# Rudolf SeisingThe Research Institute for History of Science and Technology · Deutsches Museum, Munich

Rudolf Seising

Ph D

## About

165

Publications

42,846

Reads

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884

Citations

Introduction

Additional affiliations

October 2017 - present

**The Research Institute for History of Science and Technology**

Position

- Researcher

October 2016 - October 2017

October 2014 - September 2016

## Publications

Publications (165)

The “KI-Rundbrief” (AI newsletter) of the AI specialist group in the German Informatics Society is considered central to the emerging West German AI community. It was mailed out between 1975 and 1987, when it was turned into the journal Künstliche Intelligenz. Despite its presumed centrality, it has not been studied in detail. This paper combines a...

While artificial intelligence (AI) as a technology has been gaining widespread media and popular attention, its historical analysis is still in its infancy. As Jon Agar noted, “There is a surprising absence in the secondary literature of survey histories of artificial intelligence written by professional historians of science” [4, p. 291].1 When we...

This article shows how fundamental debates on both human obsolescence in the form of vanishing human exceptionalism and of technological unem- ployment were anchored to the emerging technology of artificial intelligence (AI). Through this anchoring, these debates became tangible and they were discussed beyond scientific circles by the wider public...

Bildgebende und diagnostische Verfahren, Therapien und Therapieentscheidungen, aber auch Pflege, Datenverwaltung und Abrechnung: IT-gestützte Prozesse greifen immer tiefer in die Arbeit mit und an Patient*innen ein. Die digitale Technik verändert hierbei Prozesse und Wissensbestände in Medizin und Pflege und entwickelt sich so zu einem potenziell d...

Bildgebende und diagnostische Verfahren, Therapien und Therapieentscheidungen, aber auch Pflege, Datenverwaltung und Abrechnung: IT-gestützte Prozesse greifen immer tiefer in die Arbeit mit und an Patient*innen ein. Die digitale Technik verändert hierbei Prozesse und Wissensbestände in Medizin und Pflege und entwickelt sich so zu einem potenziell d...

Bildgebende und diagnostische Verfahren, Therapien und Therapieentscheidungen, aber auch Pflege, Datenverwaltung und Abrechnung: IT-gestützte Prozesse greifen immer tiefer in die Arbeit mit und an Patient*innen ein. Die digitale Technik verändert hierbei Prozesse und Wissensbestände in Medizin und Pflege und entwickelt sich so zu einem potenziell d...

This paper is a personal obituary of Enrique Hector Ruspini, an extraordinary scientist, tireless researcher, a smart science organizer and a great man. It can only mention a few of his scientific and private interests, achievements and achievements.

This is another insight into the genesis of the theory of fuzzy sets and systems in the life of its founder Lotfi A. Zadeh. We present some historical roots of the theory of fuzzy systems and their further development to Computing with Words (CWW) and the Computational Theory of Perceptions (CTP).

We give an outline of the history of the origin of the theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems in the life of its founder Lotfi A. Zadeh. We present roots of this theory in the developments of computers, systems and information theory.

The following text intends to give an introduction into some of the basic ideas which determined the conception of this book. Thus, the first part of this article introduces the terms “City”, “Smart City” and “Cognitive City”. The second part gives an overview of design theories and approaches such as Action Design Research and Ontological Design (...

This book illustrates various aspects and dimensions of cognitive cities. Following a comprehensive introduction, the first part of the book explores conceptual considerations for the design of cognitive cities, while the second part focuses on concrete applications. The contributions provide an overview of the wide diversity of cognitive city conc...

In the 1950s, the mathematically oriented electrical engineer, Lotfi A. Zadeh, investigated system theory, and in the mid-1960s, he established the theory of Fuzzy sets and systems based on the mathematical theorem of linear separability and the pattern classification problem. Contemporaneously, the psychologist, Frank Rosenblatt, developed the the...

