Ryan Charles Meldrum

Ryan Charles Meldrum
Florida International University | FIU · Criminology and Criminal Justice

Ph.D.
Working on a 3-year grant focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the GREAT program in Central America

About

80
Publications
65,025
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,092
Citations
Introduction
I am a Professor and Director of Research and Communications in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida International University. My research foci encompass various aspects of juvenile delinquency and young adult offending, the nexus between health and crime, and racial/ethnic disparities in the punishment of youth.
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - August 2021
Florida International University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • self-control; delinquency; sleep deprivation; peer influence; measurement; behavioral genetics; neurocriminology
August 2010 - August 2016
Florida International University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • self-control; delinquency; sleep deprivation; peer influence; measurement
August 2006 - July 2010
Florida State University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
August 2006 - July 2010
Florida State University
Field of study
  • Criminology

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Research surrounding the intergenerational transmission of self-control has expanded recently. Yet, findings are mixed, and key limitations regarding the inclusion of distinct measures of parental attachment toward children and parenting practices within a longitudinal framework remain. We seek to address these limitations by providing a l...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study explores the effects of racial/ethnic identity on youths’ likelihood of receiving a suspension from school as well as whether these disparities further vary by gender. In light of recent demographic shifts within the U.S., alternative theoretical rationales emphasizing such issues as “exotic threat,” “stereotype lift,” and “r...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to delinquency. Yet, developmental sequalae accounting for this association remain unclear, with previous research limited by cross-sectional research designs and investigations of singular mediating processes. To redress these shortcomings, this study examines the longitudinal association b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Research on digital self-harm – the anonymous or pseudonymous posting of hurtful or negative information about oneself on social media platforms – is still in its infancy. Yet unexplored is whether digital self-harm is related to suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Methods: In the current study, survey data were collected in 2019 fro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study examines the relationship between sleep duration, depression, and engagement in a novel cyber behavior, digital self-harm, among adolescents. Method: Logistic regression analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2019 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (N = 9,819; 48% male; avg. grade level = 9th grade [...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have called for greater understanding of the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on later youth development, including research on sleep as a potential contributor to delinquency. This study seeks to extend that work by situating the focus on ACEs and sleep within a life-course perspective, one that examines life events and tur...
Article
Full-text available
Social bond theory provides a clear theoretical link between attachment to parents and reduced involvement with substance use regardless of the substance use-related attitudes and behaviors of parents. In contrast, social learning theories contend that attachment to parents may increase substance use if youth perceive that their parents are less di...
Article
Full-text available
Research on digital self-harm - the anonymous or pseudonymous posting of hurtful or negative information about oneself on the internet and social media platforms - is in the early stages of development. While scholars have started to focus on the correlates of this behavior, there remains a need to anchor the study of digital self-harm within estab...
Article
Full-text available
Research has established that individuals lower in self-control are at increased risk of offline criminal victimization due to their proclivity to engage in risky routine activities. While some studies have investigated whether a similar pattern is observed in the online context, additional inquiry into whether the link between low self-control and...
Article
Full-text available
A wealth of research links exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with negative outcomes including nicotine and marijuana use. In addition, an emerging line of research has documented associations between exposure to ACEs and vaping activity in American adults and international samples of adolescents. Very limited research, however, has e...
Article
Full-text available
Overlooked in the extensive literature on self-control theory are propositions with respect to street gangs. In Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) perspective, gangs are loose confederations of youth with low self-control and their criminological relevance is attributable to “politics and romance” rather than to rigorous empirical research. Prior res...
Article
Full-text available
The assumption that people are inherently self-interested and that legal controls are needed to prevent crime underlies several criminological perspectives. In the current study, this assumption is tested by having a sample of 500 U.S. adults report on the likelihood they would engage in criminal behavior if all crime were legal on one day each yea...
Article
Full-text available
A vast body of research demonstrates that the consequences of the “criminalization” of school discipline are not racially equitable, and Black and Hispanic students are more likely than White youth to experience exclusionary school punishments. However, limited prior work has examined the factors that might strengthen or weaken racial/ethnic inequa...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, accounts of the so-called progressive prosecutor have been juxtaposed against the more traditional, law-and-order prosecutor in the United States. Yet, little effort has been made to empirically investigate these orientations among prosecutors. In this multijurisdictional study, prosecutors were asked to rate the importance of a va...
Article
Full-text available
Susceptibility to peer influence among adolescents is associated with a variety of negative interpersonal and psychosocial outcomes. Although proper sleep is crucial for adolescent development and well-being, no study to date has examined the influence of sleep problems on susceptibility to peer influence. We assess this relationship using two wave...
Article
Full-text available
