Ruth Jill Urbanic

Ruth Jill Urbanic
University of Windsor · Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering

Doctor of Philosophy

About

152
Publications
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1,651
Citations

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Full-text available
One of the metallic (additive manufacturing) AM processes is directed energy deposition (DED), which utilizes a machine tool or robotic system for motion control. A laser heat source is used to melt the powder and substrate at the same time after the powder is fed through a powder feeder. Each layer of beads is deposited side by side, and then the...
Preprint
Laser cladding is a directed energy deposition process, and can lead to high residual stresses, which can compromise the quality of the specimen. As a result, it is crucial to accurately predict and investigate the residual stress distribution in cladded parts and understand the mechanism of formation. In this study a thermo-mechanical metallurgica...
Article
Full-text available
The final mechanical and physical properties should be predicted in tandem with the bead geometry characteristics for effective additive manufacturing (AM) solutions for processes such as directed energy deposition. Experimental approaches to investigate the final geometry and the mechanical properties are costly, and simulation solutions are time-...
Conference Paper
All additive manufacturing processes have a characteristic ‘staircase’ layering effect at the boundaries, as this process family fabricates components by stacking layers upon each other. This effect is noticeable at shallow angles and where there is significant surface curvature. Measuring the surface roughness from virtually modeled beads of an ad...
Article
Full-text available
There are many process parameters for directed energy deposition (DED) that influence product quality. Using a well-defined analytical model to simulate the process increases the knowledge of the process. In this paper, a finite element analysis of hardness and temperature history for a thin-wall hemisphere dome is investigated using the SYSWELD so...
Article
A user’s posture at a computer workstation, especially wrist posture, is determined by the keyboard angle. Most commercially available computer keyboards have a built-in positive slope that requires the user to extend their wrist approximately 20° when typing. The purpose of this study is to find the negative keyboard angles that minimize wrist ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
For effective bead deposition based additive manufacturing (AM) processes such as directed energy deposition, the final mechanical and physical properties should be predicted in tandem with the bead geometry characteristics. Experimental approaches to investigate the final geometry and the mechanical properties are costly, and simulation solutions...
Article
Full-text available
Using multi-axis tool paths in combination with a structured segmentation strategy introduces novel fabrication solutions for the direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. However, with a piecemeal manufacturing strategy, interface regions are introduced. The goal of this research is to determine whether utilizing a multi-stage, mult...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fabric and textile materials are widely used in many industrial applications, especially in automotive, aviation, and consumer goods. Currently, there is a lack of automatic solutions for rapid and effective fabric handling operations that can be expanded to various applications, causing economic loss, workplace safety issues, and process bottlenec...
Article
A thin-wall sphere dome set is manufactured without supports being required using a direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. A multi-axis tool path combined with a partitioning strategy is utilized. Two partitioning strategies and a rotary toolpath build strategy are applied. The partitioned samples have a 45 mm diameter, and the ro...
Article
The medial deltoid muscle is a small – and often neglected – muscle in comparison to other muscular systems in the immediately surrounding area of the upper body. If there is low or improper focus on the medial deltoid, there is a high risk of muscle imbalances and dysfunctions. Limited equipment exists today for proper training of the medial delto...
Article
Full-text available
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes have unique challenges that need to be addressed before metal-based AM can become a reality, and in particular, an understanding of the thermal cycling and heat transfer characteristics. In this research, variable bead overlap conditions are simulated and compared to a set of experimental data configurati...
Article
Full-text available
Controlling the quality of a laser clad bead is one of the most important goals for the cladding process. The quality of the bead is predominantly affected by the process parameters, but the travel path operating parameters also influences the resultant geometry and mechanical properties. An experimental approach to investigate the mechanical prope...
Article
Laser cladding is a laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) process that is currently being used to coat part of a substrate or to produce a three-dimensional object in layer by layer following a computer-controlled instruction. In this study, laser-cladded AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel was characterized using the Electron Backscatter Diffra...
Article
Full-text available
The costs for low-volume production moulds (1–200 production components) are related to the mould material, the process planning time and the fabrication costs. Researchers have explored using additive manufacturing (AM) processes to fabricate moulds directly from their digital models as this reduces the process planning time and some fabrication c...
Article
This study investigates the mechanical behavior of laser-cladded and additively manufactured AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel (MSS) in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Microstructural features were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. EBSD analysis was also u...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines a fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) approach for engaging users in constructing a model for engineering design system analysis. The model’s scope is drawn in reference to a socio-technical system and demonstrated with an assembly production system (a socio-technical system archetype). In particular, this paper focuses on modeling an...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as material extrusion, are part of a popular growing technology field; with limited human assistance required and advanced rapid prototyping capabilities, this technology is advertised to have limitless possibilities. The common challenge faced by users is a lack of design control of the surface roughness...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research is to develop a costing framework and explore opportunities for fabricating components using additive manufacturing (AM) and machining approaches. The examples target plastic machining, and the fused deposition modeling AM process, but the general model structure is applicable for other AM processes as process knowledge is...
