Russell A Mittermeier

Russell A Mittermeier
Conservation International · President's Office

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266
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Publications

Publications (266)
Article
Full-text available
Over the last half-century, the world’s human population has doubled, impacting almost all ocean and land areas. The threats facing primates in the wild have never been greater or more complex. Primatologists have long been aware of these threats and, since the 1970s, have coordinated efforts to safeguard these threatened species, through the Inter...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence to suggest that the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may hamper our achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here, we use non-human primates as a case study to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on the ability to achieve biodiversity conservation and management sustainability targets. We collected data thr...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Comprehensive, global information on species' occurrences is an essential biodiversity variable and central to a range of applications in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation. Expert range maps often represent a species' only available distributional information and play an increasing role in conservation assessments and macroeco...
Article
Full-text available
Long-standing concerns about the status of the world's endangered primates have stimulated significant international efforts, such as the primate action plans published by the Primate Specialist Group of the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Species Survival Commission. However, national-level action plans that bring together diverse...
Article
Full-text available
Some conservation prioritization methods assume that conservation needs overwhelm current resources and not all species can be conserved; therefore, a “conservation triage” scheme (that is, when the system is overwhelmed, species should be divided into three groups based on likelihood of survival, and efforts should be focused on those species in t...
Chapter
Eighteen megadiversity countries are home to 70% of the species in the world. They also host more than 64% of the languages spoken on the planet. This paper builds on this strong correlation to argue that diversity of cultures is an expression of biological diversity. These two components of diversity must, therefore, be treated jointly by science,...
Article
Full-text available
This species is listed as Least Concern as it is relatively widely distributed, adaptable, occurs in a number of protected areas, and because the current rate of decline (due to habitat loss and fragmentation and hunting), is not sufficient to qualify it for, or near for, a threatened category.
Technical Report
Full-text available
2020 -- IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (Madagascar Section) Red List conservation status review and update for the black lemur (Eulemur macaco). This was part of a bigger reviewing and updating of Red List conservation statuses for all lemur species -- the first such review and update for lemurs since 2012. As a result of this 2020 conservation...
Article
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This species is listed as Endangered based on a suspected population reduction of >50% over the past three generations (2000-2018) due to habitat loss (>43%), competition and hybridization with invasive species, and occasional live capture for the pet trade.
Article
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Given the short time-frame to limit global warming, and the current emissions gap, it is critical to prioritise mitigation actions. To date, scant attention has been paid to the mitigation benefits of primary forest protection. We estimated tropical forest ecosystem carbon stocks and flows. The ecosystem carbon stock of primary tropical forests is...
Article
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Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A3ce ver 3.1 Year Published: 2020 Date Assessed: January 23, 2020 Justification: Leontopithecus chrysopygus is considered Endangered (EN A3ce) due to an anticipated population reduction of 50% or more within the next three generations (2019-2040) due to continued habitat loss within its range, the possible l...
Technical Report
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019. e.T865A17952193 https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/865/17952193
Article
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A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue f...
Article
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Madagascar’s recently elected president ran on a platform of improving the economy and raising people out of poverty. We suggest that addressing the precipitous decline of biodiversity will help to deliver this commitment, and we lay out ways in which President Rajoelina could firmly put the country on a trajectory towards sustainable growth.
Article
The taxonomy of the titi monkeys (Callicebinae) has recently received considerable attention. It is now recognised that this subfamily is composed of three genera with 33 species, seven of them described since 2002. Here, we describe a new species of titi, Plecturocebus, from the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We adopt an integ...
Article
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We present a review and analysis of the conservation status and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat categories of all 360 currently recognized species of extant and recently extinct turtles and tortoises (Order Testudines). Our analysis is based on the 2018 IUCN Red List status of 251 listed species, augmented by provisiona...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Article
Full-text available
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservati...
Data
Fig. S3. Trends in the growth of the cultivated areas devoted to roots and tubers, maize, and rice paddy production and in two important arboreal food crops in DRC. Also shown is the growth trend in the harvest of hardwoods. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 1 April 2017). Note: starting year may differ...
Data
Fig. S1. Expansion of agricultural land for the period 2001 to 2015 in Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar and DRC. Available at FAOStats http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (accessed 10 February 2018). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S2. Trends in the growth of cattle populations and in the production of some of the most important agricultural commodities in Brazil. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (accessed 14 February 2018; for a definition of the category Roundwood nonconiferous see http://www.fao.org/waicent/faostat/forestry/products.htm#S2; http://www....
Data