Zusammenfassung
Der Beitrag schildert und interpretiert einige Ereignisse aus der Entwicklungsgeschichte der von Claude E. Shannon „Mathematische Theorie der Kommunikation“ genannten Informationstheorie, die zeitgleich auch von Norbert Wiener entwickelt wurde, sowie der Informatik (Computer Science) als eine in den 1950er- und 1960er-Jahren entsteh...

An interview with Computational Intelligence Society member Lee Altenberg, recorded at the 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (IEEE SSCI 2017). Interview by Rudolf Seising.
Video online at https://ieeetv.ieee.org/history/interview-with-lee-altenberg-2017-cis-oral-history-project?rf=channels%7C103

Kurt Weichselberger, one of the influential senior members of the imprecise probability community, passed away on February 7, 2016. Almost throughout his entire academic life the major focus of his research interests has been on the foundations of probability and statistics. The present article is a first attempt to trace back chronologically the d...

Although in the literature there appear ‘type-one’ fuzzy sets, ‘type-two’ fuzzy sets, ‘intuitionistic’ fuzzy sets, etc., this theoretically driven paper tries to argue that only one type of fuzzy sets actually exists. This is due to the difference between the concepts of a fuzzy set” and a “membership function”.

Probability has, as a mathematical theory that is an important part of pure mathematics, a long and distinguished history of more than 300 years, with fertile applications in almost all domains of science and technology; but the history of fuzzy sets only lasts 50 years, during which it was theoretically developed and successfully applied in many f...

When, in February 2008, I visited the European Centre for Soft Computing (ECSC) in Mieres Asturias, Spain, for the first time to give a talk, I stayed for about a week. It was Enric Trillas who extended the invitation, and it was Claudio Moraga who made my first weekend in Asturias—this then unknown and foreign landscape—enjoyable. One of the first...

The book is an authoritative collection of contributions by leading experts on the topics of fuzzy logic, multi-valued logic and neural network. Originally written as an homage to Claudio Moraga, seen by his colleagues as an example of concentration, discipline and passion for science, the book also represents a timely reference guide for advance s...

Since the inception of fuzzy sets in 1965, Lotfi A. Zadeh viewed them by specifying the meaning of their linguistic labels in a given universe of discourse. Anyway, it lacked to clarify the same concept of meaning in a way able to separate those words that can be submitted to scientific scrutiny from those that cannot, as well as to show which it i...

In the 1960s, the discipline of computer science(CS) emerged from electrical engineering (EE) and research fields in mathematics and mathematical logic. Around the same time, fuzzy sets (FSs) appeared as a new mathematical theory, founded by the electrical engineer Lotfi Aliasker Zadeh. Some unpublished documents of Zadeh's show that the emergence...

El objetivo de este trabajo es reconsiderar el punto de vista defendido por los pensadores que se pueden adscribir al famoso ‘Círculo de Viena’ sobre el significado y, especialmente, sobre los enunciados asignificativos. Para ello, procedemos usando la típica forma científica,heredera de la tradición del Círculo, de medir empíricamente los concepto...

This paper discusses epistemology in two variations: Genetic and Historical Epistemology. Historical Epistemology combines research in history and philosophy of science to study developments in scientific research whereas Genetic Epistemology is the study of the cognitive development in childhood. We consider Kuhn’s theory of scientific paradigms a...

In 1965 Lotfi A. Zadeh founded the theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems. This chapter deals with developments in the history of philosophy, logic, and mathematics during the time before and up to the beginning of fuzzy logic and it also gives a view of its first application in control theory. Regarding the term “fuzzy” we note that older concepts of “v...

Enrique H?ctor Ruspini (Figure1) received his degree in mathematics from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1965 and his doctoral degree in system science from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1977 [1]. He is a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). Dr. Ruspini has held positions...

Machines that support highly complex decisions of doctors have been a reality for almost half a century. In the 1950s, computer-supported medical diagnostic systems started with “punched cards in a shoe box”. In the 1960s and 1970s medicine was, to a certain extent, transformed into a quantitative science by intensive interdisciplinary research col...

