Russell H Fazio

Russell H Fazio
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

182
Publications
205,069
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32,760
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2001 - present
The Ohio State University
August 1978 - June 2001
Indiana University Bloomington
August 1974 - July 1978

Publications

Publications (182)
Article
Full-text available
The language - in particular, the adjectives - individuals use can be harnessed to understand the different aspects of their attitudes. The present research introduces a novel approach to measuring attitudes that allows researchers to quantify these aspects. In Study 1, we created a list of 94 evaluative adjectives and asked participant judges to r...
Article
Full-text available
Whenever individuals evaluate a novel object or situation, they must integrate its positive and negative aspects. We argue that such valence weighting is essentially an exercise in attitude generalization. Individuals must weigh how much the novel stimulus resembles past occurrences that proved to be positive versus past incidences toward which the...
Article
Past research has established the value of social distancing as a means of deterring the spread of COVID-19 largely by examining aggregate level data. Locales in which efforts were undertaken to encourage distancing experienced reductions in their rate of transmission. However, these aggregate results tell us little about the effectiveness of socia...
Preprint
Recent work has found that an individual's beliefs and personal characteristics can impact perceptions of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain individuals - such as those who are politically conservative, endorse conspiracy theories, or who believe the threat of COVID-19 to be exaggerated - are less likely to engage in such preventative...
Article
The current research presents a novel perspective regarding individual differences in intertemporal choice preferences. We postulate that such differences are partly rooted in individuals’ valence weighting proclivities—their characteristic manner of weighting positive and negative valence when constructing an initial evaluation. Importantly, valen...
Preprint
Full-text available
A primary focus of research on conspiracy theories has been understanding the psychological characteristics that predict people’s level of conspiracist ideation. However, the dynamics of conspiracist ideation—i.e., how such tendencies change over time—are not well understood. To help fill this gap in the literature, we used data from longitudinal s...
Article
Individuals vary in their sensitivity to disgust—differences that have implications for intergroup attitudes, political ideology, and beyond. However, the source of this variability in disgust sensitivity remains a subject of debate. In this work, we test the hypothesis that sensitivity to disgust is “calibrated” by an individual's concern about di...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has found that an individual’s beliefs and personal characteristics can impact perceptions of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain individuals—such as those who are politically conservative or who endorse conspiracy theories—are less likely to engage in preventative behaviors like social distancing. The current research aims...
Preprint
Conspiracy theories proliferate during times of turmoil. Not surprisingly, the COVID-19 pandemic has created an environment in which virus-related conspiracy theories have thrived. The current study leverages prior research to shed light on the antecedents and consequences of conspiracy theory beliefs in the important, real-world context of the COV...
Article
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In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have sought to better understand the psychological characteristics associated with adoption of preventative behaviors. Several studies point to knowledge about the virus, trust in government officials, and trust in scientists as reliable predictors of social distancing, yet the exact nature of the re...
Preprint
Individuals vary substantially in their sensitivity to disgust—differences that have implications for intergroup attitudes, political ideology, and beyond. However, the source of this variability in disgust sensitivity remains a subject of debate. In this work, we test the hypothesis that sensitivity to disgust is "calibrated" by an individual's co...
Preprint
Research has documented robust associations between greater disgust sensitivity and (1) concern about disease, and (2) political conservatism. However, the COVID-19 disease pandemic raised challenging questions about these associations. In particular, why have conservatives—despite their greater disgust sensitivity—exhibited less concern about the...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 disease pandemic is one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. Nevertheless, responses to the pandemic exhibit a stark ideological divide, with political conservatives (versus liberals/progressives) expressing less concern about the virus and less behavioral compliance with efforts to combat it. Drawing from decades of...
Article
Full-text available
A study involving over 2000 online participants (US residents) tested a general framework regarding compliance with a directive in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study featured not only a self-report measure of social distancing but also virtual behavior measures—simulations that presented participants with graphical depictions mirroring...
Preprint
The COVID-19 disease pandemic is one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. Nevertheless, responses to the pandemic exhibit a stark ideological divide, with political conservatives (versus liberals/progressives) expressing less concern about the virus and less behavioral compliance with efforts to combat it. Drawing from decades of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Past research has established the value of social distancing as a means of deterring the spread of COVID-19 largely by examining aggregate level data. Locales in which efforts were undertaken to encourage distancing experienced reductions in their rate of transmission. However, these aggregate results tell us little about the effectiveness of socia...
Preprint
Full-text available
A study involving over 2000 online participants tested a general framework regarding compliance with a directive in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study featured not only a self-report measure of social distancing but also behavioral measures -- simulations that presented participants with graphical depictions mirroring multiple real-wor...
