Rudolf Krska

Rudolf Krska
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna | boku · Department of Agrobiotechnology

Prof. Dr.

About

578
Publications
145,580
Reads
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22,834
Citations
Citations since 2016
179 Research Items
13313 Citations
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Introduction
Expertise: Bioanalytics; Organic trace analysis; Immunoassay development; Mass spectrometry; Detection of allergens in food; Quantification and strucural characterization of plant and microbial metabolites; Multi-analyt-methods (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous monitoring of food contaminants; Production and certification of reference materials; Design, organisation and evaluation of laboratory comparison studies; Fiber optics chemical infrared sensors; Food Analysis;

Publications

Publications (578)
Presentation
Full-text available
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major cereal crops and constitutes a major part of the daily human and animal diet. One of the most important risks associated with wheat consumption are mycotoxins, mainly produced by Fusarium species. The most important mycotoxins in wheat are mainly Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearale...
Article
Full-text available
Mould is a ubiquitous threat to safe food. In this work, a combination of three reliable methods to identify mould present in food at the species level is presented, to estimate the safety of the apparently non-moldy slices of bread and therefore contribute to the prevention of food waste. In overstored sliced bread, three mould species on the firs...
Article
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Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is increasingly being used to analyze food crops for quality and safety purposes in a rapid, nondestructive, and eco-friendly manner. The lack of sensitivity and the overlapping absorption characteristics of major sample matrix components, however, often prevent the direct determination of food contaminants at trace level...
Article
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Spent brewery grains (BSG) are the main by-product of beer production and are incorporated in rations of food-delivering animals, mainly dairy cows. Like other agricultural commodities, BSG can be contaminated by a broad spectrum of natural and synthetic undesirable substances , which can be hazardous to animal and human health as well as to the en...
Article
Tritordeum grain is known for its high content of protein, carotenoids and polyphenols, but its mineral composition has not been analyzed to date. The experimental material comprised 11 breeding lines of Tritordeum, two reference cultivars of durum wheat, and one hulless barley cultivar. The thousand kernel weight (TKW) of the studied Tritordeum li...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, of all mycotoxins, aflatoxins present a significant threat to human and animal health and has resulted in the introduction of strict food regulatory limits to protect public health. A systematic review, was performed to elucidate the rationale applied in establishing aflatoxin standards and evaluate the economic impacts of these. The focu...
Article
This study assessed the profiles of mycotoxins and other contaminants present in complementary foods consumed by Nigerian infants and young children (IYC) within the first 18 months of life. In total, 92 complementary foods and one herbal mixture collected at 3-months interval were subjected to LC/MS-MS analysis. Aflatoxin B1 contaminated ogi and t...
Article
Full-text available
Dairy production is a pivotal economic sector of Austrian and European agriculture. Di- etary toxins and endocrine disruptors of natural origin such as mycotoxins and phytoestrogens can affect animal health, reproduction, and productivity. This study characterized the profile of a wide spectrum of fungal, plant, and unspecific secondary metabolites...
Article
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Sorghum is the main staple food crop in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, sorghum grain quantity and quality are affected by contaminating fungi both under field and post-harvest stage. The aim of the current study was to assessed fungal species and multi-mycotoxins associated with sorghum grain in post-harvest samples collected fr...
Article
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High levels of mycotoxins are occasionally observed in Norwegian oat grain lots. Mycotoxins of primary concern in Norwegian oats are deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium graminearum and HT2- and T2-toxins (HT2 + T2) produced by Fusarium langsethiae . Improved understanding of the epidemiology of Fusarium spp. is important for the development o...
Article
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The European Food Safety Authority is currently evaluating the risks related to the presence of emerging mycotoxins in food and feeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of soil fertility, resulting from different nitrogen fertilization rates, on the contamination of regulated mycotoxins and emerging fungal metabolites in maize grain...
Article
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The present interlaboratory comparison study involved nine laboratories located throughout the world that tested for 24 regulated and non-regulated mycotoxins by applying their in-house LC-MS/MS multi-toxin method to 10 individual lots of 4 matrix commodities, including complex chicken and swine feed, soy and corn gluten. In total, more than 6000 d...
