Roy W Mcdiarmid

Roy W Mcdiarmid
Smithsonian Institution · Department of Vertebrate Zoology

PhD

About

87
Publications
43,757
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5,266
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
October 1978 - March 2016
Smithsonian Institution
Position
  • Curator of Herpetology

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
The Pantepui region of northern South America harbours an endemic fauna that differs dramatically from those of the surrounding lowland rainforests and savannas. A component of this unique fauna is Riolama, a poorly known genus of microteiid lizards with four described and two undescribed species restricted to tepui mountains. We here implement an...
Article
Full-text available
Glassfrogs (family: Centrolenidae) represent a fantastic radiation (~150 described species) of Neotropical anurans that originated in South America and dispersed into Central America. In this study, we review the systematics of Ecuadorian glassfrogs, providing species accounts of all 60 species, including three new species described herein. For all...
Article
The only study of the osteology of the toad genus Oreophrynella dates back to 1971 and was based on a single species. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography to analyse the osteology of all nine described Oreophrynella species, which are compared with representatives of other bufonid lineages. Oreophrynella is unique among bufon...
Article
The Pantepui region of northern South America harbours an endemic fauna that differs dramatically from those of the surrounding lowland rainforests and savannas. A component of this unique fauna is Riolama, a poorly known genus of microteiid lizards with four described and two undescribed species restricted to tepui mountains. We here implement an...
Article
The nuptial pad is a secondary sexual character found in anuran amphibians. It includes modified epidermal and dermal tissues and is usually located on the first digit of the hand of males. In this study, we review the structure and diversity of nuptial pads based on a large-scale sample of morphological and phylogenetic diversity. Our findings sho...
Article
Full-text available
The Glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) are an apparently monophyletic group of Neotropical anurans that includes 136 described species. The phylogenetic relationships of the family with other clades are still poorly understood and at the moment the family can be defined only by shared apomorphies. The current generic concepts that recognize Centrolene, Coc...
Article
Full-text available
Ecuador has the biggest number of amphibian species per unit of area in the world (427 species in 276,840 km2). Glass frogs (Centrolenidae), with 30 species, constitute 7.06 % of the Ecuadorian anurans. However, the current state of knowledge of this family in Ecuador is still very basic. Several species of glass frogs are currently undescribed, co...
Article
Full-text available
Ecuador has the biggest number of amphibian species per unit of area in the world (425 species in 276,840 km2). In the last decade, conservative estimates indicate that at least 26 species of Ecuadorian amphibians have declined or gone extinct. The reasons for this crisis are not clear but have been related to habitat destruction, climate change, a...
Article
Full-text available
The Glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) are an apparently monophyletic group of Neotropical anurans that includes 136 described species. The phylogenetic relationships of the family with other clades are still poorly understood and at the moment the family can be defined only by shared apomorphies. The current generic concepts that recognize Centrolene, Coc...
Chapter
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Ambos apéndices se refieren a la descripción de nuevas especies de serpientes. En el primer apéndice se describe una nueva serpiente del género Atractus del Parque Nacional Yacambú, Lara, Venezuela. Entre tanto, el segundo apéndice se dedica a la descripción de una nueva serpiente Epictia del Tepui Guaquinima, Bolívar, Venezuela; adicionalmente se...
Article
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There are multifaceted arguments concerning the correct spelling (latasti or latastei) for the viper named for Fernand Lataste by Boscá in 1878. This application under Article 78.2.3 of the Code seeks confirmation that Boscá (1879) acted as the deemed First Reviser (Article 24.2.4), and requests the Commission to rule that latastei Boscá, 1878 is t...
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Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) into the eastern US was f...
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Two new species of Myersiohyla are described from the 1984-1985 Cerro de la Neblina Expedition in southern Venezuela, together with notes on the genus and a test of its monophyly, which has been challenged in recent studies. The inclusion of new sequences results in a monophyletic Myersiohyla that is better supported than in earlier analyses. One o...
Article
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Morales and McDiarmid (2009) and Toledo (2010) described and named, respectively, Chiasmocleis supercilialbus and Elachistocleis magnus. We argue that the specific epithets of both names are discordant with the gender of their respective genera and need correction.
Article
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The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of tw...
Article
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A new Amazonian species of Rhaebo (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on Rhaebo glaberrimus (Günther, 1869) and Rhaebo guttatus (Schneider, 1799) Abstract We describe a new species of toad of the genus Rhaebo from the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The new species is characterized by have a large-size (SVL 156.7 mm in adult female, 92.8–1...
Article
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The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) has a long and distinguished history of employing herpetologists to conduct basic and applied research to better manage amphibian and reptile populations on public lands and even outside the boundaries of the United States. This history extends back over 125 years with roots in the U.S. Biological Survey, t...
Article
From tiny, burrowing lizards to rainforest canopy-dwellers and giant crocodiles, reptile populations everywhere are changing. Yet government and conservation groups are often forced to make important decisions about reptile conservation and management based on inadequate or incomplete data. With contributions from nearly seventy specialists, this v...
