S. Craig Roberts

S. Craig Roberts
University of Stirling · Department of Psychology

BSc, PhD

About

215
Publications
184,171
Reads
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8,000
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
University of Stirling
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2010 - July 2015
University of Stirling
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2004 - August 2010
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Lecturer/Senior Lecturer

Publications

Publications (215)
Preprint
Background: A recent study focusing on dietary predictors of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) found that women with higher levels of partner support, and those who had use oral contraception (OC) when they met the father, both tended to report less severe NVP compared with previous non-users or those with less supportive partners. We provide...
Article
Full-text available
Studies show that specific vocal modulations, akin to those of infant-directed speech (IDS) and perhaps music, play a role in communicating intentions and mental states during human social interaction. Based on this, we propose a model for the evolution of musicality—the capacity to process musical information—in relation to human vocal communicati...
Article
Voice characteristics are important to communicate socially relevant information. Recent research has shown that individuals alter their voices depending on the context of social interactions and perceived characteristics of the audience, and this affects how they are perceived. Numerous studies have also shown that the presence of bodily odours ca...
Article
According to the congruency hypothesis, relationship satisfaction is predicted by the congruency (or non-congruency) between current use of oral contraceptives (OC) and their use during relationship formation. This is based on reports that OC may alter women’s mate preferences, so that attraction to their partner may have changed in non-congruent w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies show that specific vocal modulations, akin to those of infant-directed speech and perhaps music, play a role in communicating intentions and mental states during human social interaction. Based on this, we propose a model for the evolution of musicality –the capacity to process musical information– in relation to human vocal communication....
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) suppress gonadal hormone production and are commonly used to treat prostate cancer (PC) in men and conditions ranging from uterine fibroids to estrogen-sensitive cancers in women. They are also used to delay sexual development in children considering gender reassig...
Article
Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that affects women around the world. Previous studies show that NVP is associated with dietary changes and aversions towards certain kinds of food. It has been suggested that these changes could have adaptive functions, such as protecting the embryo from harmful teratogenic substances in cer...
Poster
Full-text available
Men look different than women, well that is not a big surprise, but we wanted to study the phenomena of sexual dimorphism of human faces more thoroughly. Every human face can be represented as a position in a 144-dimensional space. That is a start. We collected face shapes in 8 different cultures, In Cameroon, Namibia, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Repub...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part of the...
Article
Full-text available
p>This is a correction notice for article bjaa041 (DOI: https:// doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa041), published 20 June 2020. An incorrect version of the caption to Figure 5 was mistakenly included in the published paper. An updated version is given below. Neither the data nor the paper's conclusions were affected by this correction. The authors sincer...
Article
Full-text available
In a preregistered, cross-sectional study we investigated whether olfactory loss is a reliable predictor of COVID-19 using a crowdsourced questionnaire in 23 languages to assess symptoms in individuals self-reporting recent respiratory illness. We quantified changes in chemosensory abilities during the course of the respiratory illness using 0-100...
Preprint
Full-text available
Now published in Chemical Senses doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjaa081. Background: COVID-19 has heterogeneous manifestations, though one of the most common symptoms is a sudden loss of smell (anosmia or hyposmia). We investigated whether olfactory loss is a reliable predictor of COVID-19. Methods: This preregistered, cross-sectional study used a crowdsou...
Preprint
Full-text available
Voice characteristics are important to communicate socially relevant information. Recent research has shown that individuals alter their voices depending on the context of social interactions and perceived characteristics of the audience, and this affects how they are perceived. Numerous studies have also shown that the presence of bodily odours ca...
Data
This R Markdown document contains the supplementary materials and methods, as well as results, including all code, and step by step detailed explanations for all analyses, figures and tables included in Leongómez, J.D., Sánchez, O.R., Vásquez-Amézquita, M., & Roberts, S.C. (2019). Contextualising courtship: Exploring male body odour effects on voca...
Article
Full-text available
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a core part of the adaptive immune system. As in other vertebrate taxa, it may also affect human chemical communication via odour-based mate preferences, with greater attraction towards MHC-dissimilar partners. However, despite some well-known findings, the available evidence is equivocal and made compl...