Article
Nearly 700,000 tonnes of peanuts are consumed annually in Europe. In the last 5 years, peanuts imported from China exceeded legal European Union (EU) aflatoxin limits more than 180 times. To prevent and mitigate aflatoxin contamination, the stages of the peanut chain most vulnerable to contamination must be assessed to determine how to interrupt th...
Article
Matrix effects continue to be an issue in small molecule quantitation in food analysis, with researchers exploring different approaches to circumvent the issue. LCGC Europe talked to Rudolf Krska and Michael Sulyok from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria, about their work to develop a multi-analyte approac...
Article
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There is interest in understanding the relationship between naturally contaminated commodities and the potential for the production of different useful and toxic secondary metabolites (SMs). This study examined the impact of interacting abiotic stress parameters of water availability and temperature of stored naturally contaminated maize on the SM...
Article
Bacteria of the genus Sphingomonas, Aureobasidium pullulans yeast-like fungus and yeast Debaryomyces hansenii naturally colonize wheat grain. Selected isolates of these microorganisms, antagonistic against Fusarium spp., can be applied to wheat spikes to complement chemical control methods. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Fusa...
Article
The study investigated the incidence of mycobiota, Aspergillus spp metabolites and aflatoxin biosynthesis precursors in 60 samples of seeds and haulms of improved groundnut genotypes in Nigeria. Culturing of the infected seeds was done using the agar plate method and mycobiota identification was done using conventional cultural and microscopy metho...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-specimen, multi-mycotoxin approach involving ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis of breast milk, complementary food and urine was applied to examine mycotoxin co-exposure in 65 infants, aged 1–18 months, in Ogun state, Nigeria. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in breast milk (4/22 (18%)), while six other classes of mycotoxins were quantified; includ...
Article
Maize can be contaminated with a wide range of fungal secondary metabolites that decrease the quality and safety of maize and maize-derived products. The increase of natural fungal metabolites occurrence in maize, influenced by climate changes, is recognized as a significant issue in recent years. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to invest...
Article
There is a massive and urgent need to ensure safety and security of the food supply of the world′s growing population. However, global agriculture and food industries continue to be vulnerable to problems of contamination with biotoxins produced by plants, algae and particularly by fungi; with global warming and extreme weather events making the oc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most dangerous wheat diseases causing yield and quality losses and is also associated with mycotoxin accumulation which threatens human and animal health. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of the metabolites produced by Fusarium species in winter wheat varieties. The experiment was set up in...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat and production of mycotoxins makes it a major threat in most wheat-producing areas worldwide. This study aimed to identify the impact of epidemic FHB conditions (usage of artificial Fusarium inoculation) on mycotoxin levels in unprocessed wheat. Fusarium levels were monitored at two locati...
Article
Full-text available
As aflatoxins are a global risk for humans and animals, testing methods for rapid on-site screening are increasingly needed alongside the standard analytical laboratory tools. In the presented study, lateral flow devices (LFDs) for rapid total aflatoxin screening were thoroughly investigated with respect to their matrix effects, cross-reactivity, t...
Article
Mycotoxins present a global food safety threat of our feed and food. Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of certain fungi in agricultural products that are harmful to animal and human health. The presence of mycotoxins in these products depends on a variety of management and environmental factors in the field, during storage and/or processing of feed...
Article
Full-text available
This study characterized the health risks due to the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods and assessed the consumer awareness level of mycotoxins in households in two north-central Nigerian states during the harvest and storage seasons of 2018. Twenty-six mycotoxins and 121 other microbial and plant metabolites were quantified by LC-MS/MS in...
Article
Exposure to food and environmental contaminants is a global environmental health issue. In this study, innovative LC-MS/MS approaches were applied to investigate mycotoxin co-exposure in mother-infant pairs (n = 23) by analyzing matched plate-ready food, breast milk and urine samples of mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. The study rev...
Article
Aspergillus species produce numerous metabolites, including mycotoxins, which prevalence in maize is significant health and economic issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Aspergillus metabolites in 458 maize samples collected during 2016 and 2017 in the Republic of Serbia. Samples were analysed by liquid chroma...