Research finds low self-control is associated with a myriad of delinquent, criminal, and antisocial behaviors. Less attention, however, has been directed at investigating whether low self-control is related to environmental harm. The current study contributes to this area of research in two ways. First, we explicate why low self-control would relat...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate whether sleep duration is associated with adolescent handgun carrying behaviors. Design: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (FYSAS) is a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Setting: The state of Florida. Participants: Middle school and high school students (n = 42,182) attending public schools in 2018. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Much prior research has examined racial and ethnic disparities in juvenile court interventions, and the evidence suggests that minority youth are sanctioned more harshly than similarly situated White youth. Additionally, scholars have explored the potential negative consequences of juvenile justice contact, and some research indicates that more int...
Article
Full-text available
Research provides consistent evidence that non-offenders have greater self-control than offenders. While such differences exist across a range of samples, the ability of measures of self-control to discriminate between different groups merits additional attention. We advance research on this topic by comparing the self-control of police officers to...
Article
Full-text available
Research finds a lack of sleep during adolescence is associated with a variety of negative outcomes and suggests that early school start times contribute to this problem. Criminologists have largely overlooked the relevance of school start times for adolescent delinquency and substance use, precluding multi-disciplinary collaborations between crimi...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research links both a lack of self-control and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to a variety of negative health and behavior outcomes, including delinquent and criminal behavior. To date, relatively little research considers whether experiencing a greater variety of ACEs is associated with lower self-control. We advance this are...
Article
Full-text available
Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice: Public opinion studies concerning the International Criminal Court show that a majority of the U.S. public supports the ICC and U.S. participation with the Court. Yet, such studies provide no information to participants about the lack of protections...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents findings from an assessment of racial and ethnic disparities in prosecution and sentencing in Hillsborough County, Florida. Among multiple decision points analyzed, disparities are not large. Whenever differences among white, black and Hispanic defendants in prosecutorial and judicial decisions exist, whites are more disadvanta...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the known implications of texting while driving for reducing driver alertness and increasing traffic accidents, investigating the potential causes of the behavior is something that criminologists have only recently started to investigate. The current study builds on this small body of research by assessing whether low self-control is associ...
Article
For decades, scholars have examined various aspects concerning the development of intelligence. Little research, however, has considered the potential for peers to influence intellectual ability. To investigate this possibility, data collected on a sample of 892 adolescents and their best friends who participated in the Study of Early Child Care an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of 78 interviews and 275 surveys completed with prosecutors in Jacksonville, FL, Chicago, IL, Tampa, FL, and Milwaukee, WI. It is the first in a series of reports of the national project focusing on advancing prosecutorial effectiveness and fairness funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The project is lead by research...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To examine whether perceptions of school safety and neighborhood safety are associated with insufficient sleep during adolescence. Design: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (FYSAS) is a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Setting: The state of Florida. Participants: Middle-school and high-school students (n = 7,958) attendi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Recent research provides evidence of intergenerational continuity in self-control. This body of research, however, can be advanced in several ways to enhance our understanding of this association. Methods: We add to this literature by examining whether maternal and paternal self-control, assessed during a child’s infancy, is associated w...
Article
Full-text available
Warr (2016) recently proposed that remorselessness may offer a useful explanation for understanding persistence and desistance from criminal offending. While early empirical evidence supports this framework, not only is replication needed but there is also a need to consider potential determinants of remorselessness. Using data from the Study of Ea...
Article
Full-text available
A wealth of literature has examined the association between breastfeeding and the development of cognitive abilities in childhood. In particular, at least some evidence exists suggesting that breastfed children perform better on measures of intelligence later in life. While a correlation appears to be present, fewer observational studies have inclu...
Article
Recent meta-analyses on the relationship between prenatal testosterone—measured by the 2D:4D digit ratio—and aggression and analogous traits have reported an overall weak association. Fewer studies, however, have focused specifically on violent behavior. Yet, many of these studies have relied on small samples of incarcerated men and limited their f...
Article
Full-text available
Research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is positively associated with substance use, but important issues remain underexamined. Specifically, does the risk of substance use resulting from time spent engaged in unstructured socializing with peers begin immediately, or is a certain minimum threshold of time spent with peers required?...
Article
Purpose: Holding street code values has emerged as a significant predictor of antisocial behavior. In light of this evidence, researchers have devoted increased attention to the factors which contribute to the adoption of street code values. Methods: The current study builds on this growing body of research by considering the extent to which multip...
Article
Purpose: A vast literature finds that low self-control is associated with a myriad of antisocial behaviors. Consequently, increasing attention has focused on the causes of low self-control. While criminologists have directed significant attention to studying its social causes, fewer studies have considered its neural bases. Methods: We add to th...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeA large body of research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is associated with antisocial behavior. Less attention, however, has been devoted to identifying the sources of unstructured socializing, particularly in the context of accounting for changes in unstructured socializing and how various factors might interact with one ano...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have evaluated associations between parenting practices, adolescent self-control, and adolescent antisocial behavior. Yet, few studies have examined associations between these constructs in early childhood or examined the extent to which both maternal and paternal self-control shapes them. To address these gaps, the current stud...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood aggression consistently predicts delinquency during adolescence, but research in this area reveals exceptions, with some highly aggressive children becoming relatively nondelinquent adolescents. This directs attention to the factors that explain why early aggression is sometimes not followed by later delinquency. This study considers that...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking mothers is associated with their child’s development of self-control from childhood into adolescence. Methods We use longitudinal survey data collected from non-smoking mothers (n = 750) who participated in the U.S. Study of Early Child...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is positively associated with delinquency during adolescence. Yet, existing research has not ruled out the potential for confounding due to genetic factors and factors that can be traced to environments shared between siblings. To fill this void, the current study examines whet...
