Ryan B Graham

Ryan B Graham
University of Ottawa · School of Human Kinetics

Ph.D.

About

90
Publications
14,876
Reads
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1,313
Citations
Introduction
Ryan B Graham currently works at the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa. Ryan does research in Computing in Mathematics, Natural Science, Engineering and Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine and Biomedical Engineering.
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - August 2015
Nipissing University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Presented is a framework that uses pattern classification methods to incrementally morph whole-body movement patterns to investigate how personal (sex, military experience, and body mass) and load characteristics affect the survivability tradespace: performance, musculoskeletal health, and susceptibility to enemy action. Sixteen civilians and 12 so...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile phone use affects the dynamics of gait by impairing visual control of the surrounding environment and introducing additional cognitive demands. Although it has been shown that using a mobile phone alters whole-body dynamic stability, no clear information exists on its impacts on motor variability during gait. This study aimed at assessing th...
Article
To better understand the assessment of motor variability (MV) in an occupational context, this study determined the role of task constraints on MV and consistency in individual MV responses. Twenty participants performed repetitive lifting under four constraints differing in restriction of foot movement and load weight. MV was assessed for three bo...
Article
Full-text available
Static Optimization (SO) procedures are commonly used to estimate muscle forces and joint loads from kinematics and external force data. The method of modeling hand–mass interaction during lifting tasks may affect the kinematics and/or external forces applied to the model, yet the extent to which different modeling decisions affect the estimated sp...
Article
Full-text available
Motor variability is a fundamental feature of gait. Altered arm swing and lower limb asymmetry (LLA) may be contributing factors having been shown to affect the magnitude and dynamics of variability in spatiotemporal and trunk motion. However, the effects on lower limb joints remain unclear. Full-body kinematics of 15 healthy young adults were reco...
Article
Full-text available
Motor variability in gait is frequently linked to fall risk, yet field-based biomechanical joint evaluations are scarce. We evaluated the validity and sensitivity of an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-driven biomechanical model of joint angle variability for gait. Fourteen healthy young adults completed seven-minute trials of treadmill gait at seve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motor variability in gait is frequently linked to fall risk, yet field-based biomechanical joint evaluations are scarce. We evaluated the validity and sensitivity of an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-driven biomechanical model of joint angle variability for gait. Fourteen healthy young adults completed seven-minute trials of treadmill gait at seve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motor variability is a fundamental feature of gait. Altered arm swing and lower limb asymmetry (LLA) may be contributing factors having been shown to affect the magnitude and dynamics of variability in spatiotemporal and trunk motion. However, the effects on lower limb joints remain unclear. Full-body kinematics of 15 healthy young adults were reco...
Article
To determine the applications of machine learning (ML) techniques used for the primary prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), a scoping review was conducted using seven literature databases. Of the 4,639 initial results, 130 primary research studies were deemed relevant for inclusion. Studies were reviewed and classified as a...
Article
Using RGB-D cameras as an alternative motion capture device can be advantageous for biomechanical spine motion assessments of movement quality and dysfunction due to their lower cost and complexity. In this study, we evaluated RGB-D camera performance relative to gold-standard optoelectronic motion capture equipment. Twelve healthy young adults (6M...
Article
OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONSMilitary load carriage increases musculoskeletal injury risk and reduces performance, but is essential for operational effectiveness. Exoskeletons may play a role in reducing soldier burden. We found that wearing a customized passive exoskeleton during a military obstacle course decreased overall performance compared to a m...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To evaluate the effect of the braced arm-to-thigh technique (BATT) (versus self-selected techniques) on three-dimensional trunk kinematics and spinal loads for three common activities of daily living (ADLs) simulated in the laboratory: weeding (gardening), reaching for an object in a low cupboard, and car egress using the two-legs out techn...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The Epic Lift Capacity (ELC) test is used to determine a worker’s maximum lifting capacity. In the ELC test, maximum lifting capacity is often determined as the maximum weight lifted without exhibiting a visually appraised “high-risk workstyle.” However, the criteria for evaluating lifting mechanics have limited justification. This study ap...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this work was to develop an open-source deep learning-based algorithm for motion capture marker labelling that can be trained on measured or simulated marker trajectories. In the proposed algorithm, a deep neural network including recurrent layers is trained on measured or simulated marker trajectories. Labels are assigned to markers...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this work was to develop an open-source deep learning-based algorithm for motion capture marker labelling that can be trained on measured or simulated marker trajectories. In the proposed algorithm, a deep neural network including recurrent layers is trained on measured or simulated marker trajectories. Labels are assigned to markers...
