Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh

Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh
University of Groningen | RUG · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

62
Publications
26,752
Reads
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676
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2020 - present
University of Groningen
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
March 2015 - August 2020
University of Groningen
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2011 - April 2015
University of Groningen
Position
  • PhD student and lecturer

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament, consisting of manipulated races. As hypothesized, athl...
Article
Full-text available
Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in t...
Article
Full-text available
Complex systems applications in human movement sciences have increased our understanding of emergent coordination patterns between athletes. In the current study, we take a novel step and propose that movement coordination between athletes is a multiscale phenomenon. Specifically, we investigated so-called "complexity matching" of performance measu...
Article
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Based on in-depth interviews, Hardy et al. focused on the role of psychosocial factors in the development of elite and super-elite athletes. They reveal interesting differences and commonalities in the frequencies at which certain aspects related to life events, personality, contextual factors, etc. were reported. Here, we argue that insights in th...
Article
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Applying an established theory of cognitive development―Skill Theory―the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations w...
Article
Across different domains, there are 'star performers' who are able to generate disproportionate levels of performance output. To date, little is known about the model principles underlying the rise of star performers. Here, we propose that star performers' abilities develop according to a multi-dimensional, multiplicative and dynamical process. Bas...
Article
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Dutch special forces operators, also known as commandos, perform in mentally and physically tough environments. An important question for recruitment and selection of commandos is whether they have particular personality traits. To answer this question, we first examined differences in personality traits between 110 experienced Dutch male commandos...
Article
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The number of resilience conceptualizations in psychology has rapidly grown, which confuses what resilience actually means. This is problematic, because the conceptualization typically guides the measurements, analyses, and practical interventions employed. The most popular conceptualizations of psychological resilience equate it with the ability t...
Article
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Athletes are exposed to various psychological and physiological stressors, such as losing matches and high training loads. Understanding and improving the resilience of athletes is therefore crucial to prevent performance decrements and psychological or physical problems. In this review, resilience is conceptualized as a dynamic process of bouncing...
Article
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Purpose: The study of load and recovery gained significant interest in the last decades, given its important value in decreasing the likelihood of injuries and improving performance. So far, findings are typically reported on the group level, whereas practitioners are most often interested in applications at the individual level. Hence, the aim of...
Article
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Skill assessments are essential to elite soccer coaches and clubs, to provide an evidence-based approach to player evaluation. Valid methods thereby support talent identification and development procedures (e.g. scouting and training strategies). However, it remains a complex challenge. Small-sided games have emerged as a promising tool, due to hig...
Article
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In the current study we investigated if drivers of conditionally automated vehicles can be kept in the loop through lane change maneuvers. More specifically, we examined whether involving drivers in lane-changes during a conditionally automated ride can influence critical takeover behavior and keep drivers' gaze on the road. In a repeated measures...
Article
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Complex systems typically demonstrate a mixture of regularity and flexibility in their behavior, which would make them adaptive. At the same time, adapting to perturbations is a core characteristic of resilience. The first aim of the current research was therefore to test the possible relation between complexity and resilient motor performance (i.e...
Article
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In this paper we investigated if keeping the driver in the perception-action loop during automated driving can improve takeover behavior from conditionally automated driving. To meet this aim, we designed an experiment in which visual exposure (perception) and manual control exposure (action) were manipulated. In a dynamic driving simulator experim...
Article
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Scouts of soccer clubs are often the first to identify talented players. However, there is a lack of research on how these scouts assess and predict overall soccer performance. Therefore, we conducted a large-scaled study to examine the process of talent identification among 125 soccer scouts. Through an online self-report questionnaire, scouts wer...
Article
Purpose: Staying injury free is a major factor for success in sports. Although injuries are difficult to forecast, novel technologies and data-science applications could provide important insights. Our purpose was to use machine learning for the prediction of injuries in runners, based on detailed training logs. Methods: Prediction of injuries w...
Article
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The aim of the present research is to test whether resilience in a motor task enhances or diminishes when encountering stressors. We conducted a lateral movement task during which we induced stressors and tracked the movement accuracy of each participant over time. Stressors corresponded to organismic constraints (i.e., visual occlusion), task cons...
Article
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Resilience is a key construct to understand when athletes continue to perform optimally, or when they break down. Although there is consensus that resilience can be conceptualized as a dynamic process, it remains an open question whether studying such a process on a group level adequately represents the individuals within a given sample. As a first...
Article
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Predicting performance in soccer games has been a major focus within talent identification and development. Past research has mainly used performance levels, such as elite vs. non-elite players, as the performance to predict (i.e. the criterion). Moreover, these studies have mainly focused on isolated performance attributes as predictors of soccer...
Article
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In the current study, we applied the dynamical systems approach to obtain novel insights into resilience losses. Dyads (n = 42) performed a lateral rhythmical pointing (Fitts) task. To induce resilience losses and transitions in performance, dyads were exposed to ascending and descending scoring scenarios. To assess changes in the complexity of the...
