Rutger Schlatmann

Rutger Schlatmann
Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin | HZB · PVcomB

Prof. Dr.

About

252
Publications
49,325
Reads
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5,429
Citations
Citations since 2017
128 Research Items
4500 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
Since 2008, Rutger Schlatmann is director of the institute PVcomB at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. He is also full professor at the Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin (since 2012). He focuses on Si-heterojunction and CIGS solar energy, as well as perovskite multijunctions based on Si or CIGS bottom cells. His interests range from single cells and modules to production technologies and outdoor systems, especially building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and integrated PV and electrolysis systems to produce ´solar fuels´. He is a member of the jExecutive Committee of the European Technology&Innovation Platform PV, where he leads the Integrated PV working group. He is vice President of Berlin Brandenburg Energy Network and serves in numerous international evaluation committees.
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - present
Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 1991 - May 1996
AMOLF
Position
  • PhD Student
September 1990 - May 1991
University of Groningen
Position
  • Master's Student

Publications

Publications (252)
Article
Hydrogen (H2) produced from renewables will have a growing impact on the global energy dynamics towards sustainable and carbon‐neutral standards. The share of green H2 is still too low to meet the net‐zero target, while the demand for high‐quality hydrogen continues to rise. These factors amplify the need for economically viable H2 generation techn...
Article
Full-text available
Faults in photovoltaic arrays are known to cause severe energy losses. Data-driven models based on machine learning have been developed to automatically detect and diagnose such faults. A majority of the models proposed in the literature are based on artificial neural networks, which unfortunately represent black-boxes, hindering user interpretatio...
Article
Full-text available
We study the outdoor operation of an up-scaled thermally integrated photovoltaic-electrolyser (PV-EC), constructed using a heat exchanger made of low-cost materials, compared to its non-integrated counterpart to quantify heat transfer and its effects. Thermal coupling of the PV and EC can reduce the difference between their temperatures, benefittin...
Article
Full-text available
Perovskite–silicon tandem solar cells offer the possibility of overcoming the power conversion efficiency limit of conventional silicon solar cells. Various textured tandem devices have been presented aiming at improved optical performance, but optimizing film growth on surface-textured wafers remains challenging. Here we present perovskite–silicon...
Article
Direct coupling of photovoltaic (PV) modules to electrolyser(s) (ECs) can benefit from reduced component costs by omitting power electronics. Thermal integration of the PV to the EC could potentially enhance performance by cooling the PV and heating up the EC. However, conventional PV and EC constructions need an additional heat exchanger to make t...
Article
Full-text available
Various high-purity metals endow renewable energy technologies with specific functionalities. These become heavily intertwined in products, complicating end-of-life treatment. To counteract downcycling and resource depletion, maximising both quantities and qualities of materials recovered during production and recycling processes should be prioriti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells allow to overcome the power conversion efficiency limit of market-dominating silicon solar cells. So far, various textured tandem devices were presented aiming at improved optical performance, but highest efficiencies were still realized on polished silicon wafer cells enabling superior perovskite layer propert...
Article
We demonstrate a monolithic perovskite/CIGS tandem solar cell with a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 24.2%. The tandem solar cell still exhibits photocurrent mismatch between the subcells; thus optical simulations are used to determine the optimal device stack. Results reveal a high optical potential with the optimized device reachin...
Article
Full-text available
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown great potential for next-generation photovoltaics. One of the main barriers to their commercial use is their poor long-term stability under ambient conditions and, in particular, their sensitivity to moisture and oxygen. Therefore, several encapsulation strategies are being developed in an attempt to improve...
Conference Paper
We present results on perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with almost 30% power conversion efficiency. They comprise sinusoidal nanotextures between top and bottom cells and optically advanced rear reflectors with a dielectric buffer layer.
Article
Full-text available
Silicon Heterojunction has become a promising technology to substitute passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) solar cells in pursuance of lower levelized cost of electricity through high efficiency devices. While high open circuit voltages and fill factors are reached, current loss related to the front and rear contacts, such as the transparent...