Article
Research on the topics of general intelligence and friendship formation separately has elicited a tremendous amount of attention across decades of psychological scholarship. To date, however, less effort has been aimed at uniting these lines of inquiry. In particular, do friendship bonds emerge, based in part, on shared levels of cognitive ability?...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As part of the Juvenile Justice System Improvement Project (JJSIP), the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice began implementation of a Disposition Matrix starting in 2013 to guide Juvenile Probation Officers in their recommendations to the court. This report represents the second evaluation as to whether youth who received dispositions within the...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of self-control has been used to account for a wide variety of outcomes, both criminal and otherwise. Recently, researchers have started investigating associations between parental self-control and family functioning. This study expands this area of research by assessing the extent to which parental low self-control and official involve...
Article
Purpose. Peer delinquency and unstructured socializing have been identified as important correlates of delinquency and substance use. This state-of-the-art review explicates research into these associations to identify important trends in the literature and directions for future research. Methods. A search of the criminological literature and liter...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research finds that low self-control is associated with a variety of antisocial behaviors and undesirable outcomes. Yet, several behavioral domains remain unexplored. The purpose of the current study is to expand the boundaries of the literature concerning the behavioral outcomes of low self-control by examining its association with...
Article
Full-text available
Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between pare...
Article
Full-text available
The overlap between victimization and offending is well documented. Yet, there have been fewer investigations of the reasons underlying this relationship. One possible, but understudied, explanation lies with Gottfredson and Hirschi's arguments regarding self-control. The current study adds to this line of inquiry by assessing whether low self-cont...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. Research indicates respondents overestimate the similarity between their own deviance and that of their peers. Extending Rebellon and Modecki's (2014) study, we examine if item-level error correlations in structural models reduce bias for non-peer-based, theoretically derived covariates such as self-control. Our specific interest lies i...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of United States foreign policy is a constant in academia and the media. Among the widely analyzed and hotly debated issues on U.S. foreign policy is its relationship with the International Criminal Court (ICC). Yet, there has been little research on American public opinion if the U.S. should be more involved with the ICC. This paper analy...
Article
Full-text available
Significant attention has been directed at evaluating Gottfredson and Hirschi’s claim that parental socialization has a direct influence on self-control and an indirect influence on criminal behavior. Yet, only recently have researchers investigated the role parental self-control occupies in shaping these processes. To advance research in this area...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, researchers have identified many programs that successfully reduce juvenile delinquency. Evaluations of these programs generally do not, however, assess the mediating variables that intervene between program participation and reduced delinquency. Thus, although much insight has been gained on which programs are effective, the que...
Book
Full-text available
Self-Control and Crime Over the Life Course introduces readers to the idea of self-control and its importance for understanding criminal behavior. Using intuitive examples, the authors draw attention to the close connection between self-control and the behavioral choices people make, especially in reference to criminal, deviant, and harmful behavio...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have devoted significant attention to the measurement of peer delinquency, with recent work indicating that perceptual measures are plagued by various biases. Yet, absent from this research is an inquiry into whether the manner in which perceptions are typically operationalized potentially contributes to these limitations. In this study...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work provides evidence that reduced sleep duration has detrimental effects on a range of developmentally related outcomes during adolescence. Yet, the potential confounding influence of genetic and shared environmental effects has not been sufficiently addressed. This study addresses this issue by analyzing cross-sectional data from the twin...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. Methods 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (n = 15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on w...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of methodological issues have been raised over self-reports of delinquency and its correlates. In this study, we call attention to the provision of untruthful information and provide an investigation of this issue using a survey item that assesses a respondent's use of a fictitious drug in relation to reports of delinquency and traditiona...
Article
Full-text available
"Peer deviance" is normally measured through one's perceptions of the deviant behavior of friends. However, recent research suggests that peer deviance perceptions may be inaccurate and unreflective of a peer's actual deviance. Using dyadic data, the current study addresses the potential for three distinct sources of misperceptions of peer deviance...
Article
Full-text available
page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any re...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work provides evidence that sleep deprivation is positively related to delinquency. In this study, we draw on Baumeister and colleagues' strength model of self-control to propose an explanation for this association. Specifically, we argue that low self-control is the construct that bridges the relationship between sleep deprivation and delin...