interglacials often correlate with the flooding of basins, resulting in the appearance of lacustrine landscapes. These...
Chapter
The high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from the last interglacial (Eemian) lakeland at Neumark-Nord (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) holds the rare potential to study Neanderthal subsistence ca. 125,000 years ago in remarkable detail. Using the palynological record from the large lake Neumark-Nord 1 (NN1) and the adjacent small "pool" Neumark-Nord...
Article
Full-text available
Single-carcass sites of Lower and Middle Pleistocene age have attracted much attention since they were first recorded. They have been the focus both of science and of museum displays, with reconstructions of “hominins-feasting-on-a-carcass” purposefully illustrating a major step in human evolution. Here we report the Acheulean site Gombore II-2 in...
Article
Full-text available
Percussion marks have been studied in the field of archaeology for more than a century. Researchers have identified, characterized and analysed them in order to distinguish them from traces of environment modification to bone and reconstruct hominin subsistence strategies. The multiplicity of studies based on percussion marks in different languages...
Preprint
Here we present phosphate oxygen isotope (d 18 O PO4) data from horse (Equus sp.) tooth enamel (bio-apatite) from the early Eemian and early Weichselian find levels at the archaeological site of Neumark-Nord 2, Germany. Based on the relationship between d 18 O PO4 of bioapatite, body water, local precipitation and air temperature, these data are us...
Poster
Full-text available
MK 81 GAR IVE 0043 (henceforward GAR IVE) is a juvenile early Homo represented by a fragment of mandible and a partial mixed dentition. It has been unearthed at Garba IV (Melka Kunture, Upper Awash, Ethiopia), in layer E, dated to ∼1.8 Ma. This is one of the very few juvenile fossils of Early Pleistocene age. It is also one of the not many hominin...
Article
Full-text available
Correlating cultural, technological and ecological aspects of both Upper pleistocene modern humans (UpMHs) and Neandertals provides a useful approach for achieving robust predictions about what makes us human. Here we present ecological information for a period of special relevance in human evolution, the time of replacement of Neandertals by moder...
Conference Paper
Current genetic andfossil data consistently point towards the emergence of the modern human evolutionary lineage inAfrica during the late Middle Pleistocene [1, 2]. The Middle Pleistocene (ca. 780-128 ka BP) in Africa also encompasses a technological change from the Earlier Stone Age (ESA) Acheulean technocomplex, characterised by handaxes and larg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is a report on the rich ichnological record of Gombore gully (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia).
Chapter
Full-text available
Tool use is one of the hallmarks of what makes us human. This defining behaviour is fostered by our high fidelity social learning environment and unique process of cumulative cultural evolution. From the Stone Age to the Digital Revolution, the human narrative has been written in the technologies we developed to meet the challenges of everyday life...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Schöningen 13II-4 "Spear Horizon" provides an unparalleled view of Middle Pleistocene hominin technological and subsistence behaviours. The site preserves the remains of more than fifty butchered horses in addition to other large mammals, but the associated lithic assemblage is relatively small. As a complement to the lithic tools, Middle Pleis...
Chapter
Full-text available
The origins of bone tool technology lie with the use of bones in lithic manufacture and maintenance. Such behaviour extends as far back as a half million years, if not earlier, and continued until as recent as 5000 years ago. This volume examines in great detail the circumstances of these origins, particularly how these bone tools were integrated i...
Book
Full-text available
Tool use is one of the hallmarks of what makes us human. This defining behaviour is fostered by our high fidelity social learning environment and unique process of cumulative cultural evolution. From the Stone Age to the Digital Revolution, the human narrative has been written in the technologies we developed to meet the challenges of everyday life...
Article
Full-text available
Full text (read-only): https://rdcu.be/1OcE . Animal resources have been part of hominin diets since around 2.5 million years ago, with sharp-edged stone tools facilitating access to carcasses. How exactly hominins acquired animal prey and how hunting strategies varied through time and space is far from clear. The oldest possible hunting weapons kn...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a strong increase in the research on hominin percussive tool use, the primary focus in the study of technological behaviour still lies on flaked stone artefacts, especially for the Middle Palaeolithic. This paper aims to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the full spectrum of homi;nin technological behaviour, by presenting a sys...
Article
Full-text available
The database regarding the earliest occupation of Europe has increased significantly in quantity and quality of data points over the last two decades, mainly through the addition of new sites as a result of long-term systematic excavations and large-scale prospections of Early and early Middle Pleistocene exposures. The site distribution pattern su...
Article
Full-text available
Supplementary Information related to the paper: Archaeology and ichnology at Gombore II-2, Melka Kunture, Ethiopia: everyday life of a mixed-age hominin group 700,000 years ago.
Article
Full-text available
We report the occurrence at 0.7 million years (Ma) of an ichnological assemblage at Gombore II-2, which is one of several archaeological sites at Melka Kunture in the upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia, 2000 m asl. Adults and children potentially as young as 12 months old left tracks in a silty substrate on the shore of a body of water where ungulates,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The database regarding the earliest occupation of Europe has increased significantly in quantity and quality of data points over the last two decades, mainly through the addition of new sites as a result of long-term systematic excavations and large-scale prospections of Early and early Middle Pleistocene exposures. The site distribution pattern su...
Article
Full-text available
The Schöningen 13II-4 ‘Spear Horizon’ site is famous for the excellent preservation of 300,000-year-old Palaeolithic hunting weapons, including nine wooden spears and a lance, deposited on the shores of a former interglacial lake in association with a large assemblage of well-preserved and butchered animal bones, mainly from horse. Some bones show...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ancient protein sequences are increasingly used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between extinct and extant mammalian taxa. Here, we apply these recent developments to Middle Pleistocene bone specimens of the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus . No biomolecular sequence data is currently available for this genus, leaving phylogen...
