Ruth L Cromie

Ruth L Cromie
WWT · WWT Conservation Programmes Directorate

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56
Publications
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864
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Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Full-text available
Ammunition and fishing weight usage is the greatest largely unregulated contributor of lead (Pb) deposition to the European environment. While the range of negative impacts of Pb exposure to humans and avian wildlife are relatively well documented, little is known about risks to wild mammals despite recent scientific interest and publications. A qu...
Article
Full-text available
It is intuitive that the health status of wildlife might influence conservation translocation outcomes, however, health as a topic has received limited attention in the conservation translocation literature. We determined the forms and frequency of disease and other biological problems reported in translocated animals and plants, and in populations...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal killing of wildlife is a major conservation issue that, to be addressed effectively, requires insight into the drivers of human behaviour. Here we adapt an established socio-psychological model, the theory of planned behaviour, to explore reasons for hunting the Endangered Bewick's swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the European Russian Ar...
Article
Full-text available
In 2020, nine major UK shooting and rural organisations proposed a voluntary transition from the use for hunting of lead shotgun ammunition to non-lead alternatives. The major food retailer Waitrose & Partners has announced its intention to move to not supplying game meat products from animals killed using any kind of lead ammunition and the Nation...
Conference Paper
There is scope to better integrate disease risk analysis (DRA) in wildlife conservation planning. DRA helps identify risks of disease to wildlife, domestic animals and humans. However, its utility can be compromised because of uncertainties around the impact of infectious agents and their proposed management on conservation objectives. Structured d...
Book
Many environmental success stories of recent decades, including legislation to protect species and habitats, terrestrial and marine networks of protected areas, and prohibition of trade in endangered species, are the direct result of European Union or global international treaties. Yet, despite these achievements, the mechanisms of treaties remain...
Article
Full-text available
There are significant negative effects of exposure to spent lead ammunition on wildlife and human health. A joint statement was issued by nine UK shooting and rural organisations on 24th February 2020 intended to encourage a voluntary transition to non-lead shotgun ammunition within five years “in consideration of wildlife, the environment and to e...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based health interventions (NBIs) for the treatment of poor mental health are becoming increasingly common, yet evidence to support their effectiveness is lacking. We conduct a pilot study of a six-week intervention, aiming to engage individuals with wetland nature for the treatment of anxiety and/or depression. We employed a mixed methods d...
Article
Background Reports from UK hunters of ‘rice grains’ in muscles of shot wildfowl (Anatidae) coincided temporally with the finding of sarcocystosis in a number of ducks found as part of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust long-term general surveillance of found dead waterbirds. Sarcocystis rileyi has also been relatively recently confirmed in wildfowl in n...
Article
Full-text available
Recent national and international policy initiatives have aimed to reduce the exposure of humans and wildlife to lead from ammunition. Despite restrictions, in the UK, lead ammunition remains the most widespread source of environmental lead contamination to which wildlife may be exposed. The risks arising from the use of lead ammunition and the mea...
Article
Full-text available
Improved nature provision in urban environments offers great potential for achieving both biodiversity conservation and public health objectives. Yet there are few experimental studies that address links between specific natural environments and physiological and/or psychological changes that could contribute to the health and wellbeing co-benefits...
Article
If the multiple negative health impacts associated with lead ammunition are to be mitigated, a transition to the non-toxic alternatives is needed. This paper aims to map out the pathways to such a transition via a modification of Kotter’s eight step theory of change, identifying key stakeholders, exploring options for those of us advocating change...
Article
Full-text available
Killing protected species mistaken for morphologically similar quarry species, or species with weaker protection, can hinder their conservation. Despite policy aims to reduce threats from illegal killing, information is lacking on susceptible species, conservation impacts and the identification accuracy of hunters. We examined the ability of hunter...
Article
Full-text available
A proposed European Union (EU)-wide restriction on the use of lead gunshot for shooting in and over wetlands estimated that the societal benefits of a restriction outweighed costs, despite few identified benefits being quantified economically. A subsequent Annex XV Investigation Report on the evidence of impacts of lead ammunition in terrestrial en...
