Rudolf H. Scheffrahn

Rudolf H. Scheffrahn
University of Florida | UF · Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center

Doctor of Philosophy

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438
Publications
99,229
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6,837
Citations
Citations since 2016
87 Research Items
2781 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (438)
Article
The phylogenetic history of termites has been investigated using mitochondrial genomes and transcriptomes. However, both sets of markers have specific limitations. Mitochondrial genomes represent a single genetic marker likely to yield phylogenetic trees presenting incongruences with species trees, and transcriptomes can only be obtained from well-...
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The phylogenetic history of termites has been investigated using mitochondrial genomes and transcriptomes. However, both sets of markers have limitations. Mitochondrial genomes represent a single genetic marker likely to yield phylogenetic trees presenting incongruences with species trees, and transcriptomes can only be obtained from well-preserved...
Preprint
Full-text available
Madagascar is home to many endemic plant and animal species owing to its ancient isolation from other landmasses. This unique fauna includes several lineages of termites, a group of insects known for their key role in organic matter decomposition in many terrestrial ecosystems. How and when termites colonised Madagascar remains unknown. In this stu...
Article
Ebogotermes raphaeli gen. n. sp. n., is described from workers collected in Cameroon. This soil-feeding termite is the largest soldierless termite from central Africa and aligns with the Anoplotermes subgroup. The enteric valve armature is weakly armed and, as with most apicotermitine species, is uniquely diagnostic.
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A 2012 termite expedition yielded the first species of Glyptotermes known from Paraguay, G. hickmani sp. nov. and G. canellae (Müller, 1873), the latter previously known from Argentina and Brazil. Both are described based on the soldier and imago castes.
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Rugitermes ursulae sp. nov. is described from a sample collected inside a dead branch in a tropical dry forest of Colombia’s Caribbean coast using molecular information and external morphological characters of the imago and soldier castes. Rugitermes ursulae sp. nov. soldiers and imagoes are the smallest among all described Rugitermes species. The...
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Contents: Introduction - Distribution - Description and Identification - Life History - Damage - Pest Status - Management - Selected References. This article is also published on the UF/IFAS Featured Creatures website at http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/termites/heterotermes.htm.
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Cristamonadea is a large class of parabasalian protists that reside in the hindguts of wood-feeding insects, where they play an essential role in the digestion of lignocellulose. This group of symbionts boasts an impressive array of complex morphological characteristics, many of which have evolved multiple times independently. However, their divers...
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The eukaryotic microbiome of “lower” termites is highly stable and host-specific. This is due to the mutually obligate nature of the symbiosis and the direct inheritance of protists by proctodeal trophallaxis. However, vertical transmission is occasionally imperfect, resulting in daughter colonies that lack one or more of the expected protist speci...
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The soldier of Rugitermes aridus sp. nov. is described from a xeric, termite-depauperate region of central Peru. Rugitermes rufus sp. nov. and R. volcanensis sp. nov. are described from soldiers and dealated imagos collected in a mesic forest of Amboró National Park in western Bolivia. The imago of R. rufus is unique among all described Rugitermes...
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The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, 1909, is a highly destructive structural pest endemic to East Asia. We report a land-based establishment of C. formosanus in Petah Tikva, Israel, over 6000 km from its nearest previous locality in China. The species' identity was confirmed by soldier morphology and by COI sequence d...
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Our recent description of Echinotermes biriba (Castro et al. 2018) does not clearly define the type repositories as we only give the acronyms “CATAC” and “UF”. The holotype and paratype workers are deposited in the Colección de artrópodos terrestres de la Amazonía Colombiana of the SINCHI Institute in Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia (CATAC). Additional...
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The imago and soldier castes of a new Rugitermes Holmgren, 1911 species, R. tinto sp. nov. are described. It is the ninth species of Rugitermes from South America and the first record of this genus from Colombia. Unlike its congeners, the soldier of R. tinto has very dark head capsule pigmentation and acute protuberances projecting from frontolater...
