Roy Shephard

Roy Shephard
University of Toronto | U of T · Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education

About

1,106
Publications
190,358
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46,194
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1964 - July 2016
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor of Applied Physiology

Publications

Publications (1,106)
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented worldwide public health concern. Characterised by rapid and high frequency human-to-human transmission, the World Health Organisation has recommended implementation of public health measures, including isolation of all suspected infectious individuals for a 14-day quarantine period, while governmen...
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To evaluate the effects of Ramadan observance on dietary intake, body mass and body composition of adolescent athletes (design: systematic review and meta-analysis; data sources: PubMed and Web of Science; eligibility criteria for selecting studies: single-group, pre-post, with or without control-group studies, conducted in athletes aged <19 years,...
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This study assessed the impact of 8 weeks biweekly in-season weightlifting training on the strength, throwing ability, and body composition of healthy male handball players. Twenty players (age: 21.2 ± 0.7 years, height: 1.83 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 83.3 ± 7.5 kg, body fat: 13.2 ± 1.4%, upper limb muscle volume: 3.16 ± 0.16 L) were randomly allocated...
Article
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The main objective of the present review is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of physical education (PE) teachers concerning dental trauma first-aid through a systematic appraisal of the literature, meta-analysis and meta-regressions. The entire content of PubMed and ISI/Web of Science was mined. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies wer...
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different nap opportunity durations on short-term maximal performance, attention, feelings, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and sleep. Twenty physically active men (age: 21.1±3.6 years, height: 176.4±5.7 cm, body-mass: 72±10.8 kg) performed the 5-jump and the digit-cancellation (i.e., att...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance measures in soccer players through a systematic appraisal of the literature. Design: Systematic review Data sources: The entire content of two databases, PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Both single-group, pre-post and cross...
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Purpose: This study analyzed the effects of complex strength training on the explosive muscular performance of junior female handball players. Methods: Subjects were arbitrarily divided between an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=14). Training sessions and matches were performed together, but during the 10-week intervention, the...
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Relationships between habitual physical activity and sleep-related phenomena were examined in 623 male and 1022 female Japanese participating in the Nakanojo Community Study, using data collected in 2012–2013. Ages ranged from infancy to very old. Daily step count and daily duration of exercise at an intensity >3 metabolic equivalents (METs) were d...
Article
Background: To assess the effects of various walking rehabilitation programs on body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic fitness and perceptual responses of overweight and obese young adolescents. Methods: A total of 31 young overweight and obese adolescents (12 boys and 19 girls) were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: a group walking...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks combined balance and plyometric training on the physical fitness of female adolescent basketball players. Twenty six healthy regional-level players were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E; n = 16, age = 16.4 ± 0.5) or a control group (C; n = 10, age = 16.5 ± 0.5). C ma...
Article
Background The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between lower body muscular strength, anthropometric characteristics and several measures of explosive performance in elite team-handball players. Methods 22 male elite team-handball players (age: 19.1 ± 1.7 years) were studied during the competitive season. Standard anthropometric a...
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The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-...
Data
Background Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of...
Article
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This study analyzed the effects of a resistance-type circuit training program (RCT) (30-35 minutes, performed twice a week for 10 weeks) on male handball players. Twenty-two males were divided into experimental (E; age 20.3 ± 0.5 years) and control groups (C; age 20.1± 0.5 years). Measures before and after RCT included squat (SJ) and countermovemen...
Article
Background Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of...
Article
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Background: This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex-test (HBCT) and two nonspecific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. Methods: Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years; premier German league) performed the...
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Background: This study assessed inter-relationships between shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and the relationship of each measure to anthropometric and explosive lower limb performance data in elite handball players. Methods: Twenty-two elite male handball players (18.9 ± 0.2 years; body mass: 83.3 ± 1.1 kg, height: 1.79 ± 2.30...
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Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 901-912, 2017 - The aim was to compare the impact of 2 differing strength training (ST) programs on...
