Rue LeVelle Cromwell

Rue LeVelle Cromwell
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

100
Publications
14,414
Reads
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2,398
Citations
Introduction
Recent book BEING HUMAN: HUMAN BEING (2010). See www.ruecromwell.com. Book includes cyclic model of information processing. Also working on China Diary and You'll Like Linton.
Additional affiliations
August 2001 - February 2014
University of Kansas
Position
  • M. Erik Wright Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Clin. Psychology

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
The author responds to nine commentaries on the book BEING HUMAN: HUMAN BEING (Cromwell, 2010).
Article
Full-text available
Thirteen patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), 13 with other mental disorders, and 10 nondiagnosed comparison participants were given individual grids. Results showed that displaying alternate personalities did not portend a more multidimensional level of thinking. Instead, the nonclinical comparison group had the greater degree of co...
Chapter
Full-text available
Constructive AlternativismProvisional Commitment and Provisional DoubtMy Personal Contact with Dr KellyTrying to Out-Kelly KellyTrying to Go beyond KellyFinal Comment
Article
A great deal of interest has developed regarding the impact of cognitive deficits on the everyday functioning of people with schizophrenia. This study examined the relationships between cognitive functioning and the performance of a specific independent living skill (grocery shopping) in a sample of 73 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffect...
Article
The possible coexistence of supersensitivity and overinhibition (Schizophrenia: Origins, Processes, Treatment and Outcome (1993) 335-350) in schizophrenia was studied using the Adult Sensory Profile as a measure of Dunn's (Infants Young Children 9 (1997) 23-25) model of sensory processing. The quadrant model describes sensory sensitivity, sensation...
Article
Clinically depressed (n = 20), previously depressed (n = 28), and nondepressed control (n = 27) individuals, classified according to a structured clinical diagnostic interview, participated in a study employing a modified prior entry(Titchener, 1908) procedure to investigate interrelationships among word (adjective) valence, visual attention, and c...
Article
This article describes a series of studies designed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Adult Sensory Profile. Expert judges evaluated the construct validity of the items. Coefficient alpha, factor analysis, and correlations of items with subscales determined item reliability, using data from 615 adult sensory profiles. A subsample of 2...
Article
Thirteen depressed and 13 non-depressed college students attended to valence-loaded word pairs (euphoric/dysphoric, euphoric/neutral, and neutral/dysphoric) on a computer screen. Each pair was observed through a viewing box with a vertical partition, each word in a different visual field. As a prior-entry task (Titchener, 1908) the words were simul...
Article
Non-depressed and depressed persons were hypothesized to input and recall self-referential information that was consistent with their self theories. Non-depressed and depressed persons were compared. Non-depressed (14) and depressed (14) students chose between positive or negative audio statements, and then recalled the statements. Non-depressed re...
Article
Sixty male Vietnam combat veterans, 30 hospitalized for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 30 with no PTSD or other psychiatric disorder, sorted and labeled their life events into numeric matrices (repertory grids). Through hierarchical-classes analysis of a subject's matrix, we could compare the hierarchical level (elaboration) of the subje...
Article
Twenty college undergraduates (10 depressed, 10 nondepressed, in terms of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R) chose freely from a positive or negative tape-recorded message. They also rated the tonal quality of each tape. The nondepressed group selected the positive message more often than the nega...
Article
Twenty college undergraduates (10 depressed, 10 nondepressed, in terms of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R) chose freely from a positive or negative tape-recorded message. They also rated the tonal quality of each tape. The nondepressed group selected the positive message more often than the nega...
Article
Irrelevant stimuli that flank a fixated target may cause either facilitation or interference with target classification. Twenty schizophrenic patients, 20 depressed control patients, and 20 normal control subjects were compared on a flanker priming task that involved the linear display of a target surrounded by two flanking letters or digits. Choic...
Article
Use of clinical diagnosis as the phenotype for genetic study is discussed, and criteria for appropriate alternative phenotypes are presented. Then, recent research on four alternatives is discussed: (a) resistance to interference from an associative prime, (b) reaction time crossover, (c) creativity, and (d) socioeconomic achievement. It is conclud...
Article
On the basis of an earlier study that reported depressed patients to be superior to normal control subjects in visual iconic integration, the present investigation sought to determine if this finding was replicable and if medication produced it. Newly admitted depressed patients entering drug treatment, depressed patients already in drug treatment,...
Article
Twenty schizophrenic patients, 10 depressed control patients, and 20 normal control subjects were compared in a forced-choice, target-detection method for assessing the span of apprehension. The detection task required the subject to report which of 2 target letters was presented among 7 other (distractor) letters. Performance accuracy was examined...
