Russell C Wyeth

Russell C Wyeth
St. Francis Xavier University · Department of Biology

PhD

About

70
Publications
10,150
Reads
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583
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
370 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Introduction
Invertebrate zoology, behaviour, neuroethology and a bit of ecology. Aquatic gastropod olfactory navigation behaviour. Applied projects on marine biofouling/antifouling and lobster foraging. Full details here: http://wyethlab.ca
Additional affiliations
December 2007 - present
St. Francis Xavier University
May 2005 - December 2007
Dalhousie University
September 1998 - December 2004
Education
September 1998 - December 2004
September 1991 - August 1996
University of Victoria
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
Tritonia diomedea (synonymous with T. tetraquetra) navigates in turbulent odour plumes, crawling upstream towards prey and downstream to avoid predators. This is likely accomplished by odour-gated rheotaxis, but other possibilities have not been excluded. Our goal was to test whether T. diomedea uses odour-gated rheotaxis and simultaneously determi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within the Phylum Mollusca, gastropods encompass a large and diverse group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that inhabit areas of the deep or shallow sea, estuaries, lakes, and arid environments. They have no acoustic sense and, for many, little to no visual recognition of objects. Instead, their world is chemically driven so that water-soluble a...
Article
Full-text available
The siphon of Aplysia californica has several functions, including involvement in respiration, excretion and defensive inking. It also provides sensory input for defensive withdrawals that have been studied extensively to examine mechanisms that underlie learning. To better understand the neuronal bases of these functions, we used immunohistochemis...
Article
Full-text available
The wide geographic distribution, large size and ease of capture has led to decapod crustaceans being used extensively in laboratory experiments. Recently in the United Kingdom decapod crustaceans were listed as sentient beings, resulting in their inclusion in animal care protocols. Ironically, little is known about how captive conditions affect th...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma digenetic trematodes, is one of the deadliest neglected tropical diseases in the world. The Schistosoma lifecycle involves the miracidial infection of an intermediate freshwater snail host, such as Biomphalaria glabrata. Dispersing snail host-derived Schistosoma miracidia attractants has been co...
Article
Elucidating processes and mechanisms involved in rapid local adaptation to varied environments is a poorly understood but crucial component in management of invasive species. Recent studies have proposed that genetic and epigenetic variation could both contribute to ecological adaptation, yet it remains unclear on the interplay between these two co...
Article
Full-text available
Elucidating the infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni, one of the main etiological agents of human schistosomiasis, requires an improved understanding of the behavioural mechanisms of cercariae, the non-feeding mammalian infective stage. This study investigated the presence and effect of cercariae-derived putative neuropeptides on cercarial behaviour...
Article
Past studies of Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation as a marine antifoulant have focused on repeated doses. However, single or very low frequency exposures of UV-C could create more plausible applications for certain marine structures. The objective of the study reported here was to apply a single treatment of UV-C radiation to an early stage marine bio...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Are you interested in developing technology that supports coastal communities? Are you interested in sustainable solutions to global economic challenges in trillion-dollar industries? Would you like to collaborate with a diverse group of specialists toward a common goal? Biofouling is the unwanted growth of organisms on submerged surfaces, commonly...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis is a medically significant disease caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. The schistosome life cycle requires chemically mediated interactions with an intermediate (aquatic snail) and definitive (human) host. Blocking parasite development within the snail stage requires improved understanding of the interactions betw...
Article
The set of four closely related solitary ascidians Ciona spp. were once considered a single cosmopolitan species, Ciona intestinalis, but are now recognized as genetically and morphologically distinct species. The possibility of ecological differences between the species was not widely considered in studies preceding the schism of Ciona spp. Conseq...
Article
Catecholaminergic neurons are abundant in molluscs and are involved in a variety of behaviors such as feeding, respiration, learning, and locomotion. However, previous identification of these neurons has relied almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry using antibodies, which have not been fully validated for use in molluscs. We employed tissue‐sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Schistosomiasis is a medically significant disease caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. The schistosome life cycle requires chemically mediated interactions with an intermediate (aquatic snail) and definitive (human) host. Blocking parasite development within the snail stage requires improved understanding of the inter...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Schistosomiasis is a medically significant disease caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. The schistosome life cycle requires chemically mediated interactions with an intermediate (aquatic snail) and definitive (human) host. Blocking parasite development within the snail stage requires improved understanding of the inter...
Article
Biofouling causes a range of problems in aquaculture, and there is a need to validate the effectiveness of antifouling products marketed in the industry. We tested the antifouling performance of four commercial aquaculture netting options at a trout aquaculture operation in the Bras d'Or Lakes, Nova Scotia, Canada. This site has brackish water and...