Article
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The Douglas bag technique is reviewed as one in a series of articles looking at historical insights into measurement of whole body metabolic rate. Consideration of all articles looking at Douglas bag technique and chemical gas analysis has here focused on the growing appreciation of errors in measuring expired volumes and gas composition, and subje...
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Background: We aimed to examine the validity of an ice hockey-specific complex test (IHCT) and nonspecific off-ice tests for sports performance. Methods: Eighteen professional athletes (27.4 ± 6.0 years) underwent the IHCT, maximal strength squat tests, an endurance cycling test (PWC 170) and posturography during in the first week of the pre-sea...
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We examined the effects on explosive muscular performance of incorporating 8 weeks strength training into the preparation of junior male soccer players, allocating subjects between an experimental group (E, n=19) and a matched control group (C, n=12). Controls maintained their regular training program, but the experimental group replaced a part of...
Article
Introduction: The aim was to examine the role of physical activity in reducing the risk of bladder cancer, and in managing established disease. Evidence acquisition: A systematic search of Ovid/Medline from 1996 to June 2016 coupled the term urinary bladder neoplasms (25,061 hits) with markers of physical activity (exercise, physical activity, p...
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Background: Contrast training is popular technique among individuals who are involved in dynamic sports, having as its goal an increase in dynamic muscular performance. It is characterized by the use of high and low loads in the same strength training session. The present investigation aimed to determine the effects of adding 8--weeks of contrast...
Article
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Objective: To assess the effects of various walking rehabilitation programs on body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic fitness and perceptual responses of overweight and obese young adolescents. Material and methods: 31 young overweight and obese adolescents (12 boys and 19 girls) were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: a group walking...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soccer training on short-term heart-rate variability, blood pressure, and physical fitness in untrained healthy adolescents. Twenty-two adolescent boys took part in this study: 11 boys were randomly assigned to participate in an 8-week soccer training and 11 boys served as a control group. Soccer...
Article
This study investigated relationships between the frequent intake of fermented milk products containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) and the onset of hypertension (resting systemic pressure ≥140 mmHg [systolic]/≥90 mmHg [diastolic], a doctor's diagnosis and/or antihypertensive medicine use) during a 5-year period in 352 communityliving...
Article
Objectives: To examine dose/response relationships between habitual physical activity and bone health in the elderly. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Community of Nakanojo. Participants: Community-living Japanese aged 65 to 84 (212 men, 284 women). Measurements: Daily 24-h pedometer/accelerometer data were collected continuously for 5 years...
Article
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Background: This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Methods: Thirty participants (age 17.0 ± 1.2 years, body mass 81.1 ± 3.4 kg, height 1.82± 0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermitten...
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Prostate cancer affects a major proportion of older men, and effective preventive measures are few. Earlier suggestions of 10-30% risk reduction from vigorous physical activity thus merit further analysis. This narrative review updates information on associations between physical activity and prostate cancer, seeking activity patterns associated wi...
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Judo is a weight-classified combat sport, and many athletes seek to compete at the lightest possible weight category to gain advantage from competing against shorter/smaller, and supposedly weaker opponents. To achieve a desired weight, most judokas opt for rapid weight loss techniques. Short-duration maximal efforts are not greatly affected by “ma...
Chapter
Epidemiologists seek associations between environmental factors, lifestyle influences and human health; they use current modifications of a series of guidelines enunciated by Bradford Hill to assess the hypothesis that observed associations are causal in nature. We now have a long list of medical conditions where physical activity has been suggeste...
Chapter
Objective monitoring of physical activity confirms the impression formed from questionnaire responses that both adults and children who are overweight or obese take less physical activity than their peers who have a healthy body mass. Pedometer/accelerometer data provides relatively precise information on the magnitude of the deficit in physical ac...