Article
Twenty schizophrenic patients, 10 depressed control patients, and 20 normal control subjects were compared in a forced-choice, target-detection method for assessing the span of apprehension. The detection task required the subject to report which of 2 target letters was presented among 7 other (distractor) letters. Performance accuracy was examined...
Article
We review the literature documenting more than 25 years of progress in the design of computer software for repertory grids. First, analysis programs are reviewed; then programs that arc designed specifically for grid elicitation are discussed; finally, multifunction software packages (i.e., those that perform grid construction, elicitation, and/or...
Article
Describes a new approach to computer programs used to administer and/or analyze repertory grids. OMNIGRID-PC is a variation of OMNIGRID, which was designed to have broad practical and theoretical applications. The general features of OMNIGRID are discussed, and the unique features of the OMNIGRID-PC system, Versions 1.0 and 1.5, are explained along...
Chapter
Schizophrenia is a word, no more, no less. It has some of the same benefits given us by other elements in our language and communication, including the scientific sort; but it also has some of the same vulnerabilities and shortcomings.
Article
purpose . . . will be to recount some problems in schizophrenia research and, in somewhat iterative fashion, discuss what might be learned from the interplay of cognitive and psychoneurological concepts in understanding schizophrenia two problems in schizophrenia research / the classification of individuals with only one data domain / the "merry-...
Article
A factor analysis of reaction time crossover data of 53 schizophrenic patients, 45 first-degree relatives, and 38 controls, previously reported by De Amicis and Cromwell, was performed in order to shed light upon the relationship of crossover to aging, mean reaction time, and general socioeconomic functioning. The aging factor shared variance with...
Article
Forty-seven psychiatric inpatients, including 26 schizophrenics and 21 nonschizophrenics, were measured on four clinical factors (chronicity, premorbid adjustment, reported symptomatology, and diagnosis) and four indices of reaction time (RT) performance (mean RT, RT variance, and redundancy-associated deficit [RAD] at 3- and 7-second preparatory i...
Article
Full-text available
Metadiagnostic guidelines are delineated for evaluating the utility of both existing diagnostic criteria and recently proposed revisions (Magaro 1980). Among the metadiagnostic guidelines are the demonstration of differential treatment-outcome relationships for different disorders and the applicability of the characteristics of a superordinate diag...
Article
The reaction time crossover (redundancy associated deficity) scores of 28 process schizophrenics, selected for the presence of crossover, were correlated with the crossover scores of 53 of their first-degree relatives (one to five relatives for each patient.). The resulting product-moment correlation coefficient was .27 (p < .05), thus lending supp...
Article
Tested 32 psychiatric inpatients (approximate mean age 23 yrs) with a modification of C. Eriksen and J. Collins's visual pattern integration test (1967). Ss were divided into schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic groups and were compared with 20 hospital staff and 20 college students. The visual pattern integration functions of schizophrenics were fou...
Article
The Kelly Role Construct Repertory Test (rep grid) was administered to 19 depressed patients, 19 psychiatric controls, and 19 normal controls. Tests were analyzed to produce measures of cognitive complexity, self-ideal congruency, negative self-construing, identification (self-other distances), and consistency of within-factor self-attribution. In...
Article
Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 1980, Vol 25(6), 507. Reviews the book, Abnormal psychology and modern life 6th ed by James C. Coleman, James N. Butcher, and Robert C. Carson (1980). This is the sixth edition of a leading textbook of abnormal psychology; it has been revised by Butcher and Carson, using Colema...
Article
Of 70 process schizophrenic patients clinically assessed and tested for reaction time, 40 showed reaction time crossover. Of the 40 with crossover, 53 of their first degree relatives were clinically assessed and tested. Five of the relatives, found to have psychotic symptoms, were analyzed separately. Also, 41 control subjects without personal or f...
Article
Full-text available
The greater than usual need for stimulus control, closed-loop design to control for organic state variables, and the acquisition of complex data on thought disorders makes on-line microprocessors especially important in psychopathology research.
Article
Twenty-four male schizophrenics, 12 (SFH) with schizophrenia in the immediate family and 12 (SNFH) with no evidence of schizophrenia in the family background, and 24 male control subjects, 12 highly educated (HEC), and 12 minimally educated (MEC), were assessed for premorbid social adjustment and were administered the Digit Symbol Substitution Test...
Article
This review is a highly selective coverage of literature, and gives a historical perspective in order to illustrate how early issues in the concept of schizophrenia have a direct bearing on contemporary problems of investigation and how, in spite of it all, some promising pathways may be present which can lead us out of this current problem wildern...