After my studies in mathematics, physics and philosophy I started research work in philosophy of science to write a Ph D thesis on “Probabilistic Structures in Quantum Mechanics” [101]. I became familiar with many-valued logic, probability logic and quantum logic and I was fascinated by quantum probability theory. Besides these “deviant logics” I a...

In the present paper, we connect some old reflections about the relationships existing between the theory of fuzzy sets and cybernetics with modern, contemporary analyses of the crucial (better: unavoidable) role that fuzziness plays in the attempts at scientifically describing aspects of information sciences. The connection, which has a basic conc...

This book, which goes far beyond a traditional collection of technical articles, is dedicated to Enric Trillas, a fuzzy systems pioneer but also an internationally renowned researcher in other areas of science, such as mathematics and aerospace, and an outstanding manager of scientific affairs in Spain. Some of the contributions in this book develo...

This book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the art in fuzzy logic. Throughout the chapters, key theories developed in the last fifty years as well as important applications to practical problems are presented and discussed from different perspectives, as the authors hail from different disciplines and therefore use fuzzy logic for d...

How do humans develop concepts? - This paper presents a historical view on answers to this question. Psychologist Piaget was influenced by Philosopher Kant when he founded his theory of cognitive child development named "Genetic Epistemology". Biologist and historian of science Rheinberger emphasized that scientific concepts are "fluctuating object...

Historically, Computer science emerged from electrical engineering in the 1960s. From the content of some unpublished documents and rather non-well-known papers by Lotfi A. Zadeh it is argued that the emergences of Computer science and Fuzzy Set Theory have been interlinked. Zadeh's task as Chair of the Electrical Engineering Department in Berkeley...

This paper gives a brief presentation of history of Soft Computing considered as a mix of three scientific disciplines that arose in the mid of the 20th century: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Computation. The paper shows the genesis and the historical development of the three disciplines and also their meeting in a coali...

In the 1980s Sadegh-Zadeh opened the door to use fuzzy systems concepts in Analytical Philosophy of Medicine. He demonstrated that the concepts of health, illness, and disease “are not amenable to classical logic”, he rejected the conceptual opposition that an individual could be either healthy or ill, and he created a new approach toward a theoret...

The article presents introduction to the special issue 'Soft computing in humanities and social sciences. The great complexity of biological systems may well prove to be an in superable block to the achievement of a significant measure of success in the application of conventional mathematical techniques to the analysis of systems. In the same deca...

The historiography of modern science comprises some famous dialogues, starting with thirtysix Socratic dialogues ascribed to Plato. Then there is Galileo’s famous Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo that is the model for the fictitious debate on scientific theories and their relationships, that is presented in this chapter, and this subje...

In later science fiction movies, computers run countries or govern the whole mankind but in science fiction stories of the 1950s this scenario does not exist. It seems that it originated from the early Computer Science and it was Lotfi A. Zadeh who published in 1950 the first science vision of a Thinking Machine. He also predicted in 1950 that Thin...

Almost 50 years ago Lotfi A. Zadeh founded the theory of Fuzzy Sets and Systems based on his works in system and information technology and continuing Norbert Wiener's research in cybernetics. In the 1970s, Mario Bunge published a system theoretical approach in philosophy of medicine that he named Iatrophilosophy and in the 1980s Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh...

The historiography of modern science comprises some famous dialogues, starting with thirtysix Socratic dialogues ascribed to Plato. Then there is Galileo's famous Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo that is the model for the fictitious debate on scientific theories and their relationships, that is presented in this chapter, and this subje...

In his Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine, a book that in our view is qualified to be the starting point of a new discourse in the fields of Theoretical Medicine and Philosophy of Medicine, Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh uses two scientific theories that are studied and regarded in many specific sectors of hard and human sciences but not globally well...