Article
Fiagbenu et al . (2019, British Journal of Psychology ) questioned the nature and extent of ideological differences in learning and behaviour documented by Shook and Fazio (2009, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 45, 995). We correct a mischaracterization in their depiction of Shook & Fazio's research, and in doing so, we outline why the...
Article
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Researchers, marketers, and consumers often believe that amplifying emotional content is impactful for the spread of information and purchasing decisions. However, there is little systematic investigation of when emotionality backfires. This research demonstrates when and why positive emotion can have enhancing versus backfiring effects. The author...
Article
Learning a new skill is often characterized by discouraging setbacks. We administered a directed abstraction writing exercise to encourage participants struggling to learn a programming language (over three weekly sessions) to generalize broadly from their successes. This intervention produced benefits for certain subsets of participants, including...
Article
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In this research, we address a longstanding question concerning how individuals evaluate social and political issues. We focus on the role that political self-identification plays when individuals evaluate policy statements. In a laboratory setting, participants completed a task facilitation procedure, in which they made paired sets of judgments ab...
Article
Attachment theory assumes that trust in caregivers’ support and exploration are closely related. Little research tried to investigate this link, nor focuses on mechanisms that might explain this association. The present studies examined whether trust is related to exploration through a serial indirect effect of openness to negative affect and self-...
Article
People regularly form expectations about their future, and whether those expectations are positive or negative can have important consequences. So, what determines the valence of people’s expectations? Research seeking to answer this question by using an individual-differences approach has established that trait biases in optimistic/pessimistic sel...
Article
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Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to a change in one's attitude toward an object based on its contiguous pairing with other positive or negative objects. EC can, in principle, occur through multiple mechanisms, some more and some less thoughtful. We argue that one relatively low-thought route through which EC produces evaluative change is implici...
Article
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Forming social relationships is an integral aspect of our lives and a topic fundamental to social psychology. Using a performance-based measure of individual differences in valence weighting, we demonstrate that the extent to which first-year college students weight positive versus negative valence when engaged in attitude generalization predicts h...
Article
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We propose that individuals' valence weighting biases—the extent to which they tend to overweight positive or negative valence in attitude generalization—play an important role in impulse control. Specifically, people who tend to overweight positive valence should likewise overweight impulses, which are essentially urges to achieve positively-value...
Article
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Attitudes serve multiple functions, some related to the self-concept. We call attitudes that help people define who they are “self-defining.” Across four studies, we tested a brief self-report measure of the extent to which an attitude is self-defining. Studies 1 and 2 showed that self-defining attitudes tend to be extreme, positive, and unambivale...
Article
We utilized a general intervention that affects (through “recalibration”) the way people generalize negative associations when evaluating objects to promote less negative expectations about an interaction with a Black Internet “chat” partner. During this intervention, participants played a game to learn which “beans” varying in shape and speckles i...
Article
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Objective: Evaluative conditioning (EC), the pairing of objects (conditioned stimuli; CS) with positive and negative unconditioned stimuli (US) in order to induce attitude change, has proven to be a viable method of changing attitudes toward foods and corresponding eating behaviors. Positively conditioning healthy foods and negatively conditioning...
Article
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Past research has found that modifying individuals' valence weighting tendencies by recalibrating them to weight positive and negative valence in a more balanced manner influenced a variety of judgments. The current research examines the utility of the recalibration procedure as a targeted intervention. In Experiment 1, we recruited participants hi...
Article
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The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger is its influence on information processing and behavior. Accessibility can be increased through attitude rehearsal, but it remains unknown whether attitude rehearsal also affects the accessibility of related attitudes. To investigate this hypothesis, participants in an experimental condition repeated...
Article
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Many situations in our lives require us to make relatively quick decisions as whether to approach or avoid a person or object, buy or pass on a product, or accept or reject an offer. These decisions are particularly difficult when there are both positive and negative aspects to the object. How do people go about navigating this conflict to come to...
Article
Negative cognitive biases both characterize and predict depressive symptoms. In the current study, we explored the role of individual differences in valence weighting, people's tendency to weight resemblance to a known positive versus a known negative more strongly when generalizing from their existing attitudes to novel objects. To assess particip...
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People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 20...
Article
This research investigated the hypothesis that intellectual competence is chronically accessible to individuals who question their own intellectual competence, despite their own uncertainty on this dimension, and that they rely on intellectual competence in forming impressions of and thinking about others. In two studies, we show that doubtful indi...