Article
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A new species of the genus Pristimantis is described from Churi tepui, in the Chimanta massif, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. The new species was discovered during the Muchimuk Expedition 2009, an ongoing speleological exploration of the Charles Brewer cave system, the largest sandstone cave on Earth. The species is known from only one female, collecte...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of the genus Pristimantis is described from Churi tepui, in the Chimanta massif, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. The new species was discovered during the Muchimuk Expedition 2009, an ongoing speleological exploration of the Charles Brewer cave system, the largest sandstone cave on Earth. The species is known from only one female, collecte...
Article
Full-text available
Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we e...
Article
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Abstract: Leptophis cupreus is redescribed on the basis of 18 specimens, including the holotype. The species is characterized by having a uniformly copper-colored dorsum, which distinguishes it from all other known species of Leptophis. We present photographs of the holotype and a living specimen of L. cupreus, describe and illustrate the everted h...
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The Point of View by Gregory Pauly, David Hillis, and David Cannatella misrepresents the motives and activities of the anuran subcommittee of the Scientific and Standard English Names Committee, contains a number of misleading statements, omits evidence and references to critical literature that have already rejected or superseded their positions,...
Article
The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding ail amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs-the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 mo...
Article
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Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hyp...
Article
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D. F. Cisneros-Heredia and R. W. McDiarmid. "First record of Hyalinobatrachium ruedai (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) in Ecuador, with notes on other congeneric species". We report the first record of Hyalinobatrachium ruedai for Ecuador, extending its distribution range from Colombia to the central slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. Analysis...
Article
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The Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid is a taxon known only from the female holotype, and recently placed in the genus Centrolene due to its supposed close relationship with Centrolene mariae (Duellman & Toft). Herein we report new material of puyoensis, including adult male specimens previously unknown. We propose the new combin...
Article
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We report new distributional information for Eleutherodactylus mercedesae in Bolivia, and provide the first record for Peru based on an adult female. This species, previously endemic to Bolivia, now ranges across about 1000 km in cloud forests on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes from southern Peru to central Bolivia. We provide the first morpholog...
Article
A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of l...
Article
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We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by g...
Article
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We report several records of Ecuadorian Glassfrogs that extend their distributional, elevational, and provincial ranges: Centrolene peristictum, Centrolene prosoblepon, Cochranella cochranae, Cochranella midas, Cochranella resplendens, Cochranella spinosa, Hyalinobatrachium munozorum.
Data
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This is the image of the poster presented at the 2003 Joint Meeting of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (26 June–1 July, 2003). The Hotel Tropical Conference Center, Manaus, Brazil. This poster was published in figshare in 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3463328.v1
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ecuador has the biggest number of amphibian species per unit of area in the world (427 species in 276,840 km2). Glass frogs (Centrolenidae), with 30 species, constitute 7.06 % of the Ecuadorian anurans. However, the current state of knowledge of this family in Ecuador is still very basic. Several species of glass frogs are currently undescribed, co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ecuador has the biggest number of amphibian species per unit of area in the world (425 species in 276,840 km2). In the last decade, conservative estimates indicate that at least 26 species of Ecuadorian amphibians have declined or gone extinct. The reasons for this crisis are not clear but have been related to habitat destruction, climate change, a...
Data
Full-text available
Ecuador has the biggest number of amphibian species per unit of area in the world (425 species in 283,560 km2). In the last decade, conservative estimates indicate that at least 26 species of Ecuadorian amphibians have declined or gone extinct. The reasons for this crisis are not clear but have been related to habitat destruction, climate change, a...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new species of Hyla that differs from the similar-looking species H. pentheter by reaching a larger size, having a smaller tympanum, more webbing on the feet, more extensive nuptial excrescences, and a different color pattern on the flanks. We tentatively place this new species in the phenetic assemblage commonly referred to as the H....
Article
In our own juvenile stage, many of us received our wide-eyed introduction to the wonders of nature by watching the metamorphosis of swimming tadpoles into leaping frogs and toads. The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as mol...
Article
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We describe a new species of Bachia from the upper Rio Negro drainage of southeastern Colombia and southern Venezuela. The new taxon is diagnosed by a complement of phalanges that is unique among gymnophthalmid lizards and intermediate relative to other Bachia and closely related genera. Variation in limb osteology among the species of Bachia mad c...
Article
Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the pro...
Article
This manual details standard field methods for qualitative and quantitative sampling of amphibian biological diversity. An introductory chapter is followed by an overview of amphibian diversity and natural history. Essentials of standardization and quantification are then covered. Next research design for quantitative amphibian studies is outlined....
Article
Sibon argus Cope, 1875, long known only from the holotype, is redescribed based on material from Costa Rica and Panama. It differs from the only other member of the genus having an ocellate dorsal pattern (S. longifrenis) in its attenuate habitus, enlarged blunt head, protuberant eyes, and high segmental counts (ventrals 181-201, subcaudals 112-121...
Article
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Vocalizations of frogs of the genus Atelopus include three discrete types of signals: pulsed calls, pure tone calls, and short calls. Repertoire composition is conservative across species. Repertoires of most species whose calls have been recorded contain two or three of these identifiable call types. Within a call type, details of call structure a...
Article
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We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (~3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 fe-males, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8...
Article
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Specimens in a small collections of reptiles and amphibians from Parque Nacional Cerro Cora, Departamento Amambay, Paraguay are reported. Included are the first records of Bachia bresslaui, Phrynops gibbus, and Ololygon fuscomarginata for that country. Brief notes on morphology, distribution, and natural history of species collected are included. T...
Article
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Eleutherodactylus fraudator is more widely distributed than previously known and is very similar to another allied species (E. pluvicanorus), which is described ms a new species. In external morphology, the two species appear to be somewhat unusual species of the E. conspicillatus group, but their skulls are unlike those of all other described Eleu...
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Contains the scientific and English names of taxa from order to species of Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Species listed as Threatened or Endangered are noted.-from Authors
Article
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Neblinaria celiae (Theaceae), a rosette shrub endemic to the exceedingly rainy summit of remote Cerro de la Neblina in southern Venezuela, has a previously undescribed set of adaptations to fire. Its growth form entails sparse branching, massive terminal leaf rosettes, and thick bark. It is highly fire-tolerant, with a survival rate of 93% in a sta...
Article
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Snakes of the genus Regina feed almost exclusively on crayfish. The paired, sym-metrical gastroliths of crayfish are not digested and are detectable from x-rays of the snake. Gastrolith length is directly proportional to carapace length and can be obtained from x-rays. Carapace length can be converted to kcal of ingested energy. Using these relatio...
Article
Fruits of Trichilia cuneata (Meliaceae), a common tree in dtiet fotests of Central America, are eaten by a numbet of birds. The fruits are 10 to 12 mm in diameter, covered by a yellowish-brown, capsular exocarp, and contain three to six seeds distributed among three locules. Each seed is covered by an orangish-red aril that averages 59.7 percent li...
Article
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Several species of arthropods prey upon or utilize foam nests made by leptodactylid frogs. A spider (Lycosa pampeana) enters burrows made by Leptodactylus iatinasus in Argentina and eats most of the eggs. Two genera of dytiscid beetles have representatives that lay eggs on the foam mass Q^ Physalaemus pustulosas in Guatemala; beetle larvae hatch an...
Article
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The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other...
Article
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Field observations and experimental evidence refute previous objections to the coral snake mimicry hypothesis. Concordant color pattern variation spanning hundreds of miles and several presumed venomous models strongly suggests that several harmless or mildly venomous colubrid snakes are indeed mimics of highly venomous elapids.
Article
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Two members of the glass-frog family Centrolenidae (Centrolenella fleischmanni, C. prosoblepon) and the hylid subfamily Phyllomedusinae (Agalychnis moreletii, Pachymedusa dacnicolor) reflect near-infrared light (700 to 900 nanometers) when examined by infrared color photography. Infrared reflectance may confer adaptive advantage to these arboreal f...
Article
The dispersal ecology of Stemmadenia donnell-smithii was studied in the tropical dry forest zone of northwestern Costa Rica. Fruit was most abundant late in the dry season and was eaten by 22 species of birds, many of which are primar- ily insectivorous. Stomach-content analyses substantiated our observations. Total crop size per tree and rate of f...
Article
Tadpoles involved in predator-prey interactions were studied in tropical wet forest in Costa Rica under laboratory and field conditions. Larvae of the frog Leptodactylus pentadactylus and naiads of the odonate Pantala flavescens are im- portant predators on larvae of several species of frogs. The predators discriminate the prey on the basis of size...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Southern California, 1969. "Literature cited": leaves 264-282.
Article
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The microteiid lizard Bachia blairi (Dunn) is reported for the first time from Costa Rica in lowland wet forest near Rincón de Osa. Comparison of the seven known specimens of B. blairi to specimens of B. pallidiceps (Cope), its closest relative from eastern Panamá, supports recognition of two species. Bachia blairi is a sublitter inhabitant of the...
Article
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Eggs,of Pseudoeuryceanigromaculata,(Taylor) from Cerro Chicahuaxtla, Veracruz, and eggs and embryos of P. juarezi Regal from Cerro Pelon, Oaxaca, Mexico, are described for the first time. They exhibit many similarities to the eggs of P. exspectaia, Hydromantes, and Batrachoseps in number,of envelopes and in bead-like type of connection. The eggs of...