Article
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are a potentially useful tool for clinicians and researchers in assessing spine movement biomechanics and neuromuscular control patterns. This study assessed the between-day reliability of the HIKOB FOX IMU in measuring local dynamic stability (LDS) and variability of trunk movements in patients with chronic low ba...
Article
Objective Currently, low back disorder (LBD) research focuses primarily on mechanical variables to assess whether task demands exceed tissue capacity; however, it is important to assess how other nonmechanical variables affect tissue capacity in a time-dependent manner. The current investigation sought to explore physiological responses to an acute...
Article
Objective: To identify requirements for human-in-the-loop simulation capabilities and improve their utility in predicting and optimizing soldier-systems integration. Background: Technological development rates within the military are rapidly increasing. Emergent technologies often exclude in-depth consideration of human-system interactions until...
Article
Full-text available
Movement screens are frequently used to identify differences in movement patterns such as pathological abnormalities or skill related differences in sport; however, abnormalities are often visually detected by a human assessor resulting in poor reliability. Therefore, our previous research has focused on the development of an objective movement ass...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating the effects of load carriage on military soldiers using optical motion capture is challenging. However, inertial measurement units (IMUs) provide a promising alternative. Our purpose was to compare optical motion capture with an Xsens IMU system in terms of movement reconstruction using principal component analysis (PCA) using correla...
Conference Paper
Biomechanical movement data are highly correlated multivariate time-series for which a variety of machine learning and deep neural network classification techniques are possible. For image classification, convolutional neural networks have reshaped the field, but have been challenging to apply to 3D movement data with its intrinsic multidimensional...
Article
Full-text available
An objective method to detect muscle fatigue-related kinematic changes may reduce workplace injuries. However, heterogeneous responses to muscle fatigue suggest that subject-specific analyses are necessary. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) could be used in conjunction with a spine mot...
Article
Compound, or awkward, spine postures have been suggested as a biomechanical risk factor for low back injury. This experiment investigates the influence of head (i.e. head-on-torso) and gaze (i.e. eye-in-head) orientation on three-dimensional (3D) neck and spine range of motion (ROM) during forward flexion movements. To emulate previous experimental...
Article
Full-text available
Background Movement screens are increasingly used in sport and rehabilitation to evaluate movement competency. However, common screens are often evaluated using subjective visual detection of a priori prescribed discrete movement features (e.g., spine angle at maximum squat depth) and may not account for whole-body movement coordination, or associa...
Article
Full-text available
Different shoes and strike patterns produce different biomechanical characteristics that can affect injury risk. Running shoes are mainly designed as lightweight, minimal, or traditional cushioned types. Previous research on different shoes utilized shoes of not only different mass but also different shoe structures. However, it is unclear whether...
Article
Full-text available
Movement screens are used to assess the overall movement quality of an athlete. However, these rely on visual observation of a series of movements and subjective scoring. Data-driven methods to provide objective scoring of these movements are being developed. These currently use optical motion capture and require manual pre-processing of data to id...
Article
Despite the common use of one-handed lifting techniques for activities of daily living, these techniques have received little attention in the biomechanics literature. The braced arm-to-thigh technique (BATT) is a one-handed lifting method in which the dominant hand picks up objects, while the free hand braces the trunk on the ipsilateral thigh. Th...
Article
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are being recognized in clinical and rehabilitation settings for their ability to assess movement-related disorders of the spine for better guidance of treatment-planning and tracking of recovery. This study evaluated the Mbientlab MetaMotionR IMUs, relative to Vicon motion capture equipment in measuring local dyna...
Article
Background: Physical employment standards (PES) ensure that candidates can demonstrate the physical capacity required to perform duties of work. However, movement competency, or an individual's movement strategy, can relate to injury risk and safety, and therefore should be considered in PES. Objective: Demonstrate the utility of using artificia...
Conference Paper
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) have potential to be integrated into clinical assessments of movement-related disorders of the spine. This study evaluated 2 Mbientlab Meta-MotionR IMUs relative to Vicon motion capture equipment in tracking 3D spine motion during 35 cycles of constrained repetitive spine flexion-extension (FE) in 10 participants....