Article
This study examined effortful cognitive skills and underlying maladaptive beliefs among patients treated with Cognitive Therapy for depression (CT). Depressed patients (n = 44) completed cognitive measures before and after 16 weeks of CT. Measures included: an assessment of CT skills (Ways of Responding Scale, WOR), an implicit test of maladaptive...
Article
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Attitude and norm accessibility influence social behavior and how messages are processed. The Motivation and Opportunity as DEterminants (MODE) model is offered as a framework for understanding when attitude and norm accessibility should play an important role in social behavior. In this article, we outline the MODE model and consider the implicati...
Article
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Recent research has shown that individuals vary in the extent to which they weight positive versus negative information during attitude generalization, i.e., their valence weighting bias (Pietri, Fazio, & Shook, 2013). As of yet, little is known about the conditions under which such valence weighting is likely to affect behavior and the consequence...
Article
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Based on portrayals of dissonance as a learned drive state, it was hypothesized that there may be a role for parenting style and related variables in the development of dissonance reactions. This experiment found that both reports of having parents with authoritarian parenting styles and learning the link between responsibility and consequences mod...
Article
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Using a technique known as reverse-correlation image classification, we demonstrated that the face of Mitt Romney as represented in people's minds varies as a function of their attitudes toward Mitt Romney. Our findings provide evidence that attitudes bias how people see something as concrete and well learned as the face of a political candidate du...
Article
Individual differences in the weighting of positive versus negative information when generalizing attitudes towards novel objects predict a variety of assessments that involve the integration of valence information (Pietri, Fazio, & Shook, 2013). The goal of the current research was to manipulate valence weighting in attitude generalization to demo...
Article
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Three experiments tested whether disliking of predominately univalently negative attitude objects could be reduced by a procedure pairing approach behaviors with subliminally presented images of the objects. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants who approached images of insects rated insects less negatively than participants who did not appro...
Article
Attitude accessibility, the ease with which a given attitude comes to mind, has been demonstrated to affect attention. The current experiments focus on the construal ofmultiply categorizable objects. They seek to provide evidence that (a) construals toward which individuals have more accessible attitudes, i.e., those that are more attitude-evoking,...
Article
We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure...
Article
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We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those...
Article
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Individuals who have a more adverse reaction to stressful situations are at heightened risk for developing emotional disorders. the current studies aimed to dem- onstrate that valence biases in attitude generalization relate to individuals’ emo- tional reactivity following a stressful task. Participants played a computer game in which they had to l...
Article
The relation between weighting of valence information in attitude generalization and evaluation of novel/hypothetical situations was explored. Undergraduate participants played a computer game requiring them to learn which stimuli (beans) would increase/decrease their points. Later, participants classified the valence of game beans and novel ones v...
Article
The current study tested the association between fear and perception in spider phobic individuals (n=57) within the context of a treatment outcome study. Participants completed 5 post-treatment Behavioral Approach Tasks (BATs) in which they encountered a live spider and were asked to provide spider size estimates. Consistent with predictions, resul...
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The purpose of the study was to identify factors that promote the integration of an outgroup member into an individual’s social network, thus enhancing extended contact. White freshmen randomly assigned to either a white or black roommate completed measures of intergroup anxiety and roommate relationship quality at the beginning of their first term...
Article
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Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouragin...
Article
In the current set of experiments, we establish, and explore the consequences of, the imprecision that characterizes the attribute response labels typically employed in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). In Experiment 1, we demonstrate the malleability of the IAT, as conventionally implemented. IAT scores are shown to be influenced by perspective...
Article
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “How” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typic...
Article
In this study, the relations among political ideology, exploratory behavior, and the formation of attitudes toward novel stimuli were explored. Participants played a computer game that required learning whether these stimuli produced positive or negative outcomes. Learning was dependent on participants’ decisions to sample novel stimuli and discove...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the formation or change of an attitude toward an object, following that object's pairing with positively or negatively valenced stimuli. The authors provide evidence that EC can occur through an implicit misattribution mechanism in which an evaluative response evoked by a valenced stimulus is incorrectly and i...
Article
We recently introduced the term ‘extrapersonal associations’ and defined them as information that is available in memory but that does not contribute to one's attitudes toward a given object (Olson & Fazio, 2004). Here, we review our conceptualization of the term, contrast it to our conceptualization of attitudes as personal associations, and brief...
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It is important to understand the content dimensions that influence the quality of intergroup interactions. The present research organized potential conversation content according to theoretically relevant underlying dimensions and investigated Whites' willingness to discuss topics of varying content with a Black partner. Specifically, it investiga...
Article
Implicit covariation learning, the development of simple associations without awareness, has been demonstrated repeatedly along the evaluative dimension [De Houwer, J., Thomas, S., & Baeyens, F. (2001). Associative learning of likes and dislikes: A review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 853–869...