Chapter
The Hockley Valley Consensus Symposium based most of its conclusions on dose/response relationships between physical activity and disease on subjective questionnaire reports. In this chapter, we summarize the findings from the Hockley Valley meeting, and we examine how far these conclusions have been amplified and/or modified by the use of objectiv...
Chapter
Beginning with the stimulus of the cardiac epidemic in the mid-twentieth century, epidemiologists have shown an ever-increasing interest in the interactions between habitual physical activity and health. Initial enquiries, based on occupational classifications and studies of athletes, were stimulated by the apparent epidemic of ischaemic heart dise...
Chapter
Although Hippocrates is often considered the father of epidemiology, John Snow also played an important role with his studies of cholera epidemics in Victorian London. A detailed study of relationships between physical activity and the prevention of chronic disease did not begin until the mid-twentieth century, with Jeremy Morris in London, and Hen...
Chapter
Over a lifetime, the annual per capita direct and indirect costs associated with cardiovascular disease amount to around 1 year’s salary for the average wage-earner. Additional costs arise from other forms of chronic disease where physical activity could potentially play a preventive role. Questionnaires and other methods of categorizing an individ...
Chapter
The form of the dose/response relationship linking habitual physical activity to major health outcomes is of practical importance for those who are formulating public health recommendations on minimum daily physical activity needs. However, available information on the form of this relationship is conflicting. One might anticipate that the optimal...
Article
Objective: To compare findings from several recent meta-analyses showing a reduced risk of gastric and esophageal cancers in physically active individuals, to assess the magnitude of this benefit, and to seek information on potential underlying mechanisms. Data sources: A comprehensive search of Ovid/Medline from 1996 to February 2016, using the...
Article
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Relationships between peptic ulcer and physical activity have as yet received little attention. The prevalence of ulceration is high in racehorses and sled dogs, particularly during periods of competition. In humans, some occupational comparisons show an increased risk among manual workers, but it remains difficult to separate effects of work-relat...
Article
Objective: To determine appropriate management of the active individual with infectious mononucleosis (IM), including issues of diagnosis, the determination of splenomegaly, and other measures of disease status, the relationship of the disease to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and the risks of exercise at various points in the disease process. D...
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Background: The aims of the study were to examine the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional handball players classified by playing position. Methods: Twenty-one competitors (age: 25.2 ± 5.1 years) were categorized as backs, pivots, wings or goalkeepers. Measures included anthropometrics (body height and mass), s...
Article
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We aimed to determine the gains in explosive movements of male junior soccer players induced by incorporating an 8-week plyometric training program (PTP) into a standard soccer conditioning regimen 5 months after the beginning of the competitive season. Our hypothesis was that PTP would enhance explosive movements, and thus sprint running, repeated...
Article
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Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects o...
Article
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Introduction: The effects of Ramadan observance upon repeated sprints and associated inflammatory and oxidative stress responses are not well known. Indeed, the objective was to assess the impact of fasting on muscle performance and selected oxidative and inflammatory parameters in athletes. Methods: Ten young trained boxers were tested during a co...
Article
Background: 8% of African Americans are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Some regard this as a benign anomaly, but others point to incidents of sudden exercise-related death, calling for a preliminary screening of either all athletes or those of African-American ancestry. This brief review considers the costs and benefits of such screening. Met...
Article
This chapter is designed to provide a summary of the current consensus on evidence-based, best practice guidelines for safe and effective preparticipation screening and risk stratification. We summarize briefly the irrefutable body of evidence supporting the health benefits of routine physical activity/exercise (particularly in the elderly and at-r...
Article
The focus of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) management is currently shifting from the developed world, where preventive measures and advanced forms of therapy have done much to control the disease, to third world countries, where a major pandemic rages almost unchecked. In the third world, many cases of H...
Article
In this study, we explored the effects of exposure to an experimental program of daily physical education (PE) during primary school on adult attitudes toward school PE. In 2008, 86 original participants in the Trois-Rivières study (44 women and 42 men aged 44.0 ± 1.2 years) underwent a semistructured interview in which their attitudes toward PE,...
