Sabine Arnaud

Sabine Arnaud
CNRS · Centre Alexandre Koyré Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques

MA, MA, Ph.D., HDR
Directrice de recherche au CNRS

About

33
Publications
4,391
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Citations
Introduction
My current research focuses on deafness in eighteenth- to late-nineteenth-century France. I investigate the ways in which conceptions of being human and the development of linguistic abilities have been articulated, especially in pedagogy, early forms of sign language linguistics, psychiatry, and law. I completed a monograph on the invention of the category of hysteria (1670–1820) (UCP, 2015). Before joining the CNRS, I was a Max Planck Research Group Leader at the MPIWG in Berlin.
Additional affiliations
February 2017 - present
French National Centre for Scientific Research
Position
  • Senior Researcher (CR1)
Description
  • CR1
September 2016 - present
College International de Philosophie
Position
  • Directrice de Programme
November 2010 - January 2017
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
September 2012 - December 2015
University of Strasbourg UMR 7363 SAGE
Field of study
  • Epistemology and History of Science

Publications

Publications (33)
Article
Full-text available
Résumé Dès le XVII e siècle, les médecins affirment la difficulté de rendre compte des affections hystériques. Cet article étudie deux types de pratiques scripturaires développées pour rendre compte de ces troubles, l’usage de métaphores et l’insertion de narrations. Dans un premier temps abondent les métaphores (Protée, caméléon, hydre) et il s’ag...
Article
Full-text available
In the late eighteenth century, medicine was not part of the institutional approach to ‘deaf-mutes’ in the Western world: it was teachers rather than doctors who could claim competence for their care. Yet by the second half of the nineteenth century, doctors had supplanted teachers in this role, despite having made no major therapeutic contribution...
Article
Full-text available
While current debates oppose the cochlear implant’s privileging of speech acquisition to the teaching of sign language, nineteenth-century debates, in contrast, opposed those who saw sign language as a tool for learning to read and write, and those who saw in it an autonomous language in which thought itself could be organized. Should the order of...
Article
Full-text available
The last fifty years have seen the accelerated compilation of sign language dictionaries in many countries, but France is the only country in which early, repeated attempts were made, with nine dictionaries published in the nineteenth century. The challenges were many: creating signs, establishing a national sign language, inventing a format for a...
Article
Dans le sillage de la Révolution française, on assiste, d’un côté, à l’émergence du modèle de l’école normale, de l’autre, à la création de modèles pédagogiques différents pour les enfants auxquels ce type d’éducation ne peut s’adresser. Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard, premier directeur de l’Institut national des sourds-muets, et Jean-Marc Gaspard I...
Article
Full-text available
While retracing the scope of the French Republican project promoting speech in Deaf education, this article will analyze how the spread of oralism coincided with the development of new categories to classify children, especially “backward” and “abnormal.” It will examine the responses by Deaf people, who, far from being mere spectators of the chang...
Article
Long before Jacques Derrida undertook a critique of phonocentrism as a form of ethnocentrism, a few teachers of deaf pupils rose to the challenge of working on a sign language independent of the structures of speech. For Derrida, this critique encompassed a reappraisal of Western limitations, while reflecting upon the boundaries and linearity of al...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have proven the specificity and advantages of fingerspelling from a linguistic point of view. But although widespread, the use of fingerspelling today is limited to sign-language interactions. The appreciation for both sign language and fingerspelling, however, is recent; in fact, the two systems were often opposed to each other in t...
Book
Full-text available
Das Buch rekonstruiert erstmals Genese und Veränderungen des diagnostischen Begriffs "Hysterie". Die Karriere dieser Kategorie beginnt weit früher als bisher angenommen – im 18. und nicht erst im 19. Jahrhundert – und wurde auch schon früh in einen medizinischen Kontext gestellt. Die mit dem religiösen Erleben einhergehenden Konvulsionen sind nur s...
Article
Full-text available
When Forms of Life Meet : Sign Language and Citizenship in France at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century This article uses the notion of forms of life to examine the role assigned to language – spoken or signed – in the legal rights and empowerment of “deaf-mute” people in France at the turn of the nineteenth century. It sets out three case studies...
Article
Full-text available
Chapter
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The chapter examines the dynamics of four types of traps in writings on the vapours. Doctors cast the malady itself as a trap, due to the great difficulty of affirming the diagnosis and the deceptions that befall patients ensnared by the vapours. To explain the condition’s causes and determine proper treatment, physicians find it necessary to pursu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Around 1750, there was a great increase in the publication of treatises on the hysteric and hypochondriac vapours. Texts use these different terms to distinguish between a feminine and masculine version of the same malady, and the limited variations between them are thought to be due to a difference in degrees of sensibility. Sixty years later, hys...
Article
Paumerelle's La Philosophie des vapeurs is composed of letters written by a Marquise on the art and use of the vapours, presenting them as an essential tool for any aristocrat worthy of her rank. Although the text begins under the guise of banter, it quickly moves on to overturn common conceptions of the malady. The fragility, sensitiveness, and ne...
Article
Barroux Gilles . Philosophie, maladie et médecine au XVIIIe siècle. Paris, Honoré Champion, 2008, 456 p. - Volume 65 Issue 1 - Sabine Arnaud
Chapter
Full-text available
This article discusses the function of autobiographical narrative in the writing of pathology by the eighteenth-century doctors George Cheyne, Francis Fuller, Claude Révillon, and the Viscount de Puysegur. It studies how their rhetorical strategies stir tensions in readers through the narration of periods of infirmity and the search for a remedy. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the eighteenth century, doctors insisted on the need to persuade patients to retrace their education, their story, their habits. It might appear that everything must be said, yet the analysis of correspondence and consultation reports reveals a reserve that takes shape at the level of the description of symptoms and the naming of the pathology....
Article
Full-text available
In his Questions sur l’Encyclopédie Voltaire casts Doctor Pierre Pomme as an exorcist for modern times. For the philosopher, Pomme’s treatment of hysteric and hypochondriac affections exemplifies the struggle against fanaticism and ignorance. In subsequent private correspondence Pomme and Voltaire exchange letters built around Christian metaphors....
Book
C. J. de Bethmont de Paumerelle’s La Philosophie des vapeurs ou lettres raisonnées d’une jolie femme, sur l’usage des symptômes vaporeux (1774) Paumerelle’s treatise is set out as a series of twenty-five letters from an aristocrat instructing her newly married friend in the art of the vapours. The symptoms are cast as tools indispensable for any a...
Article
Full-text available
In his Questions sur l'Encyclopédie Voltaire casts Doctor Pierre Pomme as an exorcist for modern times. For the philosopher, Pomme's treatment of hysteric and hypochondriac affections exemplifies the struggle against fanaticism and ignorance. In subsequent private correspondence Pomme and Voltaire exchange letters built around Christian metaphors....
Article
Full-text available
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Article
Full-text available
Pierre Hunauld’s Dissertation sur les vapeurs, first published in 1756, recounts a dialogue at the bedside of a cataleptic countess between a physician and a marchioness. This article investigates how Hunauld legitimates the pathology of the vapours throughout his treatise. The characters present the malady as an expression of sensibility. Rather t...

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