Russell Brewer

Russell Brewer
University of Chicago | UC · Department of Medicine

DrPH

About

53
Publications
3,901
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719
Citations
Introduction
Understanding and addressing the socio-structural barriers to HIV services among PLWH, BMSM, and criminal justice-involved populations in the United States.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Background: Black sexual minority men (BSMM) and Black transgender women face a disproportionate risk of incarceration and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV, yet research on the longitudinal association between incarceration and STI/HIV risk in these groups is limited. Methods: We used data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 06...
Article
Full-text available
Young Black and Latino sexual minority men (YBLSM) exhibit disproportionately high rates of negative sexual health outcomes, including HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, compared to other groups, partly due to relatively higher rates of exposure to a host of socio-structural risk factors (e.g., unstable housing and under-employment). Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Protective behaviors such as mask wearing and physical distancing are critical to slow the spread of COVID-19, even in the context of vaccine scale-up. Understanding the variation in self-reported COVID-19 protective behaviors is critical to developing public health messaging. The purpose of the study is to provide nationally representative estimat...
Article
Background: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires continued use at an effective dosage to reduce HIV incidence. Data suggest early PrEP drop-off among many populations. We sought to describe PrEP use over the first year among racial and ethnic minority patients in the US. Setting: Racial and ethnic minority patients initiating PrEP at a f...
Article
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This study investigated sexual identity and behavior and their potential associations with PrEP use and attitudes in cisgender Black gay and bisexual men. A total of N = 173 (mean age 25.2) participants from the Neighborhoods and Networks (N2) Study in Chicago were included. Of these, 104 were gay-identified and reported sex with men only (GSMO), 2...
Article
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Transition from detention to the community for Black men who have sex with men with criminal justice involvement (BMSM-CJI) represents a particularly vulnerable period for HIV acquisition and transmission. We examined levels of HIV PrEP awareness among BMSM-CJI. PrEP awareness among BMSM-CJI was low (7.9%) with evidence of lower awareness levels am...
Article
Associations of incarceration with healthcare access and utilization among Black sexual minority men (BSMM) and differences in association among those with and without pre-incarceration symptoms of depression were measured. Secondary analysis using survey data from the longitudinal cohort HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study was conducted among...
Article
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) and Black transgender women (BTW) are impacted by dual epidemics of HIV and incarceration. We advanced understanding of the relationship between criminal justice involvement, HIV, and other key HIV-related characteristics among these key populations in the US. We conducted a systematic review up to 2018 and 47...
Article
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately incarcerated in the United States. Incarceration is a barrier to health equity and may be a risk factor for experiences of interpersonal violence. However, the effect of incarceration on experienced violence among BMSM is understudied. We examined associations between recent incarceratio...
Article
Full-text available
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have disproportionate HIV/STI acquisition risk. Incarceration may increase exposure to violence and exacerbate psychosocial vulnerabilities, including internalized homophobia, which are associated with HIV/STI acquisition risk. Using data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553), we estimated adjusted...
Article
Objectives: Getting to Zero (GTZ) initiatives focus on expanding use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to eliminate new HIV infections. Computational models help inform policies for implementation of ART and PrEP continuums. Such models, however, vary in their design, and may yield inconsistent predictions. Using...
Article
Interactions with the police may result in police brutality, particularly for people of color. Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) face disproportionate risk of police contact and may experience elevated violence risk. We measured longitudinal associations between discriminatory police harassment (DPH) and subsequent risk of a range of interpers...
Article
Full-text available
The mental health impact of exposure to police harassment is understudied, particularly among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM), a group at elevated risk of exposure to such discrimination. This study aimed to identify the associations among BMSM between recent police harassment and psychosocial vulnerability, psychological distress, and depre...
Article
IntroductionHIV-related stigma continues to serve as a major barrier to HIV care. HIV stigma reduction interventions are urgently needed to promote and protect the health of persons living with HIV (PLWH). Resilience has been identified as a potential leverage to mitigate the impact of HIV-related stigma among PLWH.Methods We examined whether two r...
Article
Background: Increased pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake among Black men who have sex with men and Black transgender women (BMSM/TW) is needed to end the HIV epidemic. Embedding a brief intervention in network services that engage individuals in HIV transmission networks for HIV/STI testing may be an important strategy to accelerate PrEP uptak...
Article
Full-text available
Spirituality is a culturally relevant phenomenon that has been found to significantly affect Black sexual minority (SM) men’s health in the United States. However, many studies that have investigated spirituality among Black SM men have often used conceptualizations of spirituality that were not defined by this group. This research investigation us...