Fig. S5. Trends in the area devoted to the cultivation of rice, oil palm, natural rubber and the increase in the volume of roundwood extraction in Indonesia. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 5 April 2017). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S4. Trends in the growth of cultivated areas including roots and tubers, maize, and rice paddy production in Madagascar. Also shown is the growth in the extraction of hardwoods. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#compare (crops processed) (accessed 1 April 2017). See Text S1 for limitations of the FAO data.
Data
Fig. S6. Optimistic, business as usual, and pessimistic scenarios of expected spatial conflict between agricultural expansion and primate distributions in the 21st century in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. The table at the bottom shows the predicted agricultural expansion values (%) to take place by 2050 and 2100 under each of the three sce...
Data
Table S2. Number of primate species, genera and families currently present in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Also shown is the number of species threatened and with declining populations. Source of data: IUCN, 2017 http://www.iucnredlist.org (consulted February 13th, 2018). Three families are shared by DRC and Indonesia: Lorisidae, Cercopit...
Data
Table S5. Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (GDPPC) and the Human Development Index for the 25 most developed nations in the world and for Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Source HDI: http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/COD (accessed 5 February 2018) Source GDPPC: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?contextual=max&locatio...
Data
Fig. S7. Frequency distribution of the area of the ranges of primate species (blue) and the area of their ranges that overlap with protected areas. (A) Brazil, (B) DRC, (C) Madagascar and (D) Indonesia.
Data
Table S1. Biological richness of four major vertebrate groups in Brazil, DRC, Madagascar and Indonesia. Source: IUCN, 2017 http://www.iucnredlist.org–consulted August 2017.
Data
Table S3. Tree cover loss (>30% canopy cover) for the period 2001 to 2016. Source: Global Forest Watch (http://www.globalforestwatch.org (accessed 11 January 2018). All areas are in ha.
Data
Table S4. Expansion estimates of agricultural land in Brazil, Indonesia, Madagascar and DRC for the period 2001 to 2015. Also shown is agricultural land as percent of the country’s land area. Source of data: FAOStats http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data (accessed 12 February 2018). Increases or decreases from year to year can be calculated by subtra...
Book
This book presents a brief summary of the 25th most endangered tortoise and turtle species. The summary includes both common and scientific names, distribution, causes of population decrease, and conservation strategies.
Article
Full-text available
A new species in the genus Cheirogaleus is described from Ranomafana and Andringitra national parks, Madagascar. Ranomafana National Park is a rainforest situated in a montane region, and Andringitra National Park is comprised of grassland, lowland and highland forests displaying great altitudinal variation. Both parks are known to harbor wide spec...
Chapter
The term “wilderness” has several dimensions. It is used as a biological descriptor for intact or largely intact areas that have little or no industrial infrastructure and are remote from urban areas. It is also used as a protected area classification for areas corresponding to Category 1b—wilderness areas in IUCN's protected areas classification s...
Chapter
Biodiversity hotspots are 36 regions of exceptional species richness and endemism (≥ 1500 endemic plants) that are severely threatened (70% of the original vegetation destroyed). They comprise 24.83 million km² (16.7% of Earth's land surface). The remaining natural vegetation is only 3,563,850 km² (2.39% of Earths land surface). At least 153,816 va...
Article
The pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, the smallest of the New World monkeys, has one of the largest geographical distributions of the Amazonian primates. Two forms have been recognized: Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea (Spix, 1823), and C. p. niveiventrisLönnberg, 1940. In this study, we investigated if the separation of pygmy marmosets into these two clad...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases were cited as a cause of population decline of wild nonhuman primates (NHPs) by A. Estrada and collaborators in their review “Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates” (Science Advances, 18 January, e1600946). Concurrent with the publication of this review, an epidemic of jungle yellow fever (YF) in the Atlan...
Article
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We name two new tarsier species from the northern peninsula of Sulawesi. In doing so, we examine the biogeography of Sulawesi and remove the implausibly disjunct distribution of Tarsius tarsier. This brings tarsier taxonomy into better accordance with the known geological history of Sulawesi and with the known regions of biological endemism on Sula...
Chapter
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species uses quantitative criteria based on population size, rate of decline, and geographic distribution, and, when possible, the extent and degree of threats to assess the conservation status of the world's plants and animals. All primate species and subspecies are assessed by the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group....
Article
Full-text available
Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem he...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi sp. nov., of the C. medius group is described from the dry and transitional forests of northern Madagascar. This species can be found along the forest corridor from Ankarana Special Reserve east to the Analamerana Special Reserve down to the Bekaraoka forest in the Loky-Manambato Protected Area. Thi...
Article
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The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species' boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all...
Book
Full-text available
“Geografía de la Esperanza: Salvando los Últimos Bosques Primarios” destaca el valor ambiental, cultural y espiritual de los bosques primarios de nuestro planeta, que sufren una acelerada desaparición a consecuencia de la actividad humana.
Book
Full-text available
"Geography of Hope: Saving the Last Primary Forests” underscores the spectacular environmental, cultural, and spiritual value of our planet’s primary forests—that are fast disappearing as a result of human activity.
Article
Twelve generic names have been ascribed to the New World tamarins but all are currently placed in just one: Saguinus Hoffmannsegg, 1807. Based on geographical distributions, morphology, and pelage patterns and coloration, they have been divided into six species groups: (1) nigricollis, (2) mystax, (3) midas, (4) inustus, (5) bicolor and (6) oedipus...