Article
Manual materials handling is often performed in hazardous environments where protective footwear must be worn; however, workers can wear different types of footwear depending on the hazards present. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate how three-dimensional lifting mechanics and trunk local dynamic stability are affected by differen...
Article
Maintenance of spine stability is considered to be a critical component of spine health. Ross et al. (2015) used a topical capsaicin/heat pain sensitization model to experimentally induce lower back pain, and demonstrated that the experimental pain experience caused a decrease in the muscular contribution to lumbar spine rotational stiffness (relat...
Article
The association between low back pain and spine movement control suggests that it is important to reliably quantify movement behavior. One method to characterize spine movement behavior is to measure the local dynamic stability (LDS) of spine movement during a repetitive flexion task in which a participant is asked to touch multiple targets repetit...
Article
Background: A separation of the abdominal muscles at the linea alba, known as diastasis recti abdominis (DRA), can occur after childbirth. However, the impact of DRA on abdominal muscle function is not clear. Objective: The objective was to determine if differences exist in trunk muscle function and self-reported pain and low back dysfunction be...
Article
Full-text available
Transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) allows for objective quantification of mid-sagittal urogenital mechanics, yet current practice omits dynamic motion information in favor of analyzing only a rest and a peak motion frame. This work details the development of UROKIN, a semi-automated software which calculates kinematic curves of urogenital landmark mot...
Article
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) electromyographic (EMG) activation and urogenital landmark motion measured using 2D transperineal ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods: Eight healthy, nulliparous women performed maximum voluntary PFM contractions while EMG and transperineal US imag...
Article
Sport-specific resistance training, through limb loading, can be a complimentary training method to traditional resistance training by loading the working muscles during all phases of a specific movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of skating with an additional load on the skate, using a skate weight prototype, on ki...
Article
It is generally accepted that spine control and stability are relevant for the prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain (LBP). However, there are conflicting results in the literature, in regards to how these variables are modified in the presence of LBP. The aims of the present work were twofold: 1) to use noxious stimulation to induce LBP i...
Article
Impaired neuromuscular control of the spine is widely recognized as an important factor in the development of low back pain (LBP). In this review, we summarize contemporary approaches for the assessment of spinal control variables such as stability, stiffness, coordination, and kinematics as well as the most current definitions within the LBP commu...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the adaptive response to both endurance (END) and sprint interval training (SIT) in a group of twenty-one recreationally active adults. All participants completed three weeks (four days/ week) of both END (30 minutes at ~65% VO2peak work rate (WR) and SIT (eight, 20-second intervals at ~170% VO2peak WR separated by 10 sec...
Data
Raw data used for all tables and figures. (XLSX)
Article
Altering footwear worn during performance of the barbell back squat has been shown to change motion patterns, but it is not completely understood how this affects biomechanical loading demands. The primary objective was to compare lower back and extremity net joint moments in 24 experienced weightlifters (12M, 12F) who performed 80% one-repetition...
Article
Advances in time-frequency analysis can provide new insights into the important, yet complex relationship between muscle activation (i.e. electromyography, EMG) and motion during dynamic tasks. We use wavelet coherence to compare a fundamental cyclical movement (lumbar spine flexion and extension) to the surface EMG linear envelope of two trunk mus...
Article
Full-text available
Several different state-space reconstruction methods have been employed to assess the local dynamic stability (LDS) of a 3D kinematic system. One common method is to use a Euclidean norm (N) transformation of three orthogonal x, y, and z time-series' followed by the calculation of the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λmax) from the resultant...
Article
Advances in time-frequency analysis can provide new insights into the important, yet complex relationship between muscle activation (i.e. electromyography, EMG) and motion during dynamic tasks. We use wavelet coherence to compare a fundamental cyclical movement (lumbar spine flexion and extension) to the surface EMG linear envelope of two trunk mus...
Article
The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a sex-based difference in lifting technique across increasing-load conditions. Eleven male and 14 female participants (n = 25) with no previous history of low back disorder participated in the study. Participants completed freestyle, symmetric lifts of a box with handles from the floor...
Article
High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves VO2peak and VO2 kinetics, however, it is unknown whether an optimal intensity of HIIT exists for eliciting improvements in these measures of whole body oxidative metabolism. The purpose of this study was to: 1) investigate the effect of interval intensity on training-induced adaptations in VO2peak an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Targeted activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle through the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is a frequently prescribed exercise for the prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. However, there is still debate over the role the ADIM plays in maintaining a stable spine during movement. Thus, a single cohort pre/p...