Article
The nudibranch Tritonia exsulans (previously Tritonia diomedea) is known to have behaviors and neurons that can be modified by perturbations of the Earth's magnetic field. There is no definitive evidence for how this magnetic sense is used in nature. Using an exploratory approach, we tested for possible effects of magnetic perturbations based on un...
Article
Boat Harbour (BH), Nova Scotia, has served as a polishing pond for treated pulp and paper effluent since 1967. In 2020, the effluent flow ceased, and the site will be remediated. The focus of the remediation is the removal of a layer of contaminated sediment, shown to contain high levels of metals and dioxins and furans. Our primary objective was t...
Article
Full-text available
RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful tool to visualize target messenger RNA transcripts in cultured cells, tissue sections or whole-mount preparations. As the technique has been developed over time, an ever-increasing number of divergent protocols have been published. There is now a broad selection of options available to fac...
Article
Many parasites with complex life cycles cause host behavioral changes that increase the likelihood of transmission to the next host. Parasite modification is often found in trophic transmission, but its influence on non-trophic transmission is unclear. In trematodes, transmission from the first to second intermediate host is non-trophic suggesting...
Article
Full-text available
Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a robust technique for the quantification and comparison of gene expression. To obtain reliable results with this method, one or more reference genes must be employed to normalize expression measurements among treatments or tissue samples. Candidate reference genes must be validated to ensure that...
Article
The vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis is an invasive sea squirt that poses several challenges for coastal marine ecosystems and human activities. Despite its widespread distribution, temporal and spatial variability in population abundances is high. We tested whether this variation could be explained by 4 abiotic variables: temperature, salinity, pH...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasion provides a promising system for studying rapid environmental accommodation and adaptation in the wild. Mounting evidence indicates that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation play crucial roles in rapid local accommodation and adaptation. Thus, we hypothesize that different local environments can trigger methylation di...
Article
Ultraviolet light has intriguing potential as a marine antifoulant, targeting almost any species and applicable to almost any surface, while not accumulating in the environment. This study field-tested the effects of periodic ultraviolet-C illumination on marine macrofouling. Across four experiments, several UV illumination duty cycles were tested...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a robust technique for the quantification and comparison of gene expression across multiple tissues. To obtain reliable results, one or more reference genes must be employed to normalize expression measurements among treatments or tissue samples. Candidate reference genes must be validated to ensu...
Preprint
Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a robust technique for the quantification and comparison of gene expression across multiple tissues. To obtain reliable results, one or more reference genes must be employed to normalize expression measurements among treatments or tissue samples. Candidate reference genes must be validated to ensu...
Article
Gastropod diversity is substantial in marine and freshwater habitats, and many aquatic slugs and snails use olfactory cues to guide their navigation behaviour. Examples include finding prey or avoiding predators based on kairomones, or finding potential mates using pheromones. Here, I review the diversity of navigational behaviours studied across t...
Article
Full-text available
The human disease schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is caused by the helminth blood fluke parasite Schistosoma mansoni, which requires an intermediate host, the freshwater gastropod snail Biomphalaria glabrata (the most common intermediate host). The free-swimming parasite miracidia utilise an excellent chemosensory sense to detect and locate an appro...
Article
Full-text available
The mollusc nudibranch genus Hermissenda Bergh, 1879 was recently discovered to include three pseudocryptic species, dividing a single species H. crassicornis (sensu lato) into H. crassicornis Escholtz, 1831, H. opalescens J.G. Cooper, 1863, and H. emurai Baba, 1937. The species were distinguished by both genetic and morphological evidence, and the...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific method is a core element of all science. Yet, its different implementations are remarkably diverse, based on the varied concepts and protocols required in each specific instance of science. For experienced scientists, coping with this diversity is second nature: They readily and continually ask tractable questions even outside their...
Conference Paper
Zebrafish are emerging as a novel model for studying learning and memory due to the accessibility of molecular tools, rich repertoire of behaviours, relatively simple neuronal circuits, reasonable cost, and usefulness for high-throughput screens. However, the number of behavioural paradigms that minimize handling stress and are well suited to the s...
Article
Full-text available
Hermissenda crassicornis is a model for studying the molecular and cellular basis for classical conditioning, based on its ability to associate light with vestibular stimulation. We used confocal microscopy to map histamine, FMRF-amide, and GABA immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS), eyes, optic ganglia and statocysts of the nudibran...
Conference Paper
Zebrafish are emerging as a novel model for studying learning and memory due to the accessibility of molecular tools, rich repertoire of behaviours, relatively simple neuronal circuits, reasonable cost, and usefulness for high-throughput screens. However, the number of behavioural paradigms that minimize handling stress and are well suited to the s...
