Sabina Dolenec

Sabina Dolenec
Zavod za gradbeništvo Slovenije/Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute · The Department of Materials/Laboratory for Cements, Mortars and Ceramics

PhD

About

81
Publications
17,825
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
811
Citations
Citations since 2017
37 Research Items
678 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction
Researcher at the Laboratory for cement, mortars, and ceramics at ZAG with experience in the field of mineral and microstructural characterization of materials. -Main research interests are cements and other mineral binders, alternative cementitious materials, mortars, use of secondary raw materials in building products.-habilitated at the University of Ljubljana,- teaches Technical Mineralogy. works for Cerfication service, - leading expert for technical assessments and approvals.
Additional affiliations
May 2012 - April 2016
Zavod za gradbeništvo Slovenije
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
The cement industry could potentially consume large amounts of solid industrial waste in order to improve its sustainability. The suitability of selected quarry and mine waste as secondary raw materials (SRM) was examined for the sustainable production of cement following the concept of a circular economy. The chemical, mineralogical, and radiologi...
Article
Full-text available
RILEM TC 267 TRM– “Tests for Reactivity of Supplementary Cementitious Materials” recommends the Rapid Reliable Relevant (R ³ ) test as a method for determining the chemical reactivity of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in Portland cement blends. In this paper, the R ³ test was applied to 52 materials from a wide range of conventional an...
Article
Full-text available
The results of phase 1 of an interlaboratory test, coordinated by the RILEM TC 267-TRM “Tests for Reactivity of Supplementary Cementitious Materials” showed that the R3 (rapid, relevant, reliable) test method, by measurement of heat release or bound water, provided the most reliable and relevant determination of the chemical reactivity of supplemen...
Article
RILEM TC 267-TRM is studying tests for the reactivity supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). In the first phase, the lime reactivity (LR) test, which is standardised in Indian standard (IS)-1727, gave promising correlations with 90-days cement mortar strength. In Phase 2, working group 1 has looked at further optimisation and robustness study...
Article
The incorporation mechanism of impurities derived from raw materials into a belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinker with bottom ash was investigated in two raw mixtures. Alkalis lowered the sintering temperature by 50 °C. Ti stabilized β belite and prevented the formation of γ-belite. Sodalite solid solution showed an incomplete substitution of Si by...
Article
Full-text available
Since recycled technologies usage is mandatory for environmental safety, and in this regard, it is important to examine new materials that can be used in construction and are primarily produced from fly ash. In addition to characteristics such as hardness and compressive strength, the given materials must also be radiologically and environmentally...
Article
This study examined the provenance of stone tesserae from three Roman mosaics from Celje, Slovenia, using optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nine microfacies were distinguished. Miliolid limestones identified in the white tesserae, and mudstones/laminated wackestones in the black...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents research on the effect of Portland cement (PC) replacement with metakaolin on the mechanical behavior of flax textile-reinforced cementitious matrices (TRCM). The composition of cementitious matrices and in-situ flax fibres was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis, while the reinforcement efficiency...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of different amounts of gypsum on the hydration of a belite-rich and a ye'elimite-rich belite-calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (BCSA) was investigated. The hydration kinetics, phase assemblages and compressive strength development of cements prepared using ye'elimite/ calcium sulfate molar ratios of 1, 1.5 and 2 were studied. Besides et...
Article
Full-text available
Huge quantities of fly ash and bottom ash are generated from thermal power plants and it presents great concern for country, mainly due to the environmental effects. In this study, fly ashes and bottom ash were characterized from technical and radiological aspects. Health effect due to the activity of radionuclides ²²⁶ Ra, ²³² Th and ⁴⁰ K was estim...
Article
Full-text available
The present study characterizes mortars from Thanjavur Palace (Thanjavur, India) to illustrate ancient production methods and the raw materials used. The mineralogical-petrographic composition of mortars was determined using optical microscopy, supported by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractio...
Article
Potential comprehensive solutions in order to protect environment is the synthesis of alternative mineral binders such as belite-sulfoaluminate cement clinkers, which are considered as energy and carbon reducing, allowing the substitution of natural raw materials with secondary ones. In this study, three different samples of fly ash (FA) from "Niko...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of temperature on the early hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements with two different calcium sulfate to calcium sulfoaluminate molar ratios was investigated. The phase composition and phase assemblage development of cements prepared using molar ratios of 1 and 2.5 were studied at 25, 40 and 60 °C by in situ X-ray powder d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The topic of the workshop is the circular economy and sustainable management of secondary mineral raw materials for their use in the production of low-carbon cements, as well as strategies and solutions that can fast track decarbonisation in the cement industry. Developed registry of Al-containing industrial and mining residues (https://alice-regi...