Article
The imago and soldier castes of a new Rugitermes Holmgren, 1911 species, R. tinto sp. nov. are described. It is the ninth species of Rugitermes from South America and the first record of this genus from Colombia. Unlike its congeners, the soldier of R. tinto has very dark head capsule pigmentation and acute protuberances projecting from frontolater...
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The imago and soldier castes of a new Tauritermes Krishna, 1961 species, Tauritermes bandeirai sp. nov. are described. It is the fourth species of Tauritermes and occurs from the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Unlike its congeners, the soldier of T. bandeirai has prominent frontal horns.
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Heterotermes Froggatt is a subterranean termite genus consisting of 30 living described species worldwide, with nine occurring in the New World. Herein we provide a molecular phylogeny, using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, of all New World species of Heterotermes , including biogeographical analysis, and describe a new species from Paragua...
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Citizen science (CS) contributes to the knowledge about species distributions, which is a critical foundation in the studies of invasive species, biological conservation, and response to climatic change. In this study, we assessed the value of CS for termites worldwide. First, we compared the abundance and species diversity of geo-tagged termite re...
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We present the description of a new genus and species of soldierless termites from South America. Rustitermes boteroi Constantini, Castro & Scheffrahn, gen. et sp. nov. can be identified by the morphology of the enteric valve, with six slightly asymmetric cushions, each one forming a central pouch made of scales smaller than those between the cushi...
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The New World Kalotermitidae constitute about one-fourth of all termite species in this region. The geographic distributions of all fifteen kalotermitid genera are updated based on records in the University of Florida Termite Collection and in the literature. Range-appropriate exotic records of four pest species are also given. New distribution rec...
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The worker of Aparatermes thornatus is described as the fourth species of a widespread Neotropical termite genus, Aparatermes, from the worker caste. This species occurs in the northern Amazonia. The enteric valve armature of A. thornatus and the unique coloration of its worker’s head capsule distinguished it from its three congeners. Molecular dat...
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Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are blood-feeding human ectoparasites. Their cryptic nature and pesticide resistance have led to an upsurge in infestation abundance and increased difficulty to achieve control. A dosage-response study was conducted for fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride against bed bug eggs at 25 and 15°C. The least accumulated dosag...
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The effect of sporicidal fumigation with methyl bromide or methyl iodide on the functionality of valuable electronic equipment was evaluated using desktop computers as surrogates under target conditions of 200–250 mg/L fumigant for 48 h at 24–30 °C and 75–85% RH. Methyl iodide fumigation damaged light-emitting diodes and optical films in computer d...
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The imago and soldier castes of a new Neotermes species, N.costaseca , are described. It is only the third termite species known from the Pacific coastal desert of Peru. Neotermescostasecasp. n. is compared with the allopatric Neotermeschilensis from the arid central and southern coastal plain of Chile.
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A new genus, Tonsuritermes Cancello & Constantini gen. nov., is described from South America. The main morphological features of the new genus are a remarkable frontal gland and protibia with two rows of spine-like bristles. Two new species of Tonsuritermes are described: T. tucki Cancello & Constantini sp. nov. and T. mathewsi Cancello & Constanti...
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Cryptotermes garifunae sp. nov. (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) is described from a single colony sample collected on the coast of Honduras. This species represents the twenty-second Cryptotermes species known from the Caribbean Basin and West Indies. The C. garifunae soldier and imago are the smallest of the New World Cryptotermes. Distribution maps, c...
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Anenteotermescherubimi Scheffrahn, sp. n. is described from workers and male imagos collected in Cameroon and Republic of the Congo. This is the smallest soldierless termite known from Africa. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is a robust and essential diagnostic character for An.cherubimi . Pre...
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Termites have developed a wide array of defensive mechanisms. One of them is the mandibulate soldier caste that crushes or pierces their enemies. However, in several lineages of Termitinae, soldiers have long and slender mandibles that cannot bite but, instead, snap and deliver powerful strikes to their opponents. Here, we use morphological and mol...
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Imago dispersal by the West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) potentially initiates or expands structural infestations by the establishment of incipient colonies. The prevention of drywood termite colonization in structures is difficult, but a substantial reduction may be obtainable. In this experiment,...
