Rupert Palme

Rupert Palme
University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna | vetmed · Department of Biomedical Sciences

Dr.; Ao. Univ. Prof.

About

584
Publications
149,565
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
19,661
Citations
Introduction
Since my habilitation, my main focus has been the metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids, the characterisation of their metabolites in faeces, as well as the development and validation of EIAs for their quantification. We succeeded in establishing the world-wide first non-invasive method for stress-assessment, which now is applied successfully in an increasing number of bird and mammalian species, reflected in a large number of interdisciplinary cooperations
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
Unit Physiology, Pathophysiology and Experimental Endocrinology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 1986 - September 2014
University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (584)
Article
Animal welfare is of increasing importance and absence of chronic stress is one of its prerequisites. During stress, various endocrine responses are involved to improve the fitness of the individual. The front-line hormones to overcome stressful situations are the glucocorticoids and catecholamines. These hormones are determined as a parameter of a...
Article
Full-text available
Stress responses play a key role in allowing animals to cope with change and challenge in the face of both environmental certainty and uncertainty. Measurement of glucocorticoid levels, key elements in the neuroendocrine stress axis, can give insight into an animal's well-being and can aid understanding ecological and evolutionary processes as well...
Article
Full-text available
Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. The extraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quanti cation can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection...
Article
Glucocorticoids (GCs; i.e. cortisol/corticosterone) are a central component of the stress response and thus their measurement is frequently used to evaluate the impact of stressful situations. Their metabolites from faeces of various animal species are more and more taken as a non-invasive aid to assess GC release and thus adrenocortical activity....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Updated tables, figures and references of Palme, 2019, and the respective supplements (Date: 1st July 2022)
Article
Full-text available
The dorsal skinfold chamber is one of the most important in vivo models for repetitive longitudinal assessment of microcirculation and inflammation. This study aimed to refine this model by introducing a new lightweight chamber made from polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Body weight, burrowing activity, distress, faecal corticosterone metabolites and th...
Article
Full-text available
Animals living in anthropogenically disturbed habitats are exposed to environmental stressors which can trigger physiological reactions, such as chronic elevations of glucocorticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stressors may induce changes in the gut microbiome, most likely, facilitated by the gut-brain communication. Although these effects...
Article
Full-text available
In preclinical psychiatry research, animals are central to modeling and understanding biological mechanisms of behavior and psychiatric disorders. We here present the first multimodal severity assessment of a genetically modified rat strain used in psychiatric research, lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene and showing endophenotypes of sever...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we investigated the influence of positive and negative arousal situations and the presence of an audience on dogs’ behavioural displays and facial expressions. We exposed dogs to positive anticipation, non-social frustration and social frustration evoking test sessions and measured pre and post-test salivary cortisol concentrat...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Mice lacking the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit, encoded by the Gria1 gene, display multiple phenotypical features associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. While the phenotype of adult GluA1 deficient (Gria1–/–) mice has been stu...
Article
Full-text available
The use of animals in neurosciences is pivotal to gaining insights into complex functions and dysfunctions of behavior. For example, various forms of physical and/or psychological stress are inherent to various animal models for psychiatric disorders, e.g., depression. Regarding animal welfare, it would be mandatory to use models that inflict the l...
Article
Full-text available
In laboratory animal facilities, it is a common code of practice to house female mice in groups. However, some experimental conditions require to house them individually, even though social isolation may impair their well-being. Therefore, we introduced a separated pair housing system and investigated whether it can refine single housing of adult f...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors of successfully rescuing year-round housed cattle in case of a barn fire. Empirical research indicates the reluctance of cattle to leave their familiar barn. Subsequent retreat back to the perceived safety inside, which stands in contrast to the unknown and thus adversary elements out...
Article
The biomedical literature has consistently highlighted that long-term elevation of glucocorticoids might impair immune functions. However, patterns are less clear in wild animals. Here, we re-explored the stress–immunity relationship considering the potential effects of behavioural profiles. Thirteen captive roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) were mo...