In the original version, error has occurred in the following:
1. In page XXIV, the title is given in Table of content (Vol. I) is Fuzzy Clouds. It should read as “Fuzzy Cloud”: Sfumato versus Chiaroscuro in Music
2. The following List of Contributors have to be included in “Volume I” (Studfuzz 298):
Kortelainen, Jari, Department of Electrical Engin...

The mathematician Warren Weaver was an important science administrator during and after World War II. As the director of natural science of the Rockefeller Foundation he was significantly involved in changing the leading sciences from physics to life sciences. In his 1949 article "Science and Complexity" Weaver associates this change with the locat...

Humanities and Sciences conform the “two cultures” of modern society. “Literary intellectuals” on the one hand and scientists on the other established a deep gulf or rift in between. That is the point of the Rede’s-Lecture The
Two
Cultures
and
the
Scientific
Revolution that was given by Sir Charles Percy Snow (1905-1980) at May 7, 1959 in the Senat...

This paper illuminates the first 10 years of Fuzzy Sets and Systems (FSS) where nobody could know that this theory would be a big success in the applied sciences and technology. Starting with the content of an (perhaps) unpublished text of Lotfi A. Zadeh, we show that, the founder of FSS expected in the period of the years 1965-1972, before Fuzzy c...

In this paper I present some historical results on the development of the theory of fuzzy sets in its first decade. In that time before the fuzzy boom in control theory and other technical applications some fuzzy approaches in the areas of logic, algorithms and linguistics led to philosophical considerations on the fuzziness of meaning.

The key aims of modern scientific work have generally been to find relationships between observed phenomena, construct mathematical formulas that describe these relationships, take measurements of the observables, and define axioms using terms that are as exact as possible. In many circumstances, the exactness of observed phenomena is limited - or...

Background: The most serious medication errors occur during intravenous administration. The potential consequences are more serious the more critical and younger the patient. Smart pumps can help to prevent infusion-related programming errors, thanks ...

There is a traditional division of labor in scientific reseach: on the one hand we have theoretical investigations and on the other hand we have experimental examinations. This bifurcation of scientific labor can be delineated back to the ancient world and this tradition became manifest in the 17th century when modern science established mathematic...

The key aims of modern scientific work have generally been to find relationships between observed phenomena, construct mathematical formulas that describe these relationships, take measurements of the observables, and define axioms using terms that are as exact as possible. In many circumstances, the exactness of observed phenomena is limited - or...

The field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences is at a turning point. The strong distinction between “science” and “humanities” has been criticized from many fronts and, at the same time, an increasing cooperation between the so-called “hard sciences” and “soft sciences” is taking place in a wide range of scientific projects dealing...

In this paper we illuminate the first decade of Fuzzy Sets and Systems (FSS) where nobody thought that this theory would be successful in the field of applied sciences and technology. We show that especially Lotfi A. Zadeh, the founder of the theory of FSS, expected that his theory would have a role in the future of computer systems as well as huma...

In this paper we associate the three concepts of lan-guage, thinking, and meaning with Fuzzy Sets and Sys-tems and Fuzzy Logic. We present some developments in 20 th century history of science and of humanities that show deep links between these concepts and we give a proposal for a fuzzy theoretical interpretation of what is meaning.

Wisdom is an ancient concept, that experiences a renaissance since the last century throughout several scientific communities. In each of them it is interpreted in rather different ways - from a key ability to succesful aging to a human peak perfomance transcending mere knowledge. As a result, miscellaneous definitions and models exist. There is fo...

The January 2011 issue of International Journal of General Systems discusses general systems, classical systems, quantum systems and fuzzy systems. In the first contribution to this issue, Jarosław Pykacz interprets the 'truth values' of predictions about properties of quantum mechanical systems (objects) as degrees that are associated with the res...

About 60 years ago Norbert Wiener and Claude Elwood Shannon established the new scientific discipline of information theory. However, it is very probable that Shannon’s article A Mathematical Theory of Communication would not have become famous without the help of Warren Weaver, whose popular text on “The Mathematics of Communication” re-interprete...