Conference Paper
A key to the production of large-format perovskite solar modules is the monolithic series interconnection of neighboring cells with minimal power losses, which requires the optimization of the cell width and the minimization of the interconnection width. The optimal width of the cell strips was calculated to be 6 mm based on loss analysis, which wa...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are widely used in industry for surface cleaning and chemical modification. In the recent past, they have gained more scientific attention especially in the processing of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a novel power generation technique was applied to realize the stable discharge in N2 (10 vol.% H2) form...
Article
Full-text available
Direct solar hydrogen generation via a combination of photovoltaics and water electrolysis can potentially ensure a sustainable energy supply while minimising green-house emissions. The PECSYS project aimed at demonstrating solar driven electrochemical hydrogen generation system with an area >10 m² with high efficiency and at reasonable cost. Therm...
Conference Paper
Over the last decade, the global solar PV industry has grown at a rate of more than 35% annually, reaching record levels and outpacing annual conventional power capacity additions and will continue its trajectory to reach terawatt-level deployment by 2022-2023 and an estimated 8.5 TW (cumulative) by 2050. The global c-Si cell and PV module producti...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity and stability of the NiFe-based materials is important for achieving low-cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts for practical water splitting. Here, we report the roles of Ni and Fe on the OER activity and stability of metallic NiFe and pure Ni thin films in alkaline media. Our results...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the past decade, perovskite solar cells have travelled an amazing way towards high efficiency. However, a major roadblock remaining is the operational stability, while achieving technological maturity and proving real-world stability is crucial to gain trust among investors. In that sense, it is of high interest to be able to predict the opera...
Article
Both nanosecond pulses and picosecond laser pulses are used for P2 patterning of chalcopyrite (Cu(In,Ga)Se2, CIGSe) and metal halide perovskite solar cell absorber layers. For CIGSe, the range of the modified material visualized by photoluminescence imaging is significantly wider than the actual physical linewidth, since energy input by the laser p...
Article
In conventional Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells a chemical bath deposited CdS thin film is used as a buffer layer. However, it is desired to replace CdS due to the toxicity of cadmium and the rather narrow bandgap energy of CdS. Zn(O,S) is considered to be one of the most attractive candidates as an alternative, non-toxic buffer layer with a large...
Presentation
Full-text available
Various high-purity precious and special metals and metalloids, some of which are critical raw materials, are needed for the production of efficient renewable energy technologies like photovoltaics (PV) that drive sustainable development. To assess the potential contribution of PV to sustainable circular economy, the environmental performance and r...
Article
Full-text available
Due to their tunable bandgap energy, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin‐film solar cells are an attractive option for use as bottom devices in tandem configurations. In monolithic tandem devices, the thermal stability of the bottom device is paramount for reliable application. Ideally, it will permit the processing of a top device at the required optimum pr...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term stability is one of the major challenges for p-i-n type perovskite solar modules (PSMs). Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of fully laser-patterned series interconnected p-i-n perovskite mini-modules, in which either single Cu or Ag layers are compared with Cu/Au metal-bilayer top electrodes. According to the scanning electron microsco...
Article
Full-text available
The upscaling of perovskite solar cells to modules requires the patterning of the layer stack in individual cells that are monolithically interconnected in series. This interconnection scheme is composed of three lines, P1‐P3, which are scribed using a pulsed laser beam. The P3 scribe is intended to isolate the back contact layer of neighboring cel...
Article
Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry Alkali treatment Rubidium fluoride A B S T R A C T Photovoltaic devices based on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorbers are among the most attractive non-Si alternatives. The key to their steadily increasing efficiency is a post-deposition treatment (PDT) with alkali salts....
Article
Full-text available
Monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells recently surpassed the efficiency of silicon single‐junction solar cells. Most tandem cells utilize >250 µm thick, planarized float‐zone (FZ) silicon, which is not compatible with commercial production using <200 µm thick Czochralski (CZ) silicon. We demonstrate perovskite/silicon tandem cells based...