Article
Full-text available
Odours can have a significant influence on the outcome of social interactions. However, we have yet to characterize the chemical signature of any specific social cue in human body odour, and we know little about how changes in social context influence odour chemistry. Here, we argue that adoption of emerging analytical techniques from other discipl...
Article
Although anthropologists frequently report the centrality of odours in the daily lives and cultural beliefs of many small-scale communities, Western scholars have historically considered the sense of smell as minimally involved in human communication. Here, we suggest that the origin and persistence of this latter view might be a consequence of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Now published in Chemical Senses doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjaa041. Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, generally lacked quantitative measure...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is clear sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part o...
Article
There is substantial evidence for assortative partner preferences in humans based on physical characteristics. In contrast, evidence suggests that olfactory preferences tend to be disassortative, with people preferring body odour of potential partners who are dissimilar at key genetic loci, perhaps to gain fitness advantage through offspring hetero...
Article
Previous studies on various vertebrates have shown that quantity and quality of food intake affect odour attractiveness as perceived by potential mates. In humans, the quality of body odour is similarly affected by ingested foods, such as by variation in meat and garlic intake. Nevertheless, it is not known whether quantity of food has an impact on...
Article
There is evidence across a range of bi-parental species that physiological changes may occur in partnered males prior to the birth of an infant. It has been hypothesised that these hormonal changes might facilitate care-giving behaviours, which could augment infant survival. The mechanism that induces these changes has not been identified, but evid...
Chapter
Humans were once considered to be microsmatic, but recent research suggests that we can use our sense of smell to detect important, socially relevant information about conspecifics. However, much of the research conducted todate has investigated natural, fragrance free human body odours. While this is important in order to understand the evolution...
Conference Paper
Substantial evidence in animals suggests that mate selection is positively influenced by relative dissimilarity at genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and that MHC-disassortative preferences are mediated by odour. However, evidence for similar preferences in humans is mixed. We tested odour preferences in a sample of 56 monozygotic...
Article
Full-text available
The emotion of disgust plays a key role in the behavioral immune system, a set of disease-avoidance processes constituting a frontline defense against pathogenic threats. In the context of growing research interest in disgust, as well as recognition of its role in several psychiatric disorders, there is need for an improved understanding of behavio...
Data
JonesSupplementalMaterial – Supplemental material for No Compelling Evidence That Preferences for Facial Masculinity Track Changes in Women’s Hormonal Status
Data
JonesOpenPracticesDisclosure – Supplemental material for No Compelling Evidence That Preferences for Facial Masculinity Track Changes in Women’s Hormonal Status
Article
Full-text available
Although widely cited as strong evidence that sexual selection has shaped human facial-attractiveness judgments, findings suggesting that women’s preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces are related to women’s hormonal status are equivocal and controversial. Consequently, we conducted the largest-ever longitudinal study of the hormo...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that composite facial images are perceived as more attractive compared with individual images, suggesting a preference for heterozygosity. Similarly, there is evidence that preferences for body odours might be linked to heterozygosity. Here, we tested whether blending individual body odours into composites would follow a simi...
Article
Full-text available
A number of recent studies have implicated that incongruent use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) negatively affects various aspects of women's romantic relationships. It has been suggested that women with incongruent HC use (a discrepancy in HC use status between when they first met their current partner and the time of study participation) report...
Article
Human axillary (armpit) odors are highly diverse and have potential to reveal a wide range of individual information. This is echoed in gas chromatography findings, which show that axillary odors are comprised of many volatile compounds. Despite this, only a small number of verbal descriptors are used when investigating the perceptual qualities of...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that human-produced androstenes affect attitudinal, emotional, and physiological states in a context-dependent manner, suggesting that they could be involved in modulating social interactions. For instance, androstadienone appears to increase attention specifically to emotional information. Most of the previous work focused on one...
Preprint
Although widely cited as strong evidence that sexual selection has shaped human facial attractiveness judgments, evidence that preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces are related to women’s hormonal status is equivocal and controversial. Consequently, we conducted the largest ever longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of wo...