Article
This study investigates the microstructural evolution and phase transformation of laser-cladded AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel. The microstructural morphologies of the laser-cladded sample were examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectrosco...
Article
Constructing a boundary representation for an AM part is challenging due to the large number of CSG operations that need to be performed. To tackle the problem, we begin with a review of different numeric representations and their suitability for solving geometric problems. We then review the state of the art in explicit boundary representations, e...
Article
Full-text available
It stands to reason that the additive manufacturing build orientation for the material extrusion process affects the support material requirements, processing time, surface finish, etc. This paper aims to study the influence of the build orientation on the optimal process parameter settings (bead width, overlap, and raster angle), the amount, and l...
Article
Bead deposition additive manufacturing processes deposit material from a machine head onto the substrate to make the product. This can encompass plastic materials or metal powder via a direct metal deposition process. In order to minimize or even eliminate the need for support structures in making complex parts, a 5 axis motion between the machine...
Article
Current thoracentesis medical training simulators lack tactile realism and do not represent the physiological variations in patient characteristics. This impedes optimal experiential learning. By systematically implementing advanced computer-aided design (CAD) techniques and additive manufacturing (AM) tools, thoracic wall representations for child...
Article
This research investigates development of a visual and analytical tool for the study of the seven degree of freedom (7-DOF) ABB 14000 YuMi robot. It provides an understanding of the manipulator workspace regions where they are visually represented for insight into the true work window. The developed tool is capable of realizing forward and inverse...
Article
Point cloud data sets are widely used in design and manufacturing. Extracting 2D and 3D features from a point cloud is a field that many researchers are working on. In the present work, a slicing algorithm is implemented for segmenting a point cloud by parallel planes in the X, Y and Z directions and storing the point coordinates within each sectio...
Article
Research correlating the process parameters, bead geometry, and induced residual stresses is essential for addressing geometric and functional quality issues for laser cladding based surface treatment and additive manufacturing solutions. However, analysis of variance methods cannot be readily applied, as the residual stresses values vary based on...
Conference Paper
Additive manufacturing layer-based solution approaches have been applied for several technologies and systems. Process planning solutions are being developed for planar applications, but rotary applications can benefit from an additive manufacturing ‘rotary layering’ strategy as well. There are systems that have been developed to coat pipes and oth...
Conference Paper
The lumbar puncture (LP) procedure is a diagnostic procedure that is performed to identify the root cause behind symptoms which can often be caused by various diseases or infections. Currently, medical students will either perform LPs directly on live patients with only theoretical knowledge of the procedure, or they will first be trained using unr...
Conference Paper
Constructing a boundary representation for an AM part is challenging due to the large numberof CSG operations that need to be performed. To tackle the problem, we begin with a review of different numeric representations and their suitability for solving geometric problems. We thenreview the state of the art in explicit boundary representations, exp...
Article
Full-text available
A problem with the planning solutions for the additive manufacturing material extrusion process is a lack of optimization strategies to improve upon the standard raster and contour tool paths. Bead deposition tool paths can cause unwanted voids, which in turn creates a set of potential failure points within the finished product. This paper aims to...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal cycling in the coaxial laser cladding process can cause significant variations in the strength of cladded parts as well as the development of residual stresses, large distortions, and even cracking. In the current study, the hardness variations, induced residual stress distribution, and the developed distortion characteristics of cladde...
Article
Full-text available
Process planning for hybrid manufacturing, where additive operations can be interlaced with machining operations, is in its infancy. New plastic- and metal-based hybrid manufacturing systems are being developed that integrate both additive manufacturing (AM) and subtractive (machining) operations. This introduces new process planning challenges. Th...
Article
Recurrence quantification analysis is a data analysis tool employed to visualise dynamic, non-linear, noisy data. This tool produces graphical displays for systems that have inherently non-predictable behavior. The graphical displays to explore system characteristics are 2D, and may use color coding to represent certain conditions. A method to crea...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose After experimental testing, it was recognized that a component’s strength relationship with respect to the volume material usage is inconsistent and that failures occurred in regions of voids. The purpose of this study is to present an optimal toolpath for a material extrusion process to minimize voids and discontinuities using standard par...
Article
Additive manufacturing process planning is in its infancy. Many new additive manufacturing platforms are being developed using a robotic based system for the positioning. It is proposed to use a collaborative robot solution to teach a ‘median line’ based travel path for a bead deposition based system to help with junction decision making. This inpu...
Article
Additive Manufacturing (AM) material extrusion systems are being developed to expand into new markets. Although complex components can be readily fabricated with this process family, voids are inherently generated as well as several travel path segments per layer. Simulation models that generate information with respect to the travel paths and void...
Article
Full-text available
Laser cladding is a novel additive manufacturing and surface treatment process associated with many interactive process parameters. Using the response surface method with a central composite design, a structured design of experiments approach was chosen to examine the influence of selected process parameters on the bead geometry and hardness for si...