Article
A total of 29 male Ss (10 good premorbid schizophrenics, 11 poor pre-morbid schizophrenics, and 8 normal controls) were administered the La-fayette Clinic Proverbs Test. Each S answered half of the test items under a condition of white noise and half without white noise. As a separate ex-perimental dimension, each S repeated half of the proverb ite...
Article
A normal and various subclassified schizophrenic groups ( ns = 10) were compared on two-flash threshold by a brief double staircase method and by an extensive yes-no procedure with signal-detection analytic techniques. For all groups the two techniques correlated moderately. Contrary to predictions made by Venables' arousal theory, the data obtaine...
Article
Administered a full-report span of apprehension task to 30 hospitalized, acute, male, psychiatric patients (15 schizophrenics and 15 nonschizophrenics). Contrary to previous studies which had employed a partial-report task, no differences were found between these 2 groups. From the 2 sets of findings, an explanation of schizophrenic deficit in term...
Article
7 of 13 patients (12 were males) with chronic renal failure adjusted well to hemodialysis while the other 6 adjusted poorly. Retrospective analysis of pretreatment interviews found the following predictors of successful adjustment: a closer relationship to mother than to father when an adult, childhood dependency on both parents rather than on one,...
Article
Definitions, interdisciplinary constructs, and simple schizophrenicnormal comparisons are described as major problems retarding progress in schizophrenia research in the past. A stimulus redundancy formulation is presented in order to resolve some of the apparently conflicting research evidence. This formulation, and the research related to it, arg...
Article
Auditory RTs were gathered for 11 hospitalized schizophrenic males and 10 normal males in both an eyes-open and an eyes-closed condition. RT stimuli were presented in both alpha and nonalpha states (as determined by EEG readings). There were "no overall group differences on the RT task," but schizophrenics had better RTs in the eyes-closed conditio...
Article
Size estimation was studied in 14 hospital aides and the following four groups of 14 male schizophrenics: acute good premorbid paranoid, acute poor premorbid nonparanoid, chronic good premorbid paranoid, and chronic poor premorbid nonparanoid. Unlike previous studies: (1) Ss were at optical infinity from the stimuli to eliminate possible micropsia...
Article
Full-text available
The results of the study are consistent with the often-cited relationship between seasonality of birth and psychiatric disturbance. However, they suggest that temperature or temperature related influence near the time of conception rather than the time of birth is the relevant factor. The results of the study apparently cannot be accounted for by g...
Article
-The Kent-Rosanoff Word Association test was administered to 102 hospitalized, adult, male schizophrenics. Neither chronicity nor paranoid status differentiated commonalirg of word association response. Premorbid adjustment level differentiated, but differences were in the direction opposite to those reported in previous research. That is, schizoph...
Article
focuses on research of psychopathology that has been conducted from the perspective of personal construct psychology / the existing personal construct research involving schizophrenia and depression will be reviewed / an attempt will then be made to integrate and consolidate these findings / offer some directions for future study based upon: (1) ou...
Article
Compared the span of apprehension for 2 schizophrenic groups (15 good premorbid paranoid and 15 poor premorbid nonparanoid) with the span for a normal control group (15 hospital aides) by a forced-choice letter-recognition method analogous to signal-detection methodology. This procedure, in conjunction with a quantitative model of the span, provide...
Article
7 schizophrenics and 8 normal controls were administered reaction time (RT) trials while alpha (8 to 13 cps) waves were visible from the right motor parietal EEG leads. Under these conditions, schizophrenics were significantly faster than normals in alpha blocking latency (ABL) on this and the other two recorded channels. No differences occurred in...
Article
Reaction time, size estimation and Stroop color-word tasks were given to 15 good premorbid nonparanoid and 15 poor premorbid nonparanoid chronic schizophrenics before and after sensory deprivation (S-D), sensory stimulation (S-S) and a control (C) or neutral condition. Good premorbid Ss had significantly slower reaction times following S-D, and poo...
Article
Employed a paired comparisons scaling technique to assess the preference of schizophrenics for varying quantities of information as presented in geometric forms. Both good premorbid paranoid and poor premorbid nonparanoid schizophrenics showed their greatest preference for the least complex shapes. Results are discussed in terms of H. Munsinger and...
Article
Attempts to sort out the sources of some of the inconsistent findings in terms of a detailed examination of between-studies differences in task and S variables. It is concluded that acute good premorbid schizophrenics show small but consistent size underestimation. Acute poor premorbid schizophrenics show a small but reliable tendency toward size o...