Article
Full-text available
The potential use of steel slag from treated steel slag in belite-sulfoaluminate cements was investigated in this study. Cement clinkers with two phase compositions were synthesized, allowing the incorporation of different amounts of steel slag. The phase composition and microstructure of cement clinkers at three different sintering temperatures we...
Article
Full-text available
The bottleneck in the process for increasing production of low CO2 mineral binders, based on BCSA (belite sulfoaluminate) clinkers, is the availability of Al-rich raw materials. For that purpose , a new registry of Al-containing secondary mineral residues (industrial and mine waste) has been developed and is presented in this paper. The methodology...
Article
Full-text available
The potential re-use of red mud in the building and construction industry has been the subject of research of many scientists. The presented research is a contribution to the potential solution of this environmental issue through the synthesis of potential construction materials based on red mud. A promising way of recycling these secondary raw mat...
Article
Full-text available
The potential re-use of red mud in the building and construction industry has been the subject of research of many scientists. The presented research is a contribution to the potential solution of this environmental issue through the synthesis of potential construction materials based on red mud. A promising way of recycling these secondary raw mat...
Article
Full-text available
The RILEM technical committee TC 247-DTA ‘Durability Testing of Alkali-Activated Materials’ conducted a round robin testing programme to determine the validity of various durability testing methods, originally devel-oped for Portland cement based-concretes, for the assessment of the durability of alkali-activated concretes. The outcomes of the roun...
Article
Full-text available
Novel prefabricated insulating façade panels were developed from construction and demolition waste (CDW) aggregates under the framework of the European H2020 project InnoWEE. These non-structural components, aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of existing buildings, consist of an insulating plate covered by a facing layer made of CDW aggregat...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence of different cooling regimes on the microstructure and consequent reactivity of belite-sulfoaluminate clinkers. The cement clinkers were synthesized by incorporating secondary raw materials, such as titanogypsum and bottom ash, to the natural raw materials. Clinker phases were determined by Rietveld quantitativ...
Article
Full-text available
The excavation conducted in 1999 in Ljubljana (Slovenia), in Insula XXVII of the Roman colonia Iulia Emona, un-earthed the remains of a column shaft with an organic core set onto a stone block. The contribution presents this find, its context and likely parallels, the mineralogical-petrographic composition of the stucco, type of the pigments used,...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of different curing temperatures on the hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement was investigated at 20, 40 and 60 °C. The hydration kinetics and the hydrated phase assemblages were studied by isothermal calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as field emiss...
Article
Full-text available
Garnets (19 pieces) of Late Antique Sfibulae from the archaeological site at LajhKranj (Slovenia) were analysed with Raman microspectroscopy to obtain their mineral characteristic, including inclusion assemblage. Most garnets were determined as almandines Type I of pyralspite solid solution series; however, three garnets showed a higher Mg, Mn and...
Article
Drenov Grič black limestone is considered to be one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its black colour interwoven with white veins. Over the centuries, it has been extracted from two major quarries located west of Ljubljana. One of these quarries has been declared a valuable natural feature of national importance and is protecte...
Article
Full-text available
In the process of protection and consolidation of valuable materials, the efficiency is the crucial property that needs to be considered. TiO2/ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) coating and silicate- and carbonate-based consolidants were synthesized and proposed to be used for protection and consolidation of four porous mineral substrates: brick,...
Article
Full-text available
Fly ash and phosphogypsum were used as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) by-products for the synthesis of belite-sulfoaluminate clinkers. The influence of raw mixture composition and firing temperature was investigated. Clinkers and cements were examined by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispers...
Article
The present study deals with the characterisation of pigments used in two overlaid gothic wall paintings from the former 13th century Minorite church of St. Francis of Assisi (Koper, Slovenia), in order to define differences in the technologies used. Paint layer samples were analysed via Raman microspectroscopy, supported by SEM/EDS and FT-IR analy...
Article
Full-text available
The pozzolanic activity of five different types of ash was studied using various direct and indirect methods. In addition to strength activity index (SAI) determination and the Frattini test, ash pozzolanicity was assessed via differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses (DTA/TG) after curing for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that, d...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy metal abundance and potential environmental risks are reported for surface sediments (n = 21) from the Port of Koper area, Republic of Slovenia. The enrichment factor (EF) indicates minor enrichment in arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and zinc (Zn), moderately to severely enriched with nickel...