Article
Full-text available
The credibility of scientific research has been seriously questioned by the widely claimed "reproducibility crisis". In light of this crisis, there is a growing awareness that the rigorous standardisation of experimental conditions may contribute to poor reproducibility of animal studies. Instead, systematic heterogenisation has been proposed as a...
Article
Spontaneous limb preferences exist in numerous species. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these preferences, different methods, such as training, have been developed to shift preferences artificially. However, studies that systematically examine the effects of shifting preferences on behaviour and physiology are largely missing. Therefore...
Article
Studies with humans and some other animal species have shown that sleep is compromised when the presence of external factors such as light, sound, and temperature surpass normal levels. This study investigated the effects of these environmental conditions on 13 kennelled laboratory dogs, assessing whether each variable interfered with their sleep b...
Article
Introduction: Ultrasound (US) imaging enables tissue visualization in high spatial resolution with short examination times. Thus, it is often applied in preclinical research. Diagnostic US, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), are considered to be well tolerated by laboratory animals although no systematic study has been performed to con...
Article
Introduction: Animal models for preclinical research of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are widely used as much of the pathophysiology remains unknown. However, the burden of these models inflicted on the animals is not well characterized. The European directive requires severity assessment-based allocation to categories. Up to now the classificatio...
Article
Full-text available
Fecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) are widely used to track stress responses in wildlife and captive species. Rules of thumb suggest that samples should be collected as soon as possible after defecation, to avoid decay of FCMs. To date, however, only a few studies investigated the stability of defecated FCMs over time, and most of them were conducte...
Article
Full-text available
Calves are frequently disbudded to reduce the number of injuries due to horns to other animals and farm workers. The most commonly used method is thermal disbudding which is increasingly causing animal welfare concerns (Stafford and Mellor, 2011; Sutherland et al., 2013, Cozzi et al., 2015). The objective of our study was to evaluate alternative di...
Article
Social environments can profoundly affect the behavior and stress physiology of group-living animals. In many territorial species, territory owners advertise territorial boundaries to conspecifics by scent marking. Several studies have investigated the information that scent marks convey about donors' characteristics (e.g., dominance, age, sex, rep...
Article
Full-text available
Die Paarungsbereitschaft von Schneehäsinnen zu Beginn der Rammelzeit schwankt von Jahr zu Jahr mit den unterschiedlichen Schneesituationen und dem Nahrungsangebot im Spätwinter. Durch diese zeitliche Anpassung kann die Schneehäsin ihren Fortpflanzungserfolg optimieren.
Article
Full-text available
Electrophysiological recordings in animals constitute frequently applied techniques to study neuronal function. In this context, several authors described tethered recordings as a semi-restraint situation with negative implications for animal welfare and suggested radiotelemetric setups as a refinement measure. Thus, we here investigated the hypoth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Living in variable and unpredictable environments, organisms face recurrent stressful situations. The endocrine stress response, which includes the secretion of glucocorticoids, helps organisms to cope with these perturbations. Although short-term elevations of glucocorticoid levels are often associated with immediate beneficial consequences for in...
Article
Full-text available
The gut microbiome impacts host health and fitness, in part through the diversification of gut metabolic function and pathogen protection. Elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) appear to reduce gut microbiome diversity in experimental studies, suggesting that a loss of microbial diversity may be a negative consequence of increased GCs. However, given...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence exists that behavioral patterns only stabilize once mice reach adulthood. Detailed information about the course of behavioral patterns is of particular relevance for neuroscientific research and for the assessment of cumulative severity in genetically modified mice. The analysis considered five age groups focusing on behavioral assessments...
Article
Full-text available
An adequate stress response plays a vital role in coping with challenges. However, if selection for improved coping with an acute challenge affects the entire stress response system, susceptibility to adverse effects of chronic stressors can be deepened. Here, we used bank voles from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and u...