Article
Full-text available
Legal regulation of human activities is a key mechanism for alleviating anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations. Conservationists frequently request the regulation of toxic substances such as lead, which can be harmful to animals even at low levels of exposure. However, without assessments of the effectiveness of legislation , such regulation...
Chapter
Wetlands are a source of health through a range of provisions yet can also be a source of ill-health in the form of exposures to intoxicants, pathogens and parasites, and invertebrate disease vectors. Wetlands have a number of character- istic which put them at specific risk of disease emergence and a broad range of anthropogenic drivers are creati...
Article
Disease outbreaks in waterfowl collections can occur at any time of the year, and in all cases immediate investigation into the causative factors of morbidity and mortality is imperative. Clinical examination of affected birds and post-mortem examination of carcasses, together with appropriate sample analysis, are essential for diagnosis, and to in...
Poster
Full-text available
This research aimed to assess behavioural normality and identify indicators of positive welfare in two types of common zoo bird: flamingos and wildfowl. Activity patterns of free-living wildfowl have been investigated extensively, and time budgets of captive flamingos can also be found in the literature, therefore providing a suitable benchmark for...
Article
The Eurasian crane (Grus grus) is currently held in over 50 zoological collections worldwide and present in the wild in a number of countries across Europe and Asia. Normal ranges have not previously been published for a number of haematological and biochemical parameters in the species and this study is the first to provide biochemical parameters...
Article
The Eurasian crane (Grus grus) is currently held in over 50 zoological collections worldwide and present in the wild in a number of countries across Europe and Asia. Normal ranges have not previously been published for a number of haematological and biochemical parameters in the species and this study is the first to provide biochemical parameters...
Article
In disease dynamics, high immune gene diversity can confer a selective advantage to hosts in the face of a rapidly evolving and diverse pathogen fauna. This is supported empirically for genes involved in pathogen recognition and signalling. In contrast, effector genes involved in pathogen clearance may be more constrained. β-defensins are innate im...
Article
Swan pipes, duck decoys, cage traps, cannon netting, and roundups are widely used to capture waterfowl in order to monitor populations. These methods are often regulated in countries with national ringing or banding programs and are considered to be safe, and thus justifiable given the benefits to conservation. However, few published studies have a...
Chapter
Wetlands are a source of health through a range of provisions yet can also be a source of ill-health in the form of exposures to intoxicants, pathogens and parasites, and invertebrate disease vectors. Wetlands have a number of characteristic which put them at specific risk of disease emergence and a broad range of anthropogenic drivers are creating...
Article
Full-text available
In 2014 a group of internationally acknowledged scientists signed and published a scientific consensus statement on Wildlife and Human Health Risks from Lead-Based Ammunition in Europe 1 , in which the overwhelming scientific evidence on the toxic effects of lead on human and wildlife health has beenwas summarised. Since the publication of that pap...
Article
Full-text available
THE recently discovered fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is causing the rapid loss of infected fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) populations in continental Europe (Martel and others 2013). The fungus is thought to be endemic to Asia, with introduction to Europe via the pet trade. Many species of salamander and newt (urodeles)...
Article
Full-text available
Greenland White-fronted Geese wintering in Ireland and Britain stage for 3 weeks in Iceland in spring before migrating onwards to breeding areas in west Greenland. The geese now depart their wintering quarters 12–15 days earlier than in 1973 because they attain necessary fat stores earlier than in previous years. Icelandic temperatures at critical...
Article
Full-text available
Lead is a highly toxic metal known to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds and terrestrial birds worldwide. The risk to birds of poisoning from lead has resulted in the introduction of legislation in many countries, such as UK restrictions on the use of lead in angling weights and lead gunshot. In this study we examined da...
Article
IntroductionTuberculosis, Mycobacterium Bovis and Mycobacterium Caprae InfectionsAvian TuberculosisParatuberculosis or Johne's DiseaseInfections by Other Mycobacteria of the M. Tuberculosis ComplexReferences
Book
This Manual is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the principles and practicalities of managing animal diseases at wetland sites. The Manual highlights the importance of including disease prevention and control in wetland management plans and provides guidelines on how to do so. It should be used in conjunction with Ramsar Handbook...