Article
Full-text available
The laser cladding process is associated with having a non-uniform material strength within the clad bead and the heat-affected zone. As well, residual stresses can develop, which in turn increase the crack driving force and reduce the strength and fatigue life of the part. In the present work, a finite element model was developed to simulate the t...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this work is to explore predictive model approaches for selecting laser cladding process settings for a desired bead geometry/overlap strategy. Complementing the modelling challenges is the development of a framework and methodologies to minimize data collection while maximizing the goodness of fit for the predictive models....
Article
Full-text available
Laser cladding is a rapid physical metallurgy process with a fast heating‐cooling cycle, which is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties of the substrate's surface. A fully coupled thermal‐metallurgical‐mechanical finite element model was developed to simulate the process of coaxial powder‐feed laser cladding for...
Conference Paper
Laser cladding is a surface modification technique that is being explored as an additive manufacturing solution for metal. The laser cladding process is associated with nonuniform material strength within the clad and the heat-affected-zone. In addition, residual stress development increases the crack driving forces and reduces the fatigue life of...
Conference Paper
To develop realistic process planning simulation tools and build strategies, an understanding of realistic transient conditions needs to be explored for multiple overlapping beads and 3D build ups. In the past, most of the research has focused on optimization strategies for a process configuration, typically for a single-track bead in steady state...
Article
To understand the different aspects of the laser cladding (LC) process, process models can be of aid. Presently, the correct parameter settings for different manufacturing processes, such as machining and casting, are based on simulation tools that can evaluate the influence of the process parameters for different conditions. However, there are no...
Article
Full-text available
CNC-based hybrid manufacturing systems capable of additive manufacturing (AM) and machining have been developed for metal and large thermoplastic components. Currently, there are no CAD/CAM systems that seamlessly integrate additive and machining tool paths and simulation, as required for a complete hybrid manufacturing solution. Tool paths for bea...
Article
Full-text available
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components. There are many interlinked process parameters associated with laser cladding, which may have an impact on the resultant microhardness profile throughout the bead zone. A...
Article
Full-text available
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The re...
Article
Laser cladding is a surface treatment process which is starting to be employed as a novel additive manufacturing. Rapid cooling during the non-equilibrium solidification process generates non-equilibrium microstructures and significant amounts of internal residual stresses. This paper investigates the laser cladding of 420 martensitic stainless ste...
Article
Orthotic brace design and manufacturing can be problematic for people who have physical dimensions in the 5th or 95th percentile regions, or for people with unique chronic conditions. Advanced manufacturing tools provide opportunities to realize specialty braces. The goal in this research paper is to investigate solutions for finger and hand brace...
Article
The additive manufacturing material extrusion surface finish is periodic in nature, which has been explored by researchers employing either rectangular or elliptical bead models. The shallow inclination angle configurations exhibit the greatest ‘staircase impact’, but in addition to this, the assumed bead geometry influences physical distribution o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Laser cladding is a rapid physical metallurgy process with a fast heating-cooling cycle in which different compositions and properties of the alloy are melted on the surface of the substrate by the high-energy laser beams. This fabrication process method is accompanied with complex metallurgy and transformation processes. Numerical simulation tools...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials ‘layer by layer’ to make products from Computer Aided Design (CAD) model data. AM processes support faster product realization for a wide selection in industries. The Material Extrusion (ME) process is an AM process that builds a product from thin layers of extruded filaments from a se...
Conference Paper
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software is used to develop a process plan, which consists of an operations list, tool paths, tooling, process parameters, and depending on the system, material handling operations. Upon completing the development of a process plan, setup sheets are generated for the personnel involved in the setup, production, te...
Article
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to characterize mechanical properties (tensile, compressive and flexural) for the three-dimensional printing (3DP) process, using various common recommended infiltrate materials and post-processing conditions. Design/methodology/approach-A literature review is conducted to assess the information available relate...
Article
This paper describes the processes used to integrate two additive manufacturing (AM) processes into various engineering courses, which contain a design element, at the University of Windsor. The 3D printing (3DP) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) AM processes are used to fabricate components. There are unique design and post processing opportunit...
Article
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries fo...
Article
When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potentia...
Article
The Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process is a bead deposition based additive manufacturing (AM) process that builds a product from thin layers of molten thermoplastic filaments. The ongoing goal of this research is to develop methodologies for designing and fabricating large complex parts such as complex beta testing prototypes, or sand casting...
Article
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a relatively new family of manufacturing technologies which fabricate components by stacking two dimensional slices to create a three dimensional component. Since its inception this field of technology has grown quickly. The 3D Printing (3DP) process builds brittle components as a powder is set with a weak binder mate...
Article
New CNC-based hybrid systems, capable of additive manufacturing (AM) and machining, are being developed for metallic components. No AM targeted process planning software is readily available. AM system development requires considerations significantly different from subtractive processes, but should be compatible to provide an effective hybrid manu...