Poster
Full-text available
Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi and one of the most important plant pathogens causing Fusarium head blight. Due to their great ability to adapt to different environmental conditions, Fusarium species are widely spread across the globe and cause not only economic losses but threaten human and animal health. Although Fusarium head blight is...
Article
The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of Fusarium metabolites in maize samples collected from different regions of Northern Serbia (Bačka, Banat and Srem) during a period of two years (2016–2017). A total of 458 maize samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 40 metabolites were det...
Article
The aim of this study was to apply modern analytical tools, liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometric method (LC‐MS/MS), for identification and quantitation of Alternaria metabolites in maize samples. Maize samples were collected from the main maize‐producing regions (Bačka, Banat and Srem) of the Republic of Serbia during two harvest seasons...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small-grain cereals that causes significant yield losses and mycotoxin contamination, diminishing food and feed safety worldwide. In contrast to wheat, little is known about the agricultural practices that influence FHB and Fusarium mycotoxins in barley. Thus, a nationwide survey was con...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of secondary metabolites and co-contaminants in dairy cow feed samples (n = 115), concentrate, roughage, and mixed feed, collected from Ratchaburi and Kanjanaburi provinces, Thailand, between August 2018 and March 2019 were investigated using LC-MS/MS based multi-toxin method. A total of 113 metabolites were found in the samples. Fun...
Article
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Fullerol C60 (OH)24 nanoparticles (FNP)-wheat-A. flavus interaction outcome is more complicated in the presence of drought. This study sheds light on how the presence of FNP affects food and feed safety from the perspective of mycotoxin contamination. The study aims to determine the influence of FNP at environmentally plausible concentrations on whea...
Article
Cereals, legumes and nuts are widely produced and consumed in Nigeria. Despite the availability of these food crops, their safety is often compromised by the presence of mycotoxins. In Nigeria, mixtures of several mycotoxins, including the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins together with fumonisins, ochratoxins and the trichothecenes, commonly co-occur...
Article
Ogi is a fermented cereal beverage, made primarily from maize (Zea mays) and rarely from millets. Unlike maize-based ogi, little is known about the bacterial community and mycotoxin profile during the production of millet-based ogi. Therefore, the bacterial community dynamics and mycotoxin reduction during ogi processing from three millet varieties...
Article
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A total of 117 fungal metabolites were detected in grains collected in Gunja-G (flooded village) and Gornji Stupnik-GS (control village), located in the Zagreb County, Croatia. Major mycotoxins and derivatives (17), ergot alkaloids (14), Fusarium (23), Aspergillus (18), Penicillium (18), Alternaria (7) and other fungal and unspecific metabolites (2...
Article
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The presence of mycotoxins in cereals has led to large economic losses in Europe. In the course of the European project MyToolBox, prevention and control measures to reduce mycotoxin contamination in cereals were developed. This study aimed to estimate the impact of these prevention and control measures on both the reduction in crop losses and the...
Article
Full-text available
Barley can be contaminated with a wide range of fungal secondary metabolites, including various mycotoxins that reduce the quality and safety of raw materials as well as cause economic losses. A survey was conducted for the crop seasons 2016 and 2017 to analyse fungal metabolites, including mycotoxins, in grain and straw samples of barley, which or...
Article
In winter and summer of 2016 and 2017, airborne fungi and house dust were collected in indoors of the village Gunja, which had been flooded, and the control village Gornji Stupnik (Croatia) in order to explore variations of fungal indoor levels, particularly Aspergilli section Nidulantes series Versicolores, as well as fungal metabolites in dust. L...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most important food safety issues is the detection of mycotoxins, the ubiquitous, natural contaminants in cereals. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a new method in food science, it can be used to predict non-destructively the changes in composition and distribution of compounds. That is why, in the last decade, the potential of HSI has bee...
Article
Multi-mycotoxin analysis of 72 samples of garlic bulbs sold in Zaria markets was carried out using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The results indicated the presence of seven major mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and the fumonisins B1, B2, B3, B4, and B6, at different levels of contaminati...