Article
Monolithically stacked tandem solar cells present opportunities to absorb more of the sun's radiation while reducing the degree of energetic loss through thermalization. In these applications, the bandgap of the tandem's constituent subcells must be carefully adjusted so as to avoid competition for photons. Organic photovoltaics based on nonfullere...
Article
Full-text available
Through the optimization of the perovskite precursor composition and interfaces to selective contacts, we achieved a p-i-n-type perovskite solar cell (PSC) with a 22.3% power conversion efficiency (PCE). This is a new performance record for a PSC with an absorber bandgap of 1.63 eV. We demonstrate that the high device performance originates from a...
Article
During 3-stage thermal co-evaporation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe), alkali aluminosilicate (AAS) glass has proven to be stable at process temperatures Tmax of up to 650 °C. This is considerably higher than the maximum endurable Tmax for soda-lime glass (SLG), which is in the range of 530–550 °C. As the Na-content of the AAS glass used here is comparable...
Article
Full-text available
The photovoltaic industry has shown vigorous growth over the last decade and will continue on its trajectory to reach terawatt-level deployment by 2022–2023 and an estimated 4.5 TW by 2050. Presently, its elaboration is driven primarily by cost reduction. Growth will, however, be fuelled by the consumption of various resources, bringing with it una...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution, the impact of thermal stress on Cu(In,Ga)Se $_{2}$ (CIGSe) thin film photovoltaic devices is investigated. The tolerance of such devices to high temperatures is of particular interest for processing transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) in order to further close the gap to the theoretical efficiency limit and for their potenti...
Article
Ambient-pressure Kelvin probe and photoelectron yield spectroscopy methods were employed to investigate the impact of the KF and RbF postdeposition treatments (KF-PDT, RbF-PDT) on the electronic features of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films and the CdS/CIGSe interface in a CdS thickness series that has been sequentially prepared during the chemical b...
Article
Laser-based patterning of CIGSe solar cell absorber layers for monolithic series connection by nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) laser pulses introduces material modifications in the vicinity of the patterned lines, which affect the CIGSe composition, the electrical properties, the extent of the dead area and finally the efficiency of the complet...
Article
Efficiency from hole-selective contacts Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells must stabilize a perovskite material with a wide bandgap and also maintain efficient charge carrier transport. Al-Ashouri et al. stabilized a perovskite with a 1.68–electron volt bandgap with a self-assembled monolayer that acted as an efficient hole-selective contact tha...
Article
Full-text available
Nickel–Molybdenum (NiMo) alloys can be a possible alternative to platinum as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts because of the superior HER activity. However, the superior HER activity and the pH–dependent kinetics are not fully understood. Herein we present a study of HER kinetics and mechanisms of NiMo in alkaline, near‐neutral and acidi...
Article
The transition towards a renewable energy-based society is challenged by spatial and temporal imbalances of energy demand and supply. Storage properties and versatility may favor hydrogen to serve as the linking element between renewable energy generation and a variety of sector coupling options. This paper examines four alternative solar-based hyd...
Article
In this work, the alkali-induced chemical and electronic modifications observed at the KF- and RbF-treated Cu (In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe)/CdS interfaces are correlated to a Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) model of the alkali metal induced point defects at a CuInSe2/CdS interface. Analysed with hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), the near-in...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents the validation of a heuristic model, which predicts the electrical characteristics of CIGSSe thin film solar modules. This model is based on four-coefficient equations, used to determine electrical parameters from photovoltaic devices such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, current at maximum power point and maximum...
Article
Full-text available
Doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline (nc-Si:H) and silicon oxide (nc-SiOx:H) materials grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition have favourable optoelectronic properties originated from their two-phase structure. This unique combination of qualities, initially, led to the development of thin-film Si solar cells allowing the fabrication of m...
Article
An integrated photovoltaic-electrolyser with a solar collection area of 294 cm² was constructed and its performance, represented by the solar to hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency and hydrogen production rate mH2 in various outdoor and indoor conditions, was investigated by measurements of the product gas streams. The device was composed of silic...