Article
A primary aim of RILEM TC 267-TRM: “Tests for Reactivity of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs)” is to compare and evaluate the performance of conventional and novel SCM reactivity test methods across a wide range of SCMs. To this purpose, a round robin campaign was organized to investigate 10 different tests for reactivity and 11 SCMs cove...
Article
This paper investigates the properties of injection grouts with different amounts of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) replacement by metakaolin MK1 or MK2. The focus is dedicated to the fresh properties of the NHL-based grouts, as well as to a parallel study of the evolution of compressive strength and phase composition of hardened grouts, through test...
Chapter
An overview of alternative repair mortars based on metakaolin, fly ash and slag, produced by alkali activation technology, and future trends.EN 1504-3 requirements for the performance (including durability) and safety of products and systems to be used for the structural and nonstructural repair of concrete structures.A discussion on some laborator...
Article
This paper presents a comparison of consolidant effectiveness for a newly developed consolidant based on soluble calcium compound calcium acetoacetate and two nano-lime-based consolidants available on the market, i.e., CaLoSiL® E15 and Nanorestore®. Impressionist wall paintings made using the fresco technique in the Franciscan Church in Ljubljana w...
Article
The implementation of repair works on concrete structures is on the increase since many existing concrete buildings have been exposed for long periods of time to different climates, as well as to other severe conditions, and have consequently deteriorated. Repair mortars need to fulfil the requirements of the EN 1504 series before being used in pra...
Article
Full-text available
The precise and accurate determination of sulphate levels in cement is of utmost importance due to the potential occurrence of internal sulphate attack in concrete, which affects the latter’s durability, and thus, also the safety of concrete constructions. The estimated measurement uncertainty provides a level of confidence in the experimental resu...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia) with the aim of defining their provenance. A total of 28 representative finds (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and tw...
Article
Full-text available
This study concerns the microfacies characterization of white and black limestone tesserae from selected Roman floor mosaics in Slovenia, with the aim of defining their provenance. We investigated 42 tesserae from 15 different mosaics from the archaeological sites of Lju-bljana, Izola, Mošnje, Ptuj, Črnomelj and Šentpavel, dated from the first cent...
Article
This paper presents a new technique employed in the construction of a lightweight backing for the Roman floor mosaic XIII.8 from Emona (Ljubljana, Slovenia). The rather large mosaic did not remain in situ but was instead lifted in 1997 before being restored and reassembled during a long and demanding conservation process between 2013 and 2014. Due...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of recent lacustrine sediments, of Anodonta cygnea shells and of fish species Rutilus rutilus dojranensis from the Lake Dojran (FY Republic of Macedonia, southern part of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM)), which provide indirect evidence regarding biomineralization and...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (northeastern Slovenia) is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. Pohorje granodiorite is a grey, calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma) that is distinguished by thick white aplite−pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, subsidiary bi...
Article
The study deals with the characterisation of paint layers from the wall paintings that decorated two excavated Roman villae rusticae in Slovenia. The villa in Mošnje, located in the NW of Slovenia, was built in the 1st half of the 1st century AD and was in use until the end of the 2nd century AD, while the coastal villa in Školarice, built in the s...
Article
Archaeological excavations of Roman Celeia (present-day Celje, Slovenia) carried out about 30 years ago revealed the remains of a Roman residential building where more than 9000 fragments of wall paintings were found. The past manual reassembling of fragments proved to be time consuming, limiting the amount of the material that can be examined and...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with spectroscopic and porosimetric analyses of pottery from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje, Slovenia. Samples of coarse ware and fine ware, which according to archaeological considerations have been recognised as local or perhaps regional products, were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, mercury...
Article
Full-text available
Roman slag from the archaeological site near Mošnje (NW Slovenia) was studied with respect to its mineralogical and geochemical characteristics. Samples were analysed with light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and Raman microspectroscopy. A chemical investigat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (northeastern Slovenia) is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. Pohorje granodiorite is a grey, calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma) that is distinguished by thick white aplite-pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, subsidiary biotite an...
Article
Podpeč Limestone is characterized by its dark grey or nearly black colour, contrasting with white fossil shells of the mollusc Lithiotis. This formation, which has been dated as Lower Jurassic, occurs in southern and southwestern Slovenia and is particularly conspicuous in areas SW of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located near...
Article
This study concerns the investigation of mortar layers and pigments of wall paintings from the Roman town of Emona (Ljubljana, Slovenia). Fragments of wall paintings consist of up to three preserved mortar layers. The mineralogical–petrographic compositions of the mortars were determined by means of optical microscopy and FT–IR spectroscopy. The in...