Data
Recipes used to cook gamebirds and chicken controls. (0.06 MB DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of reed beds to act as biofilters of pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria was investigated through examination of the fate of mycobacteria in a constructed reed bed filtering effluent from a large captive wildfowl collection. Particular emphasis was placed on the presence and location of Mycobacterium avium--the causal agent of a...
Article
The highly pathogenic avian infl uenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus expanded its range beyond Asia in summer 2005 and was detected subsequently at many sites in Russia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa. Between February and May 2006, the virus was detected in 13 EU Member States, mainly in dead wild birds. Following the initial incursion of the virus into R...
Article
The current study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and evaluated it as a diagnostic screening aid for avian tuberculosis (TB) in a wildfowl collection at the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Centre at Llanelli, Wales, U.K.. Four hundred and eighteen birds of the collection, including geese, ducks, and swan...
Article
Parasites and Diseases of Wild Birds in Florida. Forrester, D.J. & Spalding, M.G. (2003). University Press of Florida. 1132 pp. - - Volume 13 Issue 4 - Ruth Cromie
Article
Avian mycobacteriosis is an important disease which affects companion, captive exotic, wild and domestic birds. The disease is most commonly caused by Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Lesions are typically found in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, although many other organ systems can potentially be affected. The authors review...
Article
Immunological responses of wildfowl (Order Anseriformes: ducks, geese, swans and screamers) to mycobacteria have been investigated as part of studies to develop a vaccine and diagnostic assay for avian tuberculosis. 10(9) killed Mycobacterium vaccae protected the Cairinini (perching ducks) from avian tuberculosis (p<0.02) but did not achieve statis...
Article
Full-text available
The National Zoological Park has maintained a breeding colony of Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) since 1975 with a documented history and continued prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. No evidence of immunosuppressive retrovirus infections or loss of heterozygosity that may have led to an immune dysfunction...
Article
Full-text available
Captive breeding and restoration programs involve managed movements of animals between captive and free-living populations. Conservationists are concerned that novel diseases or genetic conditions may be transferred by these movements, endangering both captive-released and remnant wild populations. Captive breeding programs have been established by...
Article
Duck serum proteins binding to protein A Sepharose CL-4B and protein G Sepharose 4 Fast Flow and eluted at pH 2.8 or 11.5 were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, radial/immunodiffusion against defined anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) reagents, and by the reactivity in immunoelectrophoresis of antisera raised in rab...
Article
To control the epizootic of avian tuberculosis within the collections of captive wildfowl of The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust an efficacious vaccine and a reliable diagnostic test are required. A number of potential diagnostic tests were compared for sensitivity and specificity using a flock of 178 feral barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) at The Wild...
Article
Duck lymphoblasts generated by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) did not respond to recombinant or Jurkat cell line human interleukin (IL)-2 or possess surface antigens resembling mammalian IL-2 receptors or IL-1 beta. Supernatant fluids from normal and PHA-stimulated duck lymphocyte cultures, and normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes, g...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of 1,360 resightings and 105 recoveries made in continental North America during 1992-2018 of 542 Interior Canada Geese Branta canadensis interior marked in central-west Greenland in summers
Article
This study reports the findings of an epidemiological survey of death due to avian tuberculosis in the captive collection of wildfowl at The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire. Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to affect the incidence of, and the birds' susceptibility to, the disease. Seasonal body...
Thesis
The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust maintain a large and comprehensive collection of captive wildfowl at Slimbridge in Gloucestershire, Avian tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium, has been enzootic since 1948 and is now the main cause of death, accounting for over a third of post fledgling mortalities. There is a grave risk of spreading infection...
Article
A method has been developed for increasing the survival of wildfowl lymphocytes during transport over considerable distances. Blood in an equal volume of heparinised RPMI was maintained at close to avian body temperature, i.e., approximately 40 degrees C. Using this system lymphocyte transformation in the presence of antigen (mycobacterial) has bee...
Article
Indicator dyes have been incorporated in the stacking gel monomer used in acrylamide gels to render readily visible and delineate the sample wells. Some dyes, such as bromphenol blue, migrate during the electrophoresis, whereas others, such as the ortho-unsubstituted phenol red, become chemically bound to the polymerized gel. The method can be used...

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