Ruth Broering

Ruth Broering
University Hospital Essen | UK Essen · Department for Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Priv.-Doz. Dr. rer. nat.

About

149
Publications
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Introduction
My research is focused on hepatic immune responses and virus host interactions in chronic viral hepatitis. We have developed an all-in-one liver cell preparation technique form human tissue, allowing analysing cell type-specific, liver-specific and disease-specific aspects on cellular and molecular level. Our goal is to reveal the hepatic cytokine network to develop immune-based therapies for chronic liver diseases.

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Previous studies have revealed multiple tissue- or cell-specific or enriched miRNA profiles. However, miRNA profiles enriched in hepatic cell types and their effect on HBV replication have not been well elucidated. Methods: In this study, primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), Kupffer cells (KCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute and chronic liver diseases, including severe hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interferon alpha 2a (IFNα-2a) is commonly used for treating chronic HBV infection. However, its efficacy remains relatively low. Yet, the immunological and molecular mechanisms for successful IF...
Article
Full-text available
The role of non-parenchymal liver cells as part of the hepatic, innate immune system in the defense against hepatotropic viruses is not well understood. Here, primary human Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic stellate cells were isolated from liver tissue obtained after tumor resections or liver transplantations. Cells wer...
Article
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Despite the availability of effective vaccination, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major challenge worldwide. Research efforts are ongoing to find an effective cure for the estimated 250 million people chronically infected by HBV in recent years. The exceptionally limited host spectrum of HBV has limited the research progress. T...
Article
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Whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) activates or represses innate immunity continues to be debated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 has been identified to recognize HBV particles in human hepatocytes. The Hippo pathway, known for growth control, is suggested to play a vital role in immune regulation. Here, molecular interactions between HBV-triggered TLR si...
Article
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Background & Aims During chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, suppressed functionality of natural killer (NK) cells might contribute to HBV persistence but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. A peculiar feature of HBV is the secretion of large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However, the effect of HBsAg quantities on NK c...
Article
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Transcriptional profiling provides global snapshots of virus-mediated cellular reprogramming, which can simultaneously encompass pro- and antiviral components. To determine early transcriptional signatures associated with HCV infection of authentic target cells, we performed ex vivo infections of adult primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) from seven do...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transcriptional profiling provides global snapshots of virus-mediated cellular reprogramming, which can simultaneously encompass pro- and antiviral components. To determine early transcriptional signatures associated with HCV infection of authentic target cells, we performed ex vivo infections of adult primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) from seven do...
Article
Full-text available
Glucose metabolism and innate immunity evolved side-by-side. It is unclear if and how the two systems interact with each other during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and, if so, which mechanisms are involved. Here, we report that HBV activates glycolysis to impede retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-induced interferon production. We demonstra...
Article
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is quickly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Within the NAFLD spectrum, patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at the highest risk of developing cirrhosis and disease progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, therapeutic options for NASH patients have been ineffective,...
Article
O-GlcNAcylation is a form of posttranslational modification, and serves various functions, including modulation of location, stability, and activity for the modified proteins. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is an essential cellular enzyme that posttranslationally modifies the cellular proteins with O-GlcNAc moiety. Early...
Article
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Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized the therapy of chronic hepatitis C infection. However, unexpected high recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after DAA treatment became an issue in patients with advanced cirrhosis and fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate an impact of DAA treatment on the molecular changes rela...
Article
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BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that primarily infects human hepatocytes. HCV infection constitutes a global health problem with 71 million people currently chronically infected. Recent studies have reported that C19orf66 is expressed as an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene; however, the intrinsic regulation...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: To date, conflicting data exist as to whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) has the ability to induce innate immune responses. Here, we investigated cellular changes after the first contact between HBV and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in vitro and in vivo. Approach and results: The exposure of PHH to HBV particles resulted in n...
Article