Article
Using 98 schizophrenics, good premorbids were found to be evenly distributed regarding paranoid vs. nonparanoid symptomatology. Poor premorbids were predominantly nonparanoid and rarely paranoid. However, paranoids were predominantly good premorbids, whereas nonparanoids were distributed between good and poor premorbids. (15 ref.)
Article
Four of seven high school students who slept in a controlled experimental situation awoke at unlikely times specified by the experimenters. Each successful waker awoke from REM Stage 1 sleep and reported a dream. Although none of these dreams specified time, place or predream stimulus, all differed from the other dreams of the subjects.
Article
Performance tests of prototype liquid ammonia spacecraft attitude control systems
Article
Different samples of 30 hospitalized white male schizophrenics were rated on the Phillips Prognostic Rating Scale, Part I for Premorbid Adjustment. Findings suggest that marriage is an important factor in assessing premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients, its predictive utility being so high that it could be used alone as an index of premorb...
Article
15 good premorbid paranoid acute schizophrenics, 15 poor premorbid nonparanoid acute schizophrenics, and 15 attendants, all males, estimated stimulus paranoid size after receiving (a) 10-sec. and (b) 100-msec. presentations of the standard, also (c) 10-msec. blank flashes instead of the standard. Choices were then made from a group of variable-size...
Article
20 WITHDRAWN, 20 ACTING-OUT DISTURBED, AND 20 NONDISTURBED CHILDREN WERE ADMINISTERED A SIZE-ESTIMATION TASK WITH STIMULI OF DIFFERENT THEMATIC CONTENT. 10 OF EACH GROUP WERE GIVEN STRESSFUL INSTRUCTIONS, AND 10 WERE GIVEN NONSTRESSFUL INSTRUCTIONS. SIZE-ESTIMATION DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND AS A FUNCTION OF THEMATIC CONTENT AND AGE BUT NOT AS A FUNCTI...
Article
FOUR INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED TO MEASURE EARLY EXPERIENCE, CURRENT BEHAVIOR, TREATMENT APPROACHES, AND PROGNOSIS OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN--THE RATING/RANKING SCALE OF CHILD BEHAVIOR (R/R SCALE), THE PARENT PRACTICES INVENTORY (PPI), THE SCALE ON PROCEDURES IN DEALING WITH CHILDREN (PDC), AND THE CHILD HISTORY CODE (CHC)....
Article
On the basis of scores obtained by the Shipe behavior rating scale, 40 institutionalized, mildly retarded children and adolescents were classified as emotionally disturbed and 20 as nondisturbed. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was administered to all Ss and relative successes on items with human and nonhuman content determined. All Ss f...
Article
The validity of the commonality of response construct and stability of associations over time were investigated in 18 good premorbid schizophrenics (GPS), 18 poor premorbids (PPS), and 18 tuberculosis control Ss (TB). The Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test was administered on 2 occasions separated by 48 hrs. Results showed TB = GPS > PPS on both c...
Article
Increases in activity level have often been used to imply the presence of a heightened drive state. Frequently, drive is also anchored on the antecedent side to a condition of need. Research literature which bears on the relationship between need state and activity level is reviewed. Specifically, activity level is discussed in terms of food, water...
Article
The extreme 22% of 100 high and junior high school students on a ballistographic activity measure were administered the Rorschach test. Hypokinetic Ss had a greater variety of determinants, which tended to be less form controlled. No other significant differences appeared.
Article
A partial replication of a study by Spence, Farber, and Taylor (see ^W29:^n 5267) noting the effects of modifications in CR scoring and S assignment.
Article
2 experiments in recall were conducted to determine the effects of pleasure, frequency, recency, acquaintance, and construction variables, and to compare the effect of the pleasure variable with that of height in order to rule out extraneous ranking habits. In the first experiment 137 Ss were given a first name and asked to recall 8 living acquaint...
Article
Each of 54 undergraduate Ss completed a multiple-choice personality description blank describing himself, his ideal self, and best liked and least liked fellow student of the same sex. A self acceptability score was derived by comparing the items on the self and ideal self descriptions. Comparisons were then made between the acceptability and unacc...
Article
An incomplete sentences test was administered to 60 newly-admitted VA neuropsychiatric hospital patients. Among the results were suggestions that " many of the more productive stems referred to the first person, the present and future, and "emotional' aspects of the subject." No difference was found in instructions relating to speed or "real feelin...

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Project (1)
Project
Factor analysis of 500 emotionally disturbed children in 16 different treatment centers in US and Canada. 1008 variiables reduced to 32 principal components, varimax rotation.