Article
The Karst (Kras) region of Slovenia is one of the world’s most interesting areas of natural stone reserves. The region is mainly composed of Cretaceous shallow-water limestone, with the most common type currently excavated being the rudist limestone of the Lipica Formation, which date to the Santonian to Campanian times. The Karst region has been a...
Article
Full-text available
The crystals of calcite from the quarry Liboje were investigated and compared with calcite crystals from other quarries in the surrounding area of Celje. In calcite crystals from the Liboje quarry, the crystal form of flat rhombohedron faces were predominant (012). At a later stage of crystallization, the crystal form of steep rhombohedrons prevail...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a compatible repair mortar for two lithotypes of Peračica tuff (Slovenia): fine-grained and coarse-grained. Mineralogical–petrographic characterization of tuff was carried out via optical microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and the relevant physical–mechanical properties of tuff and repair mortars were...
Article
The study deals with the characterization of pigments from the newly discovered wall painting at the Dominican Monastery in Ptuj (Slovenia) in order to acquire detailed information about the technology used, as well as to identify the deterioration products. The uncovered wall painting, depicting a vivid procession of riders, is dated to the late 1...
Article
The baroque chalice made in 1732 contains 456 embedded gemstones and is one the most richly decorated chalices in Slovenia. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, in combination with gemology microscopy and ultraviolet fluorescence, individual types of gemstones and certain inclusions were analysed and determined. The chalice was adorned with 24...
Article
This study deals with the mineralogical and chemical characterization of archaeometallurgical material from the Roman archaeological site of Castra (Ajdovščina, western Slovenia). Samples were initially analysed via optical microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, with the composition of individual phases then determined using scanning electron mic...
Article
In this study the microstructural characteristics of the materials selected from two cultural-heritage sites (the Dornava Manor, Slovenia, and the Bacˇ Fortress, Serbia) and of the model samples - the control and aged ones - were investigated. The samples were characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and total-specific-area ana...
Article
Within the scope of this study, the durability properties of mortar prepared with pozzolanic cement were examined. The physical-mechanical properties of the mortars were determined after their exposure to various aggressive media (a sodium sulphate water solution, a magnesium sulphate water solution, seawater, and a water solution of NO32-, SO42-,...
Article
The aim of this research was to determine how best to utilize two environmentally challenging types of waste: sewage sludge, and a particular type of waste ash, biomass ash, which is obtained from biomass combustion processes. The results of the performed research have shown that liquid sewage sludge can, in fact, be successfully stabilized with bi...
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with the mechanical and microstructural characterization of geopolymers synthesized from locally available fly ash. A low calcium fly ash was activated using a sodium silicate solution. Samples were characterized by means of flexura! and compressive tests, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XR...
Article
Full-text available
In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe a...
Article
This study is a geochemical analytical approach to the characterization of pottery samples from an archaeological site near Mošnje (Slovenia). Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and statistical analyses were used to determine detailed geochemical properties of the pottery sherds and to identify potentially individual groups among the samp...
Article
By mixing the sewage biodegradable sludge and biomass ash a stable composite is formed. A study showed that, in this way, a building material with a compressive strength of about 2 MPa is produced, which can be used mainly for landfill covers, road-shoulder management, road-base stabilization and rehabilitation of degraded areas.An analysis of the...
Article
Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploite...
Article
Full-text available
Podpeč limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of...
Article
Roman pottery excavated from the remains of a villa rustica near Mošnje (Slovenia) was analyzed in terms of its mineralogical and basic geochemical characteristics, to elucidate the technologies of manufacture. Selected samples were examined with optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, SEM–EDS and ICP-OES. Results show that the studied potter...
Article
Full-text available
The black limestone from Drenov Grič quarry (Central Slovenia) is considered one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its typical color. The limestone was characterized from mineralogical, chemical, and petrophysical points of view. Furthermore, deterioration phenomena of the limestone from two monuments exposed to indoor and outdo...
Article
This study deals with the characterization of mortars collected from bath complex of the Roman villa rustica from an archeological site near Mošnje (Slovenia). The mortar layers of the mosaics, wall paintings and mortar floors were investigated. A special aggregate consisting of brick fragments was present in the mortars studied. The mineralogical...
Article
The black limestone widely used in Slovenian monuments, particularly in the baroque architecture, is deteriorating extensively due to salt crystallization. Samples of soluble salts from two important historical monuments (in Ljubljana, Slovenia) were investigated in terms of their mineral and isotopic (S and O) compositions. Results revealed the pr...