Article
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The various forms of HIV-related stigma continue to serve as major barriers to HIV care and treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM). The study of resilience within the context of HIV-related stigma among MSM living with HIV represents a promising area of research to inform the development of future HIV interventions for this population. We...
Article
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BackgoundSexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health concerns among Black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO), as well as those who have sex with both men and women (BMSMW). STIs also increase risk for acquiring and HIV, which is also a critical concern. Compared to BMSMO, research shows that BMSMW experience elevated leve...
Article
Background and Aims While substance use can lead to incarceration, the disruptive effects of incarceration may lead to, or increase psychosocial vulnerability and substance use. Using causal inference methods, we measured longitudinal associations between incarceration and post-release substance use among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM), pop...
Article
Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women are disproportionately affected by criminal justice involvement (CJI) and HIV. This study recruited 618 young Black MSM and transgender women in Chicago, IL, using respondent-driven sampling between 2013 and 2014. Random effects logistic regression evaluated predictors of incident CJI over...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between the cumulative effect of psychosocial and structural factors (i.e. syndemic effect) and social networks among young Black transgender women and men who have sex with men (YBTM) remains understudied. A representative cohort of 16–29 year-old YBTM (n = 618) was assessed for syndemic factors [i.e. substance use; community viole...
Article
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake remains low among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). PrEPLine, launched in August 2015, based in Chicago, was designed to support PrEP linkage among BMSM. PrEPLine moves clients through the Motivational PrEP Cascade, addresses barriers, and tracks outcomes. Study findings suggest that three variables (i.e...
Article
Full-text available
Durable viral suppression (DVS) is needed to reduce HIV transmission risk and prevent new HIV infections. We examined changes in viral suppression and correlates of DVS among 97 criminal justice-involved (CJI) Black men living with HIV in Louisiana enrolled in a linkage, re-engagement, and retention in care intervention. Most participants (75%) wer...
Article
Objective(s): "Getting to Zero" (GTZ) initiatives aim to eliminate new HIV infections over a projected time frame. Increased PrEP uptake among populations with the highest HIV incidence, such as young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), is necessary to accomplish this aim. Agent-based network models (ABNMs) can help guide policymakers on stra...
Conference Paper
Background Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) disproportionately report a history of traumatic life events including incarceration. Incarceration, by increasing distress and psychopathology, may increase risk-taking and infection. Pre-incarceration trauma may exacerbate the impact of incarceration on STI/HIV risk among BMSM. Methods Using data...
Conference Paper
Background Racial/ethnic and sexual minorities face elevated risk of policing and detainment. Dual minority status is linked to disproportionate incarceration; among black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study, 60% had been incarcerated. Incarceration disrupts networks and increases partnership exchange...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In many parts of the world, stark racial disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, incidence, prevention, and care outcomes persist among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), with Black MSM significantly impacted in the United States (U.S.). Individual-level characteristics, including sexual beha...
Article
Viral suppression (VS) in patients newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to reducing morbidity, mortality, and new transmissions. Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a promising model to improve VS, but patients must be seen expeditiously by a prescribing provider. Our retrospective study compared patients achieving VS after introduc...
Article
Background We describe the background, rationale, intervention components, and formative results of a demonstration project aimed to ameliorate five socio-structural barriers to HIV services for young Black men aged 18–29 living with and at risk for HIV in Louisiana. Methods The interventions and activities consisted of (1) five person-centered ap...
Article
Background: Because Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience high rates of both HIV and incarceration relative to other groups, the various stages of criminal justice involvement may serve as important intervention points for addressing HIV and related conditions in this group. Although systematic reviews of HIV interventions targeting MS...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To understand the gender-specific factors that uniquely contribute to successful ageing in a US population of men and women, 57–85 years of age. This was achieved through the examination of the correlates of subjective well-being defined by health-related quality of life (HRQoL), across several biological and psychosocial determinants of...
Article
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Previous research has highlighted the homonegative atmospheres of many religious communities in Western society and their harmful impact on Black sexual minority (SM) people's mental and physical health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between sexual orientation disclosure to church members and exposure to homonegative religious...
Article
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While research increasingly studies how neighborhood contexts influence HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) populations, to date, no research has used global positioning system (GPS) devices, an innovative method to study spatial mobility through neighborhood contexts, i.e., the environmental riskscape, among a sample...