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Dysregulation of dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) expression has been reported in a variety of human cancers. We previously reported that DKK1 was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of DKK1 in HCC remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological functions of DKK1 in HCC. The ex...
Article
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A growing consensus indicates that host metabolism plays a vital role in viral infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs in hepatocytes with active glucose metabolism, and may be regulated by cellular metabolism. We addressed the question whether and how glucose regulates HBV replication in hepatocytes. The low glucose concentration at 5...
Article
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The priming of T cells in the liver is widely accepted. Nonetheless, it is controversial whether immune activation in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) occurs in the liver or in the spleen. To address this issue, we splenectomized mice and induced experimental murine AIH (emAIH) with an adenovirus (Ad) expressing formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD)...
Article
Background and aims: Major vault protein (MVP) is up-regulated during infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we found that MVP deficiency inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development induced by diethylnitrosamine, hepatitis B X protein, and HCV core. Approach and results: Forced MVP expression was suff...
Article
Introduction: Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provi...
Article
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Hepatic APCs play a critical role in promoting immune tolerance in the liver. Recently, we have demonstrated that TLR2 stimulation on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells reverted their suppressive properties to induce T cell immunity. However, there is a paucity of information about how TLR2 stimulation modulates the immunological function of other...
Chapter
Separation of pure cell populations from the liver is a prerequisite to study the role of hepatic parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells in liver physiology, pathophysiology, and immunology. Traditional methods for hepatic cell separation usually purify only single cell types from liver specimens. Here, we describe an efficient method that can simul...
Article
The RUN domain Beclin-1-interacting cysteine-rich-containing (Rubicon) protein is involved in the maturation step of autophagy and the endocytic pathway as a Beclin-1-binding partner, but little is known regarding the role of Rubicon during viral infection. Here, we performed functional studies of the identified target in interferon (IFN) signaling...
Article
Previous studies have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops more frequently in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-transgenic mice (Alb/HBs) than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, the mechanism of this HCC model has not been well documented. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) signaling probably links innate immunity and HCC progression....
Article
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C–X–C-chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), the ligand for C–X–C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), is a major regulator of B-cell trafficking and plays an integral role in age-dependent clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the mouse model. However, the expression and function of CXCL13 in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain unknown. By use o...
Article
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Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) block the release of subviral particles from hepatocytes, a mechanism consistent with their antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients. Analysis of immunostimulatory properties of NAPs were conducted with several NAP species: REP 2006, the prototypic degenerate NAP [dN]40, containing TLR9-stimulatory...
Article
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The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been described as stealth virus subverting immune responses initially upon infection. Impaired toll-like receptor signaling by the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) attenuates immune responses to facilitate chronic infection. This implies that HBV replication may trigger host innate immune responses in the absence of HBsAg...
Article
The interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. ISG15-regulated proteins have previously been identified that putatively affect this proviral interaction. The present observational study aimed to elucidate the relation between ISG15 and these host factors during HCV infecti...
Article
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Previous studies have demonstrated that nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have both entry and post-entry inhibitory activity against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. The inhibi-tory activity exhibited by NAPs prevented DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes in vitro and protected ducks from DHBV infection in vivo and did not result from dire...
Article
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Background & aims: Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenc...
Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease, usually resulting in persistent infection involving hepatic steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma via escape of the host's immune response. Set7 is a lysine-specific methyltransferase that is involved in gene regulation and virus replication. However, the mech...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchy...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) often affects the B-cell compartment, leading to the occurrence of autoimmunity and B-cell lymphoproliferation, in particular mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell lymphomas. HCV presumably causes these lymphoproliferations by chronic antigenic stimulation and/or direct mutagenic effects on B cells. It has...
Article
Despite continuous high-risk behavior, a subgroup among people who inject drugs (PWID) remains seronegative for hepatitis C virus (HCV) suggesting that a state of "natural resistance" to HCV Infection may exist. Homozygosity for KIR2DL3 and its ligand HLA-C1 group alleles has been associated with control of HCV infection, however, the mechanism med...