Article
Full-text available
Cues available in facial skin are used to assess mate quality in humans and non-human primates. In men, perception of skin healthiness and facial attractiveness are associated with heterozygosity at genes in the major histocompatibility complex, with potential implications for securing direct benefits through mate choice. There is, however, some de...
Article
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual...
Article
Full-text available
Non-verbal behaviours, including voice characteristics during speech, are an important way to communicate social status. Research suggests that individuals can obtain high social status through dominance (using force and intimidation) or through prestige (by being knowledgeable and skilful). However, little is known regarding differences in the voc...
Data
Ratings of targets’ attributes given by the participants. Results are split by target (neutral: white bars; dominant: light grey bars; prestigious: dark grey bars) and attribute rated. a) Facial images; b) Employee testimonials; c) Names; d) Job titles. Bars represent mean ± 1 s.e.m. (TIF)
Data
Descriptive statistics for all vocal parameters. Results represent mean ± SD for male and female participants to each type of target (neutral, dominant, prestigious). (XLSX)
Data
Context-dependent variation in vocal parameters. T = Target (neutral, dominant, prestigious), Q = Question, PD = Participant Dominance, PP = Participant Prestige, PS = Participant Sex (male, female). Results are from repeated-measures general linear models for each vocal parameter, with Holm–Bonferroni adjustment for multiple tests. Significant eff...
Data
Planned contrasts estimated for participants with varying degrees of dominance and prestige. T = Target (neutral, dominant, prestigious), Q = Question, PS = Participant Sex, N = Neutral Target, HS = High-status Targets (dominant, prestigious), D = Dominant Target, P = Prestigious Target. For participants, self-perceived status covariates (PD = Part...
Data
Planned contrasts estimated for participants with varying degrees of dominance and prestige, per question. T = Target (neutral, dominant, prestigious), N = Neutral Target, HS = High-status Targets (dominant, prestigious), D = Dominant Target, P = Prestigious Target. For participants, self-perceived status covariates (PD = Participant Dominance, PP...
Data
Independent ratings of target attributes. Mean ratings for each attribute (images, employee testimonials, names, and job titles). N = Neutral target, D = Dominant target, P = Prestigious target. Results are from repeated-measures general linear models (d.f. = 2, 42 in each case) for each rated attribute. Significant effects are in bold. (XLSX)
Data
Excel file with data on participants and analysed acoustic characteristics. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology. Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the sig...
Poster
Full-text available
Previous investigations showed relationship between relative facial width (fWHR) and certain behavioural measures of intra-sexual competition such as aggressiveness, formidability or number of penalties in ice hockey and soccer players. However, due to the complex nature of these measures it is not clear which of their components primarily affect t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Humans produce numerous volatile compounds from different areas of the body, either as a direct result of metabolic processes or indirectly via metabolism of resident microflora. Body odors vary between individuals, partly due to genetic differences, but odors of the same individual also vary across time due to environmental influences. We discuss...
Article
Full-text available
People tend to choose perfumes to complement their body odour. As kin share some body odour qualities, their ability to select complementary perfumes for relatives might be higher compared with selection for nonrelatives. We tested this in two studies, comparing selection of a perfume for a target man by himself and by either a familiar but unrelat...
Article
Full-text available
Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (s...
Article
Full-text available
Women who are regularly cycling exhibit different partner preferences than those who use hormonal contraception. Preliminary evidence appears to suggest that during pregnancy women's partner preferences also diverge from those prevalent while regularly cycling. This is consistent with the general assertion that women's mate preferences are impacted...
Article
The morphology of human female breasts typical for their permanent fat deposits appears to be unique among primates. It has been previously suggested that female breast morphology arose as a result of sexual selection. This is supported by evidence showing that women with larger breasts tend to have higher estrogen levels; breast size may therefore...
Article
Full-text available
Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favoured in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship c...
Article
Cultural practices may either enhance or interfere with evolved preferences as predicted by culture-gene coevolution theory. Here, we investigated the impact of artificial fragrances on the assessment of biologically relevant information in human body odor. To do this, we examined cross-sensory consistency (across faces and odors) in the perception...
Poster
Full-text available
Cross-culturally, people use fragrances which may affect the outcomes of social interactions. It has been suggested that fragrances might mask body odours or interact with them in an idiosyncratic fashion. To test these competing hypotheses we performed a series of experiments involving: i) individual body odour discrimination, ii) attribution of p...