Article
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In the past decades, much research has examined the negative effects of stressors on the performance of athletes. However, according to evolutionary biology, organisms may exhibit growth under stress, a phenomenon called antifragility. For both coaches and their athletes, a key question is how to design training conditions to help athletes develop...
Article
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Our purpose was to show that highly skilled student-athletes (n = 146, 41.1% female, mean age 14.1 years) differ across domains with regard to their need for competence, effort, and attributions. As hypothesized, the results show that relative to the school domain, in the sport domain, student-athletes had a stronger need for competence, a higher w...
Article
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What could be the impact of a last-minute equalizer on players’ psychological momentum (PM) in a high-stake, knock-out football match? In the current study, 86 competitive male players were asked to imagine that they were playing in a cup final in which they were trailing 1–0 or leading 1–0. Subsequently, participants watched a video clip in which...
Presentation
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People are remarkably able to move together. In this symposium speakers will present their research from sports to music and beyond.
Article
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Long-term learning trajectories evolve through microdevelopmental sequences (i.e., short-term processes of change during learning tasks) and depend on variability during and across learning tasks. The aim of this study is to examine the coupling between short-term teacher-student dynamics and students’ long-term learning trajectories, thereby provi...
Article
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Talent identification research in soccer comprises the prediction of elite soccer performance. While many studies in this field have aimed to empirically relate performance characteristics to subsequent soccer success, a critical evaluation of the methodology of these studies has mostly been absent in the literature. In this position paper, we disc...
Poster
Full-text available
Research on driving behavior from an ecological psychology perspective axiomatically assumes the drivers intention to perform the driving task. This assumption does not hold for drivers of conditionally automated vehicles who may engage in non-driving-related task but must remain capable of taking back control in response to the vehicle's request....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crew rowing is often quoted as a natural example of perfect unity. A crew of rowers aims to optimize performance by perfectly moving in synchrony, while they apply all their power at maximum stroke rate. But do they necessarily need to move in in-phase synchrony? It has been suggested that crew members may complement each other’s movements by rowin...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers from the complex dynamical systems perspective seek their explanations of human behavior and development in the dynamical interactions across many levels in an active, situated individual. That is to say, behavior and development are both constraining and constrained by the continuous exchange between a myriad of processes distributed a...
Article
When someone expresses a morally deviant opinion, this person is likely to face derogation by their group. We examined whether people reacted more positively to opinion deviance when social identity was induced from individual expressions, rather than deduced from ingroup similarities. Participants (n = 155 divided over 41 groups) engaged in small-...
Article
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Although most research on interpersonal coordination focuses on perceptual forms of interaction, many interpersonal actions also involve interactions of mechanical nature. We examined the effect of mechanical coupling in a rowing task from a coupled oscillator perspective: 16 pairs of rowers rowed on ergometers that were physically connected throug...
Article
Full-text available
In this experimental study, we tested whether athletes’ judgments of affordances and of environmental features vary with psychological momentum (PM). We recruited golf, hockey, and tennis players, who were assigned to a positive or negative momentum condition. We designed a golf course on which participants made practice putts, after which they wer...
Article
Full-text available
In our target article, we proposed the application of the dynamical systems approach to studying how the dynamic process of resilience unfolds over time. Sparked by the commentaries by Bryan and colleagues, Galli and Pagano, and Kiefer and colleagues, we aim to provide clarifications of the dynamical systems approach as well as possible extensions...
Article
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Understanding the development of talent has been a major challenge across the arts, education, and particularly sports. Here, we show that a dynamic network model predicts typical individual developmental patterns, which for a few athletes result in exceptional achievements. We first validated the model on individual trajectories of famous athletes...
Poster
Full-text available
After driving a vehicle with conditional automation (SAE Level 3) drivers display performance decrements when taking back manual control. This has been labeled the out-of-the-loop problem (OOTLP). This Poster investigates this pressing Human Factors problem from an ecological psychology perspective: corresponding “the loop” to perception-action cou...
Article
Full-text available
The selection of athletes has been a central topic in sports sciences for decades. Yet, little consideration has been given to the theoretical underpinnings and predictive validity of the procedures. In this paper, we evaluate current selection procedures in sports given what we know from the selection psychology literature. We contrast the popular...
Poster
Although most research on interpersonal coordination focuses on perceptual forms of interaction [1], many interpersonal tasks, such as crew rowing, also involve interactions of mechanical nature. There is no way to escape from such mechanical influences, as agents physically move each other. As such, the stringent nature of the mechanical coupling...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the development of psychological momentum (PM) in table tennis and the effect of a time-out. Eighty table tennis players were exposed to an audiovisual scenario, in which they either came back from 1-7 to 7-7 in an all-decisive game (positive momentum), or in which the opponent came back from 7-1 to 7-7 (negative momentum...