Article
Full-text available
A bottom‐up approach to creating silicon solar cells has the potential to not only avoid kerflosses incurred in wafer slicing, but also the energy involved in kerfless slicing techniques. Liquid‐phase‐crystallized silicon (LPC‐Si) is one such approach in which amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon is deposited on glass up to a desired thickness (5‐40 μ...
Article
Laser-based fabrication of metal-halide perovskite mini-modules has recently been demonstrated using nanosecond (ns) laser pulses. However, it still suffers from high-resistance contacts due to remaining PbI2 residues at the bottom of the absorber-opening P2 scribe line. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effect of shorter picosecond (ps)...
Article
Full-text available
Post‐deposition treatments (PDT) of chalcopyrite absorbers with alkali fluorides have contributed to improve the efficiency of corresponding solar cell devices. However, cells prepared with PDTs also tend to exhibit non‐ideal JV characteristics especially at low temperatures. These include blocking of the forward diode current, saturation of the op...
Article
Sodium is known to play a crucial role in thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorbers, however, the chemical state of Na in CIGSe is still under discussion. In this work, an Auger parameter analysis has been carried out to identify the differences in the chemical states of Na in CIGSe, originating from two different sources: the s...
Article
In this article, we report on the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on thin-film silicon layers designed for the application as carrier selective contacts for silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We find that ITO deposited on hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) layers presents a significant drop on electron mobility µ...
Article
Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells rely on excellent surface passivation of the crystalline wafer. This article reports on the development of wet chemical processes varying the texturing and optimizations of the final clean processes for Czochralski–silicon wafers used in SHJ solar cells. Three different additives are used to modify both the...
Article
Full-text available
Indium oxide based transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are promising contact layers in solar cells due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. However, when applied in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 or Si-hetero-junction solar cells the specific roughness of the material beneath can affect the growth and the properties of the TCO. We investigated t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm, which condenses datasets of important electrical parameters of solar modules, from indoor or outdoor measurements, into four predictors (per parameter) and, based on this, to calculate or estimate the expected electrical parameters of the evaluated module for arbitrary illuminations and temperatures....
Article
Full-text available
Photo-electrochemical (PEC) systems have the potential to contribute to de-carbonation of the global energy supply because solar energy can be directly converted to hydrogen, which can be burnt without the release of greenhouse gases. However, meaningful deployment of PEC technology in the global energy system, even when highly efficient scaled up...
Preprint
Photoelectrochemical systems have the potential to contribute to de-carbonation of the energy system because solar energy can be directly converted to hydrogen which can be burnt without the release of greenhouse gases. However, meaningful deployment of photoelectrochemical (PEC) technology in the global energy system, even when highly efficient sc...
Article
Free access till 05.12.19 on the following link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZvK13In-93NjQ . This work reports a laser firing technique applied to completed silicon heterojunction interdigitated back contact solar cells in order to lower contact resistance. Previously, the implementation of a-Si:H(i) at the electron contact of polycrystalline...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid rise of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is increasingly limited by the available charge-selective contacts. This work introduces two new hole-selective contacts for p–i–n PSCs that outperform all typical p-contacts in versatility, scalability and PSC power-conversion efficiency (PCE). The molecules are based on carbazole bodies with phospho...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution we are analyzing and comparing the impact of two different alkali-fluorine post deposition treatments (KF and RbF) on the growth of chemical-bath-deposited CdS buffer layers on CIGS absorber layers for thin film solar cells. By combining Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy, current-voltage analysis and measurements o...
Conference Paper
Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell technology has the potential to be the next mainstream industrial solar cell design due to its high efficiency and lean production process with only four main process steps. While two-side contacted SHJ cells have very high open circuit voltages (Voc) >740 mV, they tend to be lower in short circuit current de...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution, the effectiveness of an RbF post deposition treatment (PDT) is evaluated in dependence on the Cu content of the absorber layer of Cu(In,Ga)Se $_{2}$ solar cells. It is shown that the PDT only acts beneficially on the open-circuit voltage and fill factor (FF) on samples with rather high Cu content, while it deteriorates all pa...