Article
Full-text available
DNA aptamers generated by cell-SELEX against bacterial cells have gained increased interest as novel and cost-effective affinity reagents for cell labelling, imaging and biosensing. Here we describe the selection and identification of DNA aptamers for bacterial cells using a combined approach based on cell-SELEX, state-of-the-art applications of qu...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring of food contaminants and residues has undergone a significant improvement in recent years and is now performed in an intensive manner. Achievements in the area of chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling techniques enabled the development of quantitative multi-target approaches covering several hundred analytes. Although the majority of...
Article
Full-text available
Affordable and practical tools for farmers and food processors along the chain are required to efficiently reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination of crops, feeds and foods. Developing new tools and enhancing existing ones was the mission of MyToolBox—a four-year EU-project that included important Chinese partners and joint research efforts. To...
Article
The use of maize in the food chain could be mainly limited due to its contamination by mycotoxins. As scarce information is available, the current study is aimed at collecting new data on the co-occurrence and the fate of the most frequent masked, modified and emerging mycotoxins and other second fungal metabolites in maize food products and by-pro...
Article
Full-text available
The first quantitative multiclass approach enabling the accurate quantification of >1,200 biotoxins, pesticides and veterinary drugs in complex feed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has been developed. Optimization of HPLC/UHPLC (chromatographic column, flow rate and injection volume) and MS/MS conditions (dwell time...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal metabolites including regulated mycotoxins were identified by a validated LC-MS/MS method in 180 individual Turkish dried figs from 2017 and 2018 harvests. Hand-selected dried figs were subjectively classified based on the extent of fluorescence. Forty-three fungal metabolites including eight EU-regulated mycotoxins were identified and quant...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, melon (n = 60) and sesame (n = 60) seeds purchased from markets within Benue and Nasarawa states, respectively, in Nigeria, during two seasons (dry and wet), were analysed for fungal and mycotoxin contamination in order to determine the safety of these foods for human consumption. Molecular analysis revealed the following seven funga...
Article
Full-text available
Background Human dietary exposure to chemicals can result in a wide range of adverse health effects. Some substances might cause non-communicable diseases, including cancer and coronary heart diseases, and could be nephrotoxic. Food is the main human exposure route for many chemicals. We aimed to assess human dietary exposure to a wide range of foo...
Article
Full-text available
Mycological investigation of various foods (mainly cowpea, groundnut, maize, rice, sorghum) and agricultural soils from two states in north-central Nigeria (Nasarawa and Niger), was conducted in order to understand the role of filamentous fungi in food contamination and public health. A total of 839 fungal isolates were recovered from 84% of the 25...
Preprint
Full-text available
A multi-specimen, multi-mycotoxin approach involving ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis of breast milk, complementary food and urine was applied to examine mycotoxin co-exposure in 65 infants, aged 1–18 months, in Ogun state, Nigeria. Aflatoxin M 1 was detected in breast milk (4/22 (18%)), while six other classes of mycotoxins were quantified; inclu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In Cameroon dietary staples are contaminated with diverse toxic fungal metabolites, known as mycotoxins. Aflatoxins and fumonisins are of particular public health concern, particularly in relation to cancer and/or early life stunting. Mixtures of these toxins are predicted from food measures, and in this work, the levels and frequencies...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the occurrence of multiple fungal metabolites including mycotoxins was determined in four di�erent winter wheat varieties in a field experiment in Croatia. One group was naturally infected, while the second group was inoculated with a Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum mixture to simulate a worst-case infection scenario. Data on th...
Article
Full-text available
Low moisture content ready-to-eat foods vended in Nigerian markets could be pre-packaged or packaged at point of sale. These foods are widely and frequently consumed across Nigeria as quick foods. Despite their importance in the daily diets of Nigerians, a comprehensive study on the diversity of fungi, fungal metabolite production potential, and my...
Article
Full-text available
During recent years, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has matured into a versatile and powerful sensing tool for a wide variety of analytical sensing tasks. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) techniques have gained increased interest due to their potential to perform non-destructive sensing tasks close to real time. In ATR, the essential component is...