Article
Hoe kunnen prestaties het meest accuraat worden voorspeld? Dit is een cruciale vraag voor mensen die zich bezighouden met de selectie van sporters. In dit artikel bespreken we hoe decennia aan onderzoek in de (selectie)psychologie kan bijdragen aan selectiemethodes in de sport.
Article
Full-text available
On the road to excellence, it is essential to develop resilience, that is, to be able to positively adapt within the context of significant adversity. Researchers tend to agree that resilience is a complex process with a multitude of underlying variables. To stimulate research on the process of resilience, we propose the dynamical system approach t...
Article
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In this article, we aim to shed light on a technique to study intra-individual variability that spans the time frame of seconds and minutes, i.e., micro-level development. This form of variability is omnipresent in behavioural development and processes of human experience, yet is often ignored in empirical studies, given a lack of proper analysis t...
Chapter
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As humans, we continuously adapt our behavior to changes in our environment, and our cognitive abilities continuously develop over time. A major question for scientists has been to discover the (cognitive) mechanism that underlies the control of human behavior in real-time, as well as cognitive development on the long-term. This chapter will discus...
Preprint
Full-text available
As humans, we continuously adapt our behavior to changes in our environment, and our cognitive abilities continuously develop over time. A major question for scientists has been to discover the (cognitive) mechanism that underlies the control of human behavior in real time, as well as cognitive development in the long term. This chapter will discus...
Article
Full-text available
In tennis, mental toughness is often considered highly important in achieving the elite level. The current study is the first to examine behavioural expressions of mental toughness on the court and their relationships with self-reported measures. Based on the input of five experienced tennis coaches of junior tennis players and behaviours used in p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In crew rowing, agents need to coordinate their movements while physically connected through the boat they share. Modelling a rowing crew as a system of coupled oscillators predicts that the stability of crew coordination decreases with increasing stroke rate. However, rowing literature suggests that crew synchronisation might actually improve at h...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrende...
Article
Full-text available
The processes involved in human performance seem inherently complex and dynamic. For example, in order to “read the game”, a soccer player must integrate all the information from the ongoing movements and positions of team members, the opponents, the relative positions between them, where the ball is located, etc. Furthermore, an individual’s motor...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological momentum (PM) is a social phenomenon that has triggered the curiosity of sport psychologists since the early 1980s. From early to recent conceptualizations, PM has been considered as a complex construct, inherently related to variations in sport performance. Over the past 30 years several models have been proposed to untangle how PM i...
Article
Full-text available
Research regarding the variability of state self-esteem (SSE) commonly focuses on the magnitude of variability. In this article we provide the first empirical test of the temporal structure of SSE as a real time process during parent–adolescent interactions. We adopt a qualitative phenomenological approach, whereby moment-to-moment emotional and be...
Article
Full-text available
In various domains, experts are found to possess elaborate domain-specific representations they developed over years. In this study, we provide the first systematic attempt to characterise the short-term representations among individuals with different expertise levels. We showed videos of soccer game plays to expert, near-expert and non-expert soc...
Article
Full-text available
In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by intro...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared virtual actors’ and observers’ perceptions of positive and negative psychological momentum (PM) and their responses to sudden interruptions of momentum. Participants with experience playing competitive table tennis imagined that they were playing a table tennis game (virtual actors), whereas participants who lacked experi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The present research sought to examine changes in psychological momentum (PM) during sport competitions through the lens of a dynamical systems approach. Design: Male regional-level cyclists competed in cycling duels on home trainers. Method: Images of moving avatars of the cyclists were projected on a wall, and were manipulated so th...
Article
Full-text available
While studies on triggers and outcomes of Psychological Momentum (PM) exist, little is known about the dynamics by which PM emerges and develops over time. Based on video-assisted recalls of PM experiences in table tennis and swimming competitions, this study qualitatively explored the triggering processes, contents, and the development of PM over...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the dynamics of competitive anxiety and self-confidence, as well as the relationships between these variables, during athletes' experiences of psychological momentum (PM). Male national level table tennis players (Study 1) and swimmers (Study 2) watched one of their recent competitions, which included a PM experience. At...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
In year 1 of our project, we measure daily fluctuations in soccer athletes’ physical states using the sensor-technologies of PSV, Vitesse, and FC Groningen, and utilize a phone app to track mental states. This information is integrated in our secured data platform. Our data algorithms learn typical levels of mental/physical functioning of individual athletes. In years 2 and 3 we will use these personalized models to monitor resilience. That is, our phone app provides athletes with insights into their functioning, and signals when mental or physical vulnerabilities are detected by the algorithms, so that coaches and players can take action. Year 4 is devoted to disseminating our findings and tools to other sports, so that coaches and athletes of different levels can use these. By uploading our data and analyses to the Sport Data Valley, our data can also be (re-)used across different (scientific) organizations.