Article
Full-text available
Increased understanding of the molecular components involved in reproduction may assist in understanding the evolutionary adaptations used by animals, including hermaphrodites, to produce offspring and retain a continuation of their lineage. In this study, we focus on the Mediterranean snail, Theba pisana, a hermaphroditic land snail that has becom...
Data
Comparison and phylogenetic analysis of GnRH. (TIF)
Data
ELH1 model. (A) Potential energy of ELH1 as a function of time during MD. The solid line is a running average over 50 ps. (B) Backbone RMSD during the same MD, compared to the lowest-energy conformation (the representative structure). ELH1 sequence: [p-] EAERDRRTWSISNALTVLTDMVVEHEQRRLAAEREALKQRLLELamide. (TIF)
Data
Complete RT-PCR gel showing tissue-specific expression of APGWamide, ELH and GnRH precursor genes in T. pisana. Representation shown in Fig 2. Tissues used include the: bursa tract (B), CNS (whole central nervous system ganglia), dart sac (DS), foot muscle (F), hepatopancreas (HP), mucous glands (MG), ovotestis (OT), penis (P). Tpi-actin was used a...
Article
Past tests of settlement by marine invertebrate larvae on different colours were not designed to distinguish between responses to substrate colour and substrate brightness. Using colour vision testing methods, the design of this study provided a true test for responses to colour by including both coloured and grayscale settlement plates. The domina...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides supporting data for the research article “A simple automated system for appetitive conditioning of zebrafish in their home tanks” [1]. In that article, we described overall movements of zebrafish toward a food source as a response to auditory or visual cues as conditioned stimuli in a novel learning paradigm. Here, we describe...
Article
Our goal was to test two potential sensory roles for the oral veil in the nudibranch Tritonia diomedea (now synonymous with T. tetraquetra). First, we hypothesized this cephalic sensory organ could detect substrate-associated odours left behind by an odour plume flowing across sediment. In two experiments in a laboratory flow tank, however, T. diom...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial biofilms are precursors to biofouling by other microorganisms. Understanding their initiation may allow us to design better ways to inhibit them, and thus to inhibit subsequent biofouling. In this study, the ability of confocal Raman microscopy to follow the initiation of biofouling by a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021...
Article
Full-text available
Ecology as a process is shaped by biotic and abiotic influences. In some cases, a single type of chemical can have effects on an ecosystem, effects that are disproportionate to its relative mass, such that the ecosystem would organize differently in the absence of this type of chemical. The hallmark examples are those “molecules of keystone signifi...
Article
Full-text available
The navigation strategies animals use to find sources of odor depend on the olfactory stimuli, the properties of flowing fluids, and the locomotory capabilities of the animal. In high Reynolds number environments, animals typically use odor-gated rheotaxis to find the source of turbulent odor plumes. This strategy succeeds because, although turbule...
Article
The American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is trapped primarily with finfish baits that are becoming more costly and difficult to acquire as stocks dwindle. Thus, alternative bait options should be considered. We made video recordings of lobster foraging responses in the laboratory to compare the attractiveness of the invasive green crab (Carcinus m...
Article
Full-text available
Trichoplax adhaerens is an enigmatic basal animal with an extraordinarily simple morphological organization and surprisingly complex behaviors. Basic morphological, molecular and behavioral work is essential to better understand the unique and curious life style of these organisms. We provide basic instructions on how Trichoplax can be cultured and...
Article
Unlabelled: Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 (NCIMB 2021) was grown in synthetic seawater (SSW) containing pyruvate, in the presence (SSW(++) ) and absence (SSW(-) ) of divalent cations. Cultures contained single cells. Addition of the cationic antibacterial peptide (CAP), protamine, did not inhibit, but rather increased, the growth of NCIMB 2021...
Article
Full-text available
The peripheral nervous system in gastropods plays a key role in the neural control of behaviors, but is poorly studied in comparison with the central nervous system. Peripheral sensory neurons, although known to be widespread, have been studied in a patchwork fashion across several species, with no comprehensive treatment in any one species. We att...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present a method that complements both scoring by observers and automated tracking methods for quantifying behaviors. Based on standard motion enhancement, our algorithm converts a behavioral video recording into a single image (‘videogram’) that maps the spatial distribution of activity in the video sequence. This videogram can be used as a vis...
Data
Full-text available
We present a method that complements both scoring by observers and automated tracking methods for quantifying behaviors. Based on standard motion enhancement, our algorithm converts a behavioral video recording into a single image (‘videogram’) that maps the spatial distribution of activity in the video sequence. This videogram can be used as a vis...