Data
Protein sequence information. Origin of protein sequences used for phylogenetic analysis (accession numbers include Genbank, Uniprot and ENSEMBL accession numbers). †PMF40, *SCH3.
Data
Bayesian phylogenetic tree including sample SCH2. The COL1 sequence of SCH2 was very incomplete (30.3%) and no other proteins were detected in this sample. SCH2 should cluster with SCH3, but is placed at the base of sampled Rhinocerotidae. The SCH2 COL1 protein sequences were removed from further consideration once it was clear that no useful phylo...
Data
Rhinoceros protein sequences generated in this study. Sequences are separated by species/gene. X indicates unknown residues. Leucines (L) have been converted into isoleucines (I) as these two amino acids are isobaric. Telopeptides have been removed for collagen alpha-1(I) and alpha-2(I).
Article
Few sites with evidence for fire use are known from the Last Interglacial in Europe. Hearth features are rarely preserved, probably as a result of post-depositional processes. The small postglacial basins (<300 m in diameter) that dominate the sedimentary context of the Eemian record in Europe are high-resolution environmental archives often contai...
Chapter
This paper presents a review of our current state of knowledge about hunting lesions in faunal assemblages from Pleistocene and early Holocene contexts. Differences in the character of hunting lesions throughout the Pleistocene and early Holocene are described. This evidence is contextualized against the archaeological record and its potential for...
Chapter
In the last few decades, zooarchaeological studies have demonstrated beyond doubt that the hunting abilities of hominins were quite formidable from quite early on. Unfortunately, direct evidence for the use of weapons in hunting is quite rare and depends heavily on the preservation of organic elements. In particular, in the absence of such evidence...
Article
The site of Oelknitz (Thuringia, Germany) is among the largest and in terms of spatial organisation most complex Magdalenian open air sites known to date, rich in evident structures. The current paper reports evidence from the youngest, latest phase of occupation at Oelknitz Structure 3. It is demonstrated that this structure represents a dwelling...
Conference Paper
Mit dem Ziel, Strategien zur Bewältigung aktueller und zukünftiger Streß- und Krisensituationen zu entwickeln werden Untersuchungen der Strategien, Widerstandskraft, Anpassungsfähigkeit und Innovationsbereitschaft vergangener Gesellschaften zunehmend Bedeutung beigemessen. Solche Analysen stehen als Diskussionsgrundlage im Blickfeld der Politik und...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Schöningen 13II-4 Spear Horizon provides an unparalleled view of Middle Pleistocene hominin technological and subsistence behaviors. The site preserves the remains of more than fifty butchered horses in addition to other large mammals, but the associated lithic assemblage is relatively small, amounting to ca. 1500 artefacts. Most of the lithic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Schöningen 13II-4 site (Lower Saxony, Germany) is well-known for the discovery of 300,000-year-old wooden spears in association with a large assemblage of Middle Pleistocene fauna. Such extraordinary organic preservation also extends to a wide array of bone surface modifications that can be used to reconstruct Middle Pleistocene hominin butcher...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Schöningen 13II-4 (Lower Saxony, Germany) is famous for the discovery of eight well-preserved wooden spears and faunal remains from the Middle Pleistocene (300.000BP, MIS 9). Over the past three year, the MONREPOS Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution has developed a multidisciplinary research project to contextu...
Conference Paper
The first report of several well-crafted wooden spears and numerous butchered horse bones at the Schöningen 13II-4 site (Lower Saxony, Germany) drew international attention and altered the perception about the capabilities of Middle Pleistocene hominins [1]. Since its discovery, a wealth of research has sought to clarify the geological, palaeoenvir...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION Seasonality is essential for understanding Neanderthals’ settlement patterns and subsistence strategies. Studying the seasonal pattern of occupation of a site provides information regarding land use strategies and mobility, type of occupation (i.e. short, sporadic occupations vs. repeated, year-round use) as well as planning and strate...
Conference Paper
The European Plain – in its broadest sense - stretches from the northwestern foot of the Pyrenees in a long curve to the western foot of the Ural covering the largest part of what would have been the Neanderthal European home range. For most of the Pleistocene this vast area was covered by cool and temperate steppes. During the short Pleistocene in...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a GIS-based methodology for estimating the minimum number of skeletal elements (MNE) and other archaeozoological measures, such as cut mark distribution and density. As a case study, we present a preliminary application to the Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen 13II-4, the so-called “Spear Horizon”, where a large and e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Schöningen 13II-4 has received much attention for the remarkable discovery of well-preserved wooden spears and Middle Pleistocene fauna dating to ~300,000 years ago (MIS 9). In 2012, the Monrepos Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution initiated a research program to investigate the unique depositional history of t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the discovery of the first Palaeolithic “Venus” figurines it became apparent that hominins had been reflecting on their identity and their place in the universe at least since the beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is this existentialist spiritual confrontation of Palaeolithic humans with themselves that has not only attracted the scient...
Article
Introduction Past hominin symbolic behaviour is manifest in various media and that which survives in the archaeological material record we today identify as Palaeolithic art. Art can build a bridge between material and non-material culture and often serves as a medium for communicating specific worldviews or cosmologies, thus mirroring the self-per...
Conference Paper
During excavations of the large lake basin (c.24ha) of Neumark Nord 1 (NN1; Geiseltalsee, eastern Germany), an additional, smaller basin (1.6ha) was identified (Neumark Nord 2 [NN2]). Excavations of the sedimentary infill of NN2 were undertaken over an area of approximately 500m 2 and yielded c20,000 flint artefacts and more than 120,000 faunal rem...