Article
Full-text available
Translocation (including transportation and experiencing a new environment) represents a significant stressor for animals. The aim of this study was to assess changes in corticosterone metabolite (CM) levels related to translocation in common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Sixteen birds (8 males and 8 females) aged 17 weeks were crated and transp...
Article
Free-living animals cope with environmental stressors through physiological and behavioural responses. Ac-cording to the unidimensional model, these responses are integrated within a coping style: proactive individuals (bold, active-explorative and social) have a lower hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity than reactive ones (shy, le...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug transdermal flunixin meglumine (Finadyne Transdermal) on plasma cortisol, average daily weight gain, and standing and lying behavior of calves, when given at the time of disbudding combined with local anesthesia. A sedative was not used to minimize pha...
Article
Introduction: Chronic epilepsy models require neurosurgical procedures including depth electrode implants. The intrahippocampal kainate model is a frequently used chronic paradigm, which is based on chemoconvulsant administration and status epilepticus induction during the surgical procedure. This experimental approach raises the question to what...
Article
Prenatal maternal stress (PMS) influences many facets of offspring’s’ phenotype including morphology, behaviour and cognitive abilities. Recent research suggested that PMS also induced epigenetic modifications. In the present study, we analysed, in the Japanese quail, the effects of PMS on the emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities of the F1...
Article
Full-text available
Management procedures affect behavioural and physiological stress responses of wild mammals under human care. According to the Reactive Scope Model, normal values are presumed to exist within predictive and reactive ranges. First, stress parameters of zoo-housed adult Tamandua tetradactyla were evaluated in winter and summer (29 days each), determi...
Article
Full-text available
Despite promising initial reports, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type-1 (CRF-R1) antagonists have mostly failed to display efficacy in clinical trials for anxiety or depression. Rather than broad-spectrum antidepressant/anxiolytic-like drugs, they may represent an ‘antistress’ solution for single stressful situations or for patients with...
Article
Full-text available
Faecal material can be a valuable source of information for a range of animal health aspects and can be used to measure faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs). FCM values can relate to physiological stress responses. However, freshly defecated pellets are not always available and environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, might affect...
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatitis is known to be painful in humans and companion animals. However, the extent of pain in experimental mouse models of acute pancreatitis is unknown. Consequently, the severity classification of acute pancreatitis in mice is controversially discussed and standardized pain management is missing. In this study, we investigated acute Cerulei...
Article
Full-text available
Matrices that can be collected non-invasively for quan-tification of a stress response in sheep have received little attention in the veterinary literature. This study examines the suitability of blood, tears and saliva for determining a stress response in sheep undergoing sham foot trimming on a tilt table. The cortisol concentration of blood, tear...
Article
Full-text available
The welfare of laboratory animals is a consistent concern for researchers. Its evaluation not only fosters ethical responsibility and addresses legal requirements, but also provides a solid basis for a high quality of research. Recently, a new cervical arteriovenous model was created in mice to understand the pathophysiology of arteriovenous fistul...
Article
Full-text available
Depending on the habitats they live in, temperate ungulates have adapted to different degrees to seasonally changing forage and weather conditions, and to specific escape strategies from predators. Alpine chamois, a mountain ungulate, and red deer, originally adapted to open plains, would therefore be expected to differ in their physiological respo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ambient temperature is an important non-biotic environmental factor influencing immunological and oncological parameters in laboratory mice. It is under discussion which temperature is more appropriate and whether the commonly used room temperature in rodent facilities of about 21°C represents a chronic cold stress or the 30°C of the thermoneutral...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) is a widely used, non-invasive method for studies of stress in vertebrates. To study physiological responses in wild Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus ) to perceived stressors such as fluctuating food availability, occurrence of competitors and predators and disturbance from human activities, a species...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) constitutes a valid paradigm for social stress induction, less is known about the effects of a virtual reality (VR) TSST on short- and long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic-adreno-medullar (SAM) axis responses. Hence, this study set out to evaluate reactivity and...