Article
Lifting is a major risk factor for low back injury. Lifters experience small continual perturbations, because moving a load provides a disturbance to the lifter׳s equilibrium. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between local and global trunk/spine stabilities during external perturbations introduced at the foot-floor inte...
Article
Full-text available
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the e...
Article
Local dynamic stability (LDS) of movement is controlled primarily by active muscles, and is known to be influenced by factors such as movement speed and inertial load. Other factors such as muscle length, the length of the target trajectory, and the resistance of passive tissues through ranges of motion (ROM) may also influence LDS. This study was...
Article
Stability is defined by the ability to return to the initial (or unperturbed) state following a perturbation and hence can be assessed by quantifying the post-perturbation response. This response may be divided into two phases: an initial passive response phase, dependent upon both the steady state of the system and the system's intrinsic mechanica...
Article
Unlabelled: Load carriage is recognised as a primary occupational factor leading to slip and fall injuries, and therefore assessing balance maintenance during such tasks is critical in assessing injury risk. Ten males completed 55 strides under five carriage conditions: (1) unassisted anterior, (2) unassisted posterior, (3) assisted anterior, (4)...
Article
Full-text available
Local dynamic stability, quantified using the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λ max), and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness can provide pertinent information regarding the neuromuscular control of the spine during movement tasks. The primary goal of the present study was to assess if experimental capsaicin-induced low...
Article
Background: To facilitate stable trunk kinematics, humans must generate appropriate motor patterns to effectively control muscle force and stiffness and respond to biomechanical perturbations and/or neuromuscular control errors. Thus, it is important to understand the control of physiological variables such as muscle force and stiffness, and how th...
Data
Introduction: Load carriage walking tasks performed by military personnel for extended time periods are thought to hamper performance as well as increase musculoskeletal injury risk. While the effect of different load configurations and equipment has been tested on acute biomechanical and physiological responses, few investigations have assessed th...
Data
Introduction: Load carriage walking tasks performed by military personnel for extended time periods are thought to hamper performance as well as increase musculoskeletal injury risk. While the effect of different load configurations and equipment has been tested on acute biomechanical and physiological responses, few investigations have assessed th...
Data
Introduction: Load carriage walking tasks performed by military personnel for extended time periods are thought to hamper performance as well as increase musculoskeletal injury risk. While the effect of different load configurations and equipment has been tested on acute biomechanical and physiological responses, few investigations have assessed th...
Data
Introduction: Load carriage walking tasks performed by military personnel for extended time periods are thought to hamper performance as well as increase musculoskeletal injury risk. While the effect of different load configurations and equipment has been tested on acute biomechanical and physiological responses, few investigations have assessed th...
Article
Lumbar spine stability has been extensively researched due to its necessity to facilitate load-bearing human movements and prevent structural injury. The nature of certain human movement tasks are such that they are not equivalent in levels of task-stability (i.e. the stability of the external environment). The goal of the current study was to comp...
Article
Principal component analysis is a powerful tool in biomechanics for reducing complex multivariate datasets to a subset of important parameters. However, interpreting the biomechanical meaning of these parameters can be a subjective process. Biomechanical interpretations that are based on visual inspection of extreme 5th and 95th percentile waveform...
Article
The Mark 3 (M3) water power pump is an integral piece of wildfire fighting equipment. However, it is provided to fire stations without a carrying harness. The currently-used carrying harness was very uncomfortable, especially when carrying the pumps considerable distance in a forest to reach a water source. The purpose of this study was to advise t...
Article
Full-text available
Muscle activation as well as changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1a) following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) were examined in young healthy men (n = 8; age, 21.962.2 yrs; VO 2 peak, 53.166.4 ml/min/kg; peak work rate, 317623.5 watts). On each of 3 visits HIIE was performed on a cycle ergome...
Conference Paper
Muscle activation and the change in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) were examined in healthy men (n=8; age, 21.9 ± 2.2 yrs; VO2peak, 53.1 ± 6.4 ml/min/kg; peak WR, 317 ± 23.5 watts). Participants reported to the lab for 3 experimental visits. On...
Article
It has been suggested that interjoint coordination may serve to reduce joint stress and muscular demand and to maintain balance during dynamic lifting tasks, thus having implications for safe lifting practices. Before recommending the use of an on-body ergonomic aid, the Personal Lift-Assist Device (PLAD), it is important to determine any effects t...