Article
Connectionist simulation was employed to investigate processes that may underlie the relationships between prior expectancies or prejudices and the acquisition of attitudes, under conditions where learners can only discover the valence of attitude objects through directly experiencing them. We compared contexts analogous to learners holding either...
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The effects of same-race versus interracial dormitory roommate relationships were explored with regard to relationship dissolution and academic achievement (i.e., grade point average). The present investigation made use of archival data spanning two academic years at a large, relatively diverse university. Of primary interest were White and African...
Article
Connectionist computer simulation was employed to model how learners acquire attitudes towards novel objects under conditions where (a) they are given prior expectancies that the objects as a whole are mostly good or mostly bad; and (b) they can only discover the true valence of the objects by approaching them. Expectancy confirmation was operation...
Article
This study investigated how automatically activated racial attitudes are affected by relatively long-term interracial relationships. A natural field experiment was conducted in a college dormitory system. Participants were White freshmen who had been randomly assigned to either a White or an African American roommate. Students participated in two s...
Article
While a wealth of research has found that depressive symptoms are related to current attitudes, new evidence suggests depressive symptoms may be related to a fundamental deficit in forming new attitudes. Researchers investigating individual differences in attitude formation have found that depressive symptoms are strongly correlated with poorer lea...
Article
Priming typically increases behavioral enactments of primed constructs. The current work explored a novel mechanism for the behav-ioral effects of priming, termed the ''accessibility as input" account. In two experiments, participants were nonconsciously primed and then completed anagrams until they judged themselves to have reached a particular st...
Article
Two experiments examined the relation between stereotype disconfirmation and attentional processes. Using an instrumental learning-paradigm, we successfully simulated stereotype acquisition and the subsequent subtyping of disconfirming exemplars. While replicating established markers of subtyping, the present research demonstrates a hitherto neglec...
Article
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The Implicit Association Test and its variants have become pervasive measures of attitudes in a variety of domains and contexts. In two experiments, the authors provide evidence that a recent variant, the Personalized IAT developed by Olson and Fazio (2004) may more accurately detect changes in personal attitudes than the conventional Traditional I...
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Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model's...
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Previous research suggests that automatic prejudice directly manifests in nonverbal behavior. The authors offer a more complex picture of the relation between automatic processes and nonverbal behavior by suggesting that any discomfort that appears in nonverbal behavior stems not from negative attitudes per se but from discordance between automatic...
Article
Processes of attitude learning were investigated through a game requiring discrimination between good and bad objects, where feedback about object valence (involving gain or loss) is contingent on approach. Previous research demonstrates a preponderance of false-negative errors, with some good objects (‘learning asymmetry’) and most novel objects (...
Article
Attitude generalization was explored as a function of object similarity and attitude valence and extremity. Participants in a computer game formed attitudes toward positive and negative, mild or extreme stimuli. How well these attitudes generalized to similar, novel stimuli was then examined. Visual similarity to game targets affected categorizatio...
Article
Negativity biases, i.e., tendencies for negative features and interpretations to predominate over positive, are known to play a role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders. Both depression and anxiety have been associated with such negative cognitive styles. Recently, Fazio, R.H., Eiser, J.R., and Shook, N.J. [(2004). Attitude forma...
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The attitudinal effects of repeatedly encountering an object in a setting where an attitude was unneeded were investigated. In three experiments, participants repeatedly recognized words with strong evaluative connotations. A priming task was subsequently performed in which the repeatedly recognized words or control words served as primes. As expec...
Article
The assumption that implicit measures assess associations that are not accessible to consciousness abounds in current social cognition research. In the present report, we question this assumption, focusing on the construct of implicit self-esteem as a case in point. Although researchers often argue that implicitly measured self-esteem is unconsciou...
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Study 1 indicated that roommate relationships involving randomly paired interracial freshmen were characterized by less extensive joint activity and were more likely to dissolve than those involving randomly paired White freshmen. Study 2 explored whether the automatically activated racial attitudes of White freshmen who had been randomly assigned...
Article
Two surveys were conducted to examine the relationship between homeowners' attitudes toward energy use and their actual summer electric consumption. In Survey 1, 56 couples filled out questionnaires concerning their energy attitudes. A factor analysis of their responses revealed four factors: comfort and health concerns, effort to conserve and mone...
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We examined the inXuence of extrapersonal associations (Olson & Fazio, 2004)—associations that neither form the basis of the attitude nor become activated automatically in response to the object—on the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) by experimentally creating both attitudes and extrapersonal associations. The result...