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A new Apicotermitinae genus and species Echinotermes biriba is described from workers collected on the Andean-Amazon Piedmont in Colombia and Peru. The enteric valve armature of Echinotermes biriba Castro & Scheffrahn, gen. et sp. n. is a remarkably diagnostic character. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using the COI gene and including all other Ne...
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The termite family Kalotermitidae constitutes a wood-nesting termite family that accounts for about 15% of all extant termite species. In recent decades, field studies have been carried out to assess termite diversity in various wooded habitats and geographic locations. Three sampling methods have been favored expert, transect, and alate light-trap...
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Plagiolepis alluaudi, of Madagascar origin, is an invasive ant species in many tropical localities around the world. Here we report the first record of an established population of P. alluaudi in the continental Americas. This established population is thriving in a neighborhood of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, and it raises concerns that this new...
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Procryptotermes Holmgren is a modestly diverse kalotermitid genus endemic to numerous islands and archipelagos of the world’s tropical oceans (Scheffrahn & Křeček 2001). Mainland records from southern India (Bose 1979, Roonwal & Chhotani 1963, Thakur 1975), Queensland Australia (Watson and Abbey 1993), and the Yucatan Peninsula (Scheffrahn and Křeč...
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Pseudotrichonympha is a large and structurally complex genus of parabasalian protists that play a key role in the digestion of lignocellulose in the termite hindgut. Like many termite symbionts, it has a conspicuous body plan that makes genus-level identification relatively easy, but species-level diversity of Pseudotrichonympha is understudied. Mo...
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The subterranean termite Heterotermes aureus is endemic to arid regions of southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Like other termites in the family Rhinotermitidae, it harbors a community of protists (Phylum Parabasalia) in its hindgut that aid in cellulose digestion. We investigated the hindgut community of H. aureus using light microscopy, single...
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Members of the genus Trichonympha are among the most well-known, recognizable and widely distributed parabasalian symbionts of lower termites and the wood-eating cockroach species of the genus Cryptocercus. Nevertheless, the species diversity of this genus is largely unknown. Molecular data have shown that the superficial morphological similarities...
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The dispersal flight activity ("swarming") of two invasive subterranean termite species, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was monitored in metropolitan southeastern Florida, where both species are now sympatric and major structural pests. Historical records of alates collected in the area showed that the two species...
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Spirotrichonymphea is a class of hypermastigote parabasalids defined by their spiral rows of many flagella. They are obligate hindgut symbionts of lower termites. Despite more than 100 years of morphological and ultrastructural study, the group remains poorly characterised by molecular data and the phylogenetic positions and taxonomic validity of m...
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Previous observations have noted that in some species of higher termites the soldier caste lacks pigmented particles in its gut and, instead, is fed worker saliva that imparts a whitish coloration to the abdomen. In order to investigate the occurrence of this trait more thoroughly, we surveyed a broad diversity of termite specimens and taxonomic de...
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We redescribe the winged imagos and soldiers of two equatorial African species, Neotermes aburiensis Sjöstedt and N. agilis (Sjöstedt) and describe their unique character attributes. The imago of N. aburiensis is adorned with unique spatulate-pointed setae. The soldier of N. aburiensis is unique among Neotermes in possessing a phragmotic forehead....
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Disjunctitermes insularis gen. n. & sp. n. is described from workers collected on Guadeloupe and in Peru and is the first soldierless termite found on a deep-water island. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is an essential diagnostic character of D. insularis. The D. insularis sequence cluster, d...
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After more than one hundred years, a new drywood termite of the genus Proneotermes is described from the tropical dry forest in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Morphological and genetic analyses are given for Proneotermes macondianus sp. n. This termite occurs in tropical dry forests in small colonies inside thin branches of dry wood. The soldier...
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The termite genus Parvitermes is now recognized on the Central American mainland to include Parvitermes mexicanus, new combination (previously in Nasutitermes) and two new species, Parvitermes mesoamericanus sp. n. and Parvitermes yucatanus sp. n., herein described from soldiers and workers. These three species, nine West Indian Parvitermes, and An...