20 years after the appearance of Soft Computing, this paper serves reflecting cognitions on “soft concepts”, Soft Computing and “soft sciences”. We consider soft concepts and hard concepts that have to be distinguished from each other. “Hard” concepts have been strictly defined in logics more than 100 years ago, but “soft” concepts have not been us...

This historical and philosophical paper shows the parallel views of Warren Weaver and Lotfi Zadeh in the 1950s and 1960, respectively,
on mathematics in science and technology and their calls for “new mathematics” to solve a new class of problems.

This contribution serves historical and philosophical reflecting cognitions on the role of Soft Computing in the 21st century. Referring to Magdalena's article in this issue, this paper considers the aspects of mixtures of techniques, the opposite pair “Hard Computing” and “Soft Computing”, and Computational Intelligence. From the historical perspe...

This contribution serves historical and philosophical reflecting cognitions on the role of Soft Computing in the 21st century. Referring to Magdalena's article in this issue, this paper considers the aspects of mixtures of techniques, the opposite pair “Hard Computing” and “Soft Computing”, and Computational Intelligence. From the historical perspe...

60 years ago, 1948, Norbert Wiener's Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine and ldquoA Mathematical Theory of Communicationrdquo by Claude E. Shannon have been published. However, it is very probable that Shannon's article wouldn't have became famous without the help of Warren Weaver, whose popular text ldquoThe Math...

When talking about data, information, knowledge and wisdom we usually have a vague understanding on the concepts that are described by these terms. However, their relationships and dependencies can-and usually have to-be described from different perspectives in order to cover most of their facets. In this paper, we try to give an overview of some f...

60 years ago the American mathematician and electrical engineer Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001) published "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" and nobody could survey this theory's enormous consequences for science and technology. Shannon's article appeared in two parts in the July and October 1948 editions of the Bell System Technical Journa...

60 years ago, 1948, Norbert Wiener developed a meta-theory of feedback and governance operating across any simple or complex system: Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Already 80 years ago, Ludwig von Bertalanffy began his research on a ldquoGeneral Systems Theoryrdquo and after the II. World War the both scient...

In science there is a traditional division of labor: on the one hand we have fundamental, logical, and theoretical investigations
and on the other hand we have experimental and application-oriented examinations. Theoretical work in science uses logics
and mathematics to formulate axioms and laws. It is linked with the philosophical view of rational...

When 60 years ago Shannon established "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" nobody could know the consequences for science and technology in the second half of the century. Shannon published his article in two parts in the July and October 1948 editions of the Bell System Technical Journal. However, it is very probable that this article wouldn't...

In this paper we consider physical systems and the concept of their states in the context of the theory of fuzzy sets and systems. In section 1 we give a brief sketch on the fundamental difference between the theories of classical physics and quantum mechanics. In section 2 and 3 we introduce very shortly systems and their states in classical and q...

“A picture is a model of reality”, “A picture is a fact”, and “We picture facts to ourselves” asserted Ludwig Wittgenstein in his Tractatus logico philosophicus, thereby con firming the influence on his thinking - which he himself acknowledged - of Heinrich Hertz’s Prinzipien der Mechanik (Principles of Mechanics). In this contribution the “picture...

The core of soft computing consists of fuzzy sets and systems (FSS) computing with words (CW) and the computational theory of perceptions (CTP). In the introduction of this paper we give a brief presentation of that subject. The second section of the paper focuses on a general view on fuzziness in evolutionary biology. The view on evolutionary biol...

In this paper we discuss the principles of two fundamental theories of physics: mechanics and quantum mechanics. First, we consider two philosophical positions of the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. He established one of the both in the introduction of his well known Principles of Mechanics. This view - Hertz's "picture" concept - which has a long...

Fuzzy sets and systems (FSS) fill the gap between scientific theories and observable real systems and phenomena. In philosophy and history of science and technology this gap carries a great potential for epistemological discussions. A new approach in this area is Hans-Jorg Rheinberger's "historical epistemology" dealing with the concept of "experim...