Chapter
Full-text available
We describe a simple assay for studying and conditioning olfactory behaviors of adult zebrafish. The apparatus consists of a circular flow-through tank into which odorants can be administered in a controlled fashion. Odorants (conditioned stimuli; CS) are repeatedly paired with food flakes (unconditioned stimuli; UCS) that are provided inside a tet...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetoreception can play a substantial role in long distance navigation by animals. I hypothesize that locomotion guided by a magnetic compass sense could also play a role in short distance navigation. Animals identify mates, prey, or other short distance navigational goals using different sensory modalities (olfaction, vision, audition, etc.) to...
Article
Full-text available
Anaesthesia is often used in neurophysiological, surgical, and neuroanatomical protocols. Several anaesthetics, including magnesium chloride, volatiles (halothane, etc.), and barbiturates, have been used in gastropod neurobiology. 1-Phenoxy-2-propanol (PP) is another anaesthetic option that has not yet been used extensively. We provide an analysis...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new method to measure current near the substratum. A variety of current meters are available to record flow data relevant to benthic organisms in their natural habitat. Several factors, including accuracy and precision, sample volume, sample rate, deployment con- straints, and cost make them more or less appropriate to different appli...
Article
Full-text available
The nudibranch mollusc Tritonia diomedea has been a useful model system for studies of how the brain controls behavior. However, no broad study of T. diomedea field behavior exists--an important deficit since laboratory behaviors may differ from what occurs in nature. Here we report analysis of time-lapse video of the slugs in their natural habitat...
Article
Full-text available
Progress in understanding sensory and locomotory systems in Tritonia diomedea has created the potential for the neuroethological study of animal navigation in this species. Our goal is to describe the navigational behaviors to guide further work on how the nervous system integrates information from multiple senses to produce oriented locomotion. Ob...
Article
Full-text available
Tritonia diomedea is a useful neuroethological model system that can contribute to our understanding of the neural control of navigation. Prior work on both sensory and locomotory systems is complemented by recent field experiments, which concluded that these animals primarily use a combination of odours and water flow as guidance cues. We corrobor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A flexible polyimide-based interconnect scheme was developed to realize isolated needle-like microelectrodes. A simple fabrication approach allows the integration of micromachined silicon needles with a larger silicon base designed to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide layers to sandw...
Article
Simultaneous, multi-site recording from the brain of freely behaving animals will allow neuroscientists to correlate neuronal activity with external stimulation and behavior. This information is critical for understanding the complex interactions of brain cells. Recent interest in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and in particular in bio-MEMS...
Article
Full-text available
Micro-machined silicon needles capable of penetrating through cell membranes were fabricated and tested for intracellular sensing applications. The fabricated needles have sharp tips (diameter <1 µm), they are long (>300 µm) and exhibit high mechanical strength. The needles were tested for extra- and intra-cellular neuronal recording applications....
Article
The behaviour of Chelyosoma productum and Corella inflata (Ascidiacea) was studied in normal and deganglionated animals. Chelyosoma productum lived for over a year after deganglionation and the ganglion did not regenerate. Electrophysiological recordings were made from semi-intact preparations. Responses to stimulation and spontaneous activity cont...
Article
Cultured fragments of the hexactinellid sponge, Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni, were observed feeding on 1.0 µm latex beads. Using contrast-enhanced video microscopy of live cultures, the events preceding, during, and after phagocytosis were observed. Particle ingestion occurred almost exclusively in flagellated areas where the water currents generated by...
Article
Abstract Fragments of sponge tissue were cultured between glass slides and coverslips, permitting direct observation of cytoplasmic movements and tissue organization in vitro. The cut surfaces healed and the cultures lived for periods of several weeks. Cytoplasmic organization appeared similar to that described from study of sectioned material. Upt...
Article
Full-text available
We present an implantable sub-micron silicon probe device, with flexible interconnects, that is capable of intracellular neuronal recording. The silicon probe device's ability to penetrate and record from neurons in an isolated brain of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea was tested, and we demonstrate that, for the first time, an implantable device can...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction • Many animals use odour gated rheotaxis to navigate In most situations, the effects of flow (advection and turbulence) destroy any diffusive odour gradients, eliminating chemotaxis as a navigational option. Instead, animals move upstream in the presence of odour. This strategy succeeds because flow transports the odour from the source...
Article
Full-text available
Our initial results show no signifi cant trends that correspond to any of our hypotheses. The responses in still water suggest that a refl exive turn response is not used, however, our sample size is still small, and we have identifi ed a problem with our stimulation protocol which will confound our results. Our attempts to stimulate just the upstr...

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Projects (2)
Project
Development of new learning paradigms for zebrafish