Preprint
Full-text available
An adequate stress response plays a vital role in coping with challenges. However, if selection for improved coping with an acute challenge affects the entire stress response system, susceptibility to adverse effects of chronic stressors can be deepened. Here, we used bank voles from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and u...
Preprint
Gut microbiome diversity plays an important role in host health and fitness, in part through the diversification of gut metabolic function and pathogen protection. Elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) appear to reduce gut microbiome diversity in experimental studies, suggesting that a loss of microbial diversity may be a negative consequence of incr...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has become a widely used and effective tool for evaluating the amount of stress experienced by animals. However, the potential sampling bias resulting from an oversampling of individuals in different states of pregnancy has rarely been investigated. In this study, we validate a noninvas...
Article
Full-text available
Welfare studies of blue foxes would benefit from a measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) as a non-invasive, physiological stress parameter reflecting hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Before implementation, a species-specific validation of such a method is required. Therefore, we conducted a physiological validation of...
Article
Full-text available
The boreal forest is one of the world’s ecosystems most affected by global climate warming. The snowshoe hare, its predators, and their population dynamics dominate the mammalian component of the North American boreal forest. Our past research has shown the 9–11-year hare cycle to be predator driven, both directly as virtually all hares that die ar...
Conference Paper
Dairy cows are exposed to numerous potentially stressful situations in daily routine, including frequent human handling. Sustained stress has been found to be related to reduced productivity and increased disease susceptibility. However, uncertainties exist regarding external influences on the cows´ stress physiology. As part of the CoreOrganic pro...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the postoperative severity after three different visceral surgical interventions in rats by using objective parameters pertaining to various disciplines. The objective was to evaluate whether the degree of severity increases with the invasiveness of the intervention and whether this is in accordance with the EU Directive 2010/63...
Article
Full-text available
This work was aimed at identifying the effectiveness of two interventions applied to a group of eight kennelled police dogs. Interventions consisted of access to a lawn area (350 m 2) and "toy" (a 30 cm jute rag roll, hanging from the kennel ceiling), both available for 15 min a day, for four days in a row. We collected behavioural data and faecal...
Article
Full-text available
Subcutaneous tumor models in mice are the most commonly used experimental animal models in cancer research. To improve animal welfare and the quality of scientific studies, the distress of experimental animals needs to be minimized. For this purpose, one must assess the diagnostic ability of readout parameters to evaluate distress. In this study, w...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs’ increased human-directed sociability compared to wolves may be the result of increased oxytocin system activity and decreased stress responses, but comparative studies accounting for life experience are lacking. We compared hand-raised, pack-living wolves’ and dogs’ behavior and hormone concentrations after interacting with a closely bonded a...
Article
Goat kids are frequently disbudded in intensively farmed units to reduce the number of accidental injuries to other animals and farm workers due to horn growth. The most commonly used method is thermal disbudding which is increasingly causing animal welfare concerns. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate alternative disbuddin...
Article
Full-text available
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal folivorous marsupial endemic to Australia. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are threats to this species' survival and are potential stressors. A suitable non-invasive method is needed to objectively detect stress in koalas. Under conditions of stress, the concentration of the hormone cort...
Article
Full-text available
Free ranging animals are exposed to environmental, demographic, and ecological challenges over time, which can affect their health and fitness. Non‐invasive biomarkers can provide insight into how animals cope with these challenges and assess the effectiveness of conservation management strategies. We evaluated how free ranging ponies (Equus ferus...
Article
Full-text available
The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an endemic marsupial inhabiting four states of Australia. Urbanisation, declining habitat, drought and fires are threatening the survival of this flagship species. These threats may cause acute and chronic stress in koalas, which might also be associated with occurrence of infectious diseases in koala populatio...
Article
Full-text available
While the use of local anesthesia as part of multimodal pain management is common practice in human and veterinarian surgery, these drugs are not applied routinely in rodent surgery. Several recommendations on the use of local anesthesia exist, but systematic studies on their efficacy and side effects are lacking. In the present study, male and fem...