Article
Recent editorials have renewed the debate over the possible contribution of a secular decrease in habitual physical activity to the current obesity epidemic.1 ,2 In arguing against the role of physical inactivity, Malhotra et al 1 cite a widely criticised opinion piece3 ,4 suggesting there has been “little change of physical activity levels in the...
Article
The human spleen shows a decrease in volume of around 40% early during vigorous exercise and in response to other stressful stimuli such as maximal apnoea and the breathing of hypoxic gas mixtures. Contraction seems an active response, mediated by alpha-adrenergic fibres in the splenic nerve. Given the relatively small size of the human spleen, the...
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The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required. Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3...
Article
Cholecystitis and gallstones affect a large segment of the population in developed nations, and a small proportion of affected individuals subsequently develop cancer of the gallbladder. However, little is known about the possible beneficial effects of physical activity. Accordingly, a systematic review examined the influence of both acute and chro...
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare crossover and maximal fat oxidation points during cycling and running in healthy participants. Methods: Maximal oxygen uptake VO2max, maximal aerobic power (MAP) and maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) were assessed in 12 sedentary participants (aged 20.5±1.0 years), using a maximal progressive tests o...
Article
Although a commonly stated purpose of physical education (PE) classes is to foster life-long participation in physicalactivity (PA), few longitudinal studies have assessed the impact of childhood PE interventions on PA as an adult. The Trois-Rivières Growth and Development Study provided a unique opportunity to address this question. In 2008, 86 pa...
Article
Transient proteinuria and hematuria are apparently benign sequelae of intensive physical activity. However, there is a need to establish underlying causes and reasons for progression to chronic renal damage, as well as effects of training in healthy individuals and in those with microalbuminuria. The Ovid/Health Star data base was searched from 199...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between a performance index derived from the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and other measures of physical performance and skill in handball players. The other measures considered included peak muscular power of the lower limbs (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and co...
Article
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We studied the effect of supplementing normal in-season training by a 10-week lower limb plyometric training program (hurdle and depth jumping), examining measures of competitive potential [peak power output (PP), sprint running velocity, Squat Jump (SJ), Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) jump, Drop Jump (DJ), and lower limb muscle volume]. The subjects...
Article
Immediate benefits of exercise in the elderly include arousal, improved appetite, enhanced blood glucose regulation, decreased obesity, an improved lipid profile, and relief of constipation. Functional gains include increased cardiovascular endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, coordination, and bone strength. Overall lifespan is increased, wi...
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The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0....
Article
Purpose: To review the responses of the liver to acute and chronic physical activity and to summarize relationships between physical activity and liver health. Methods: A systematic search of HealthStar/Ovid from 1975 through June of 2013, supplemented by articles from other sources. Results: 351 of 8,010 articles identified by HealthStar/Ovid...
Article
Background: Information on altered foot pressures during ambulation would clarify how far limb deformities modify walking patterns in cerebral palsy (CP), and whether such data can inform prognosis and guide rehabilitation. Objective: To compare patterns of plantar pressures during walking between children with CP and their able-bodied (AB) peer...
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Objective: was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability of cross over (COP) and maximal lipid oxidation (LIPOXmax) points during treadmill running in sedentary healthy subjects. Subjects and methods: Twelve sedentary subjects (aged 20.5±1.0years) performed in random sequence two submaximal graded exercise tests to test the criterion sta...
Article
Background: Gait cycle and pressure distribution patterns can now be recorded quite simply and reproducibly with inexpensive in-sole pressure recorders. However, it is not known whether such readings are sufficiently stable to provide useful information in monitoring children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). Objective: The aim of th...
Article
Aim: To examine impairments in muscle strength and aerobic power associated with HIV and AIDS, to define optimal regimes of resistance and aerobic training, and to explore possible influences of HAART treatment upon responses. Methods: Data from HealthStar/Ovid (1985 to 2013) were supplemented by references in identified articles and material in...