Article
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We explored the correlates of linkage to HIV medical care and barriers to HIV care among PLWH in Louisiana. Of the 998 participants enrolled, 85.8% were successfully linked to HIV care within 3 months. The majority of participants were male (66.2%), African American (81.6%), and had limited education (74.4%). Approximately 22% of participants were...
Article
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Background: Understanding where and how young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the southern United States meet their sexual partners is germane to understanding the underlying factors contributing to the ongoing HIV transmission in this community. Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use geosocial networking apps to meet sexual partn...
Article
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Background: HIV/AIDS is a tremendous public health crisis, with a call for its eradication by 2030. A human rights response through civil society engagement is critical to support and sustain HIV eradication efforts. However, ongoing civil engagement is a challenge. Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the use of Twitter data to assess pub...
Preprint
BACKGROUND HIV/AIDS is a tremendous public health crisis, with a call for its eradication by 2030. A human rights response through civil society engagement is critical to support and sustain HIV eradication efforts. However, ongoing civil engagement is a challenge. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to demonstrate the use of Twitter data to assess public...
Chapter
This chapter provides an historical overview of the HIV epidemic and its impact on the health and lives of gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It explores the wide range of factors that influence the behaviors and experiences of MSM living with HIV infection in the USA at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, comm...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing the diversity of the HIV research workforce remains a priority for research and funding organizations in the US. Mentorship is a vital component for early-career investigators, especially for underrepresented racial/ethnic and sexual minority HIV investigators. These investigators face unique social and structural challenges to developin...
Article
Full-text available
Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural...
Article
Full-text available
Eliminating racial HIV disparities among men who have sex with men (MSM) will require a greater uptake of HIV prevention and care interventions among Black MSM (BMSM), yet such strategies generally require meaningful engagement in a health care system that often does not meet the unique needs of BMSM. This study assessed the acceptability of, and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: More than 17,000 individuals were living with HIV in Louisiana in 2013, 44% were not in care, and only 41% were retained in care. Louisiana Positive Charge (LAPC) was a multifaceted statewide linkage to care program for those newly diagnosed or not in HIV medical care and consisted of five 3-6 month interventions: peer/health navigation...
Article
Full-text available
Structural-level factors have contributed to the substantial disproportionate rates of HIV among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. Despite insufficient HIV testing patterns, however, there is a void in research investigating the relationship between structural factors and access to HIV testing and prevention services amon...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We examined lifetime incarceration history and its association with key characteristics among 1553 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) recruited in 6 US cities. Methods: We conducted bivariate analyses of data collected from the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study from July 2009 through December 2011 to examine the relationshi...
Conference Paper
Background: More than 22,000 individuals are living with HIV infection in Louisiana with an estimated 36% not in care. Louisiana is one of five Positive Charge (PC) grantees that was funded by AIDS United and Bristol Myers Squibb to link individuals living with HIV infection into primary medical care. Methods: Since 2010, persons living with HIV...
Article
This study examined the predictors of new incarceration and its association with HIV infection among 1,278 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) enrolled and followed in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study. HPTN 061 was conducted to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection...
Article
This qualitative study reviews and analyzes quality improvement (QI) techniques in police departments as a background for assessing ways to introduce QI into public health departments. Police departments and public health departments have many elements in common. These findings provide some understanding of how public health departments can incorpo...
Article
Given the recent interest in public health accreditation programs and related efforts, there is a need to learn from the shared experiences of states that have developed, implemented, and evaluated their own efforts. The Multistate Learning Collaborative provided such an opportunity. Five states were selected to participate in this national peer gr...
Article
Strategies for establishing a national voluntary public health agency accreditation program have been gathering momentum. Recent efforts funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have made a significant impact on the potential for national diffusion-of accreditation models. The Expl...
Article
Strategies for establishing a national voluntary public health agency accreditation program have been gathering momentum. Recent efforts funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have made a significant impact on the potential for national diffusion of accreditation models. The Expl...
Article
The Multistate Learning Collaborative on Performance and Capacity Assessment or Accreditation of Public Health Departments (MLC) is an initiative undertaken with the Exploring Accreditation Project (EAP). The EAP is jointly funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and staffed coll...
Article
Full-text available
The Multistate Learning Collaborative on Performance and Capacity Assessment or Accreditation of Public Health Departments (MLC) is an initiative undertaken with the Exploring Accreditation Project (EAP). The EAP is jointly funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and staffed coll...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This qualitative study interviewed Black sexual minority men across the country to understand how they define spirituality for themselves